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ANALYSIS OF M. JOMARD'S EDITION OF M. CAILLIAUD'S
FIRST WORK ON EGYPT.
The name of M. Frederic Cail- preter, one of the frenchmen who, liaud of Nantes is well known to all after the departure of the army of those who are engaged in the study France from the east, had entered of the antiquities of Egypt, and the the service of the Mamelukes; and geography of Africa in general. he set out on the 2nd of November He returned to Paris in the month 1816 with six men, eight dromedaof February 1819, and the report of ries, and provisions for a month, his curious discoveries in the desarts directing his course to Redesyeh, east and west of the Thebaïd bad upon the right side of the Nile, preceded him, and the series of new towards the borders of the Red Sea. observations that he made known This is the first excursion of the excited amongst the learned men of French mineralogist, which is desthat capital an interest as lively ascribed in this first itinerary. it was general. Encouraged by After six days march in the desart, their suffrages and the protection of 'he arrived at Mount Zabarah, and the government, M. Cailliaud de- found again the famous emerald termined to resume his travels in mines, which were only known from the East; he prepared himself to the suspicious accounts given by make them with more effect, and, the Arabs; but this traveller saw providing himself with resources them in the state the engineers of that he wanted in his first expedi- the ancients had left tbem ; he petion, he set out in the month of Sep netrated through a great many extember 1819. Always fortunate, at cavations of vast depth, where in Jeast up to that time, he arrived in some parts 400 men must have the month of June 1821, at 350 worked at once; and the cords, leagues beyond the Southern bor baskets, tools of various kinds, and ders of Egypt, ascending the Babrel even the lamps were there still after Abyad, or white river, which ap so many ages. Near this is a little peared to be the principal branch of town, which had been some time forthe Nile, and which possibly might gotten ; a great many houses are " lead to its real source.
still standing, and in the middle of But, not to anticipate those facts them are temples built in the Egypwhich we shall make the subject of tian style, and some parts of walls another relation, we proceed to the covered with Grecian Inscriptions. first journey of M. Cailliaud, which Still farther on, upon the borders M. Jomard undertook to revise and of the Red Sea, he discovered a publish. Interesting bimself prin- mountain of sulphur, formerly workcipally about mineralogy, M. Cail- ed, and the evident marks of an liaud, at the age of twenty-five, had ancient volcano. travelled over Holland, Italy, Swit- - In these countries there is a trazerland, and a part of Turkey in dition relative to an ancient com· Europe. Attracted by the renown :mercial road, which conducted in an of Egyptian wonders, he repaired to oblique direction from the North to Constantinople in the beginning of the South East, from Coptos upon the year 1815, and landed at Alex- the Nile, to Berenice on the Red . andria on the 12th of May of the Sea. In crossing the desart, which
same year. Being well received by separates the river from the sea, M. Drouetti, consul general of · twice, at different places, M. Cailfrance, he made a voyage with him liaud thought he recognised several to the second cataract, and soon stations destined to receive caravans, after his return, honored with the and reservoirs to allay, thirst, belongconfidence of Mohamed Aly Pacha, ing to this same commercial road he undertook for him a commission to India through Egypt, and which, to search for mines in the neigh- according to his direction, is at the bouring desarts of Egypt. In the place where d'Anville and M. Gosprosecution of which he had the rare selin fixed the ancient Berenice. good fortune to obtain, as Inter To these topographical observa
tions, M. Cailliaud adds a great able: he departed from thence on the many others relative to the consti- 14th of February, on the 20th be tution of the mountains, and the went to Cairo, and on the 29th to soil of those remote countries, and Alexandria, where the Pacha then the manners of the Arab tribes which resided. inhabit them; and, what is of great . Such were the circumstances, and importance, he gives the drawings such were the various results of M. of the monuments he discovered, and Cailliaud's travels to the East of copies of the inscriptions that de- the Thebaid, which he gives an corate them. At length, after having account of in his first journal. . taken, as the first of his trials, a few The second relates to a journey in emeralds, he returned to Cairo, the West, and the reader will follow which he entered on the 10th of him in this with as much curiosity January 1817; but scarcely had he and interest ; he speaks of those presented the Pacha with the pro: islands of verdure, disseminated in duce of his labour, than he received the midst of the seas of sand in an order to prepare bimself for a Libya: he expected to find there second journey. The preliminaries a new civilization, and the ruins of necessarily taking up a great deal that which Egyptian power had of time, M. Cailliaud went to Upper formerly introduced and brought to Egypt, employed himself in search- perfection. ing for antiques in the ruins of Wishing for some time,” says M. Thebes, and, after an interval of nine Cailliaud in his second itinerary, months, he departed from Cairo on “ to visit the great Oasis, which had the 3rd of November 1817; and re not yet been seen but by travellers gained the desart taking with him passing by, I took advantage of the sixty workmen, an hundred and moment when my presence was not twenty camels, provisions, tools, and necessary at the emerald mines to besides fifty Arabs Ababdeh to take make this interesting journey; I care of the camels. Going a little quitted Cairo in consequence on the out of his first route, he discovered 26th of March 1818, and went to other stations on the road from Syout to Mohamed Bey, governor Coptos to Berenice ; more to the of Upper Egypt; he willingly gave South than the Mount Zabarah, me orders to take camels, dromedaother emerald mines were found, at ries, and guides. length still more to the South were After a long navigation upon the the ruins of a little Greek city called Nile I arrived at Esné, where the now by the Arabs Sekket Bendar death of Abmed Bey, son-in-law of and Kebyr, where five hundred the Pacha, retarded my voyage. As houses of pebbles are still standing, a Frenchman, I was called in to see and where the traveller found de him, for in Egypt a European is signs of three temples either cut out always considered as a physician. of the rock or constructed of stone “When I arriyed, he was no more, close at hand in a style like that of an inflammatory fever had carried the Egyptian monuments, and co him off: I found him covered with pied several Grecian inscriptions a cashemere (shawl), surrounded by engraven upon the walls. After his Mamelukes and two dervises, several excursions upon the borders who were in waiting to make the of the Red Sea M. Cailliaud, having accustomed prayers, though I ascollected ten pounds of emeralds, sured them he was dead. For eight determined to return to Cairo, and days there were processions of weepdeparted from the environs of Za- ing persons, at the end of which barah on the 11th of January 1818. time the burial took place with great Arrived at Esné on the 20th, he went pomp, with the sound of drums, acby land to Théhes, where he met companied by the cries and shrieks many Europeans, and even of all the women in the town. English ladies either visiting or Ahmed Bey was much esteemed for exploring the subterraneous anti- his goodness of disposition." quities of this ancient capital with M. Cailliaud was fifteen days bca zeal and courage, which the heat fore he could depart from Esné. of the climate and privations of - On the 25th of June 1818, he set every kind rendered very remark- out from thence for the West to
wards the Oasis of Thebes, where From thence M. Cailiaud went he arrived on the 29th in the even- again to Esné across the Libyan ing, after having traversed fifty mountains, and, having learnt that leagues across the desart. Several for want of water the emerald mines Europeans had visited it, but none did not produce much, and desirous of them mentioned there being any of seeing his family and country, antique monuments, though M. he resolved to return to France. Cailliard discovered several of the He went then to Cairo, took leave greatest interest ; in the Western of the viceroy promising to return, part of the Oasis, near Beyrys, a and, provided with the most honotemple quite in the Egyptian style, rable recommendations from Mr. the façade of wbich is entirely or Salt the English consul general, namented with hieroglyphics, and and from the venerable Nestor in the sanctuary has an arched roof, French erudition M. Dacier, perwhich has not been remarked in any petual secretary of the royal aca. other Egyptian monument ; to the demyof Belles-Lettres, hé embarked west of this Egyptian building there at Alexandria on the 6th of Novem. is a Roman temple of brick, which ber and arrived at Marseilles on the seemed as a place of worship for the 28th of the same month; rich in Coptic christians; at Bychy-jou, to recollections and happy, he says, the north of Beyrys, are some Ro in adding something to the labors man ruins; a little more to the north of learned men and French artists. is an Egyptian temple, the inside His wishes have undoubtedly been of the walls decorated with hiero- accomplished; and the history of glyphicks; at El-Kargeh, the chief his modern discoveries in the countown in the Oasis and peopled with try of the old Egyptian dominion about two thousand inhabitants, are gives M. Cailliand, though preceded the ruins of a small Egyptian temple; in publication by an English traa little to the west, are more than two veller who notwithstanding did not hundred' Roman tombs of bricks, in see these places till after him, the the form of arcades; and, towards priority of observation; and it is an the north west of the town, another honorable claim to have been the Egyptian temple worthy for its first who risked his life to seek in grandeur and magnificence to be the heart of desarts and in the midst placed in the rank of those in the of a superstitious and cruel popuThebaid, its length being 191 feet lation the ancient traces of Egyptian without counting three PYLONES genius. which precede it at long intervals and Other travellers have gone to the are entirely covered with hierogly- Oasis, following the steps of M. phicks carefully executed and paint- Cailliaud, and it is to give each of ed; more to the north-east is a large them their share of zeal and success, fortified Roman castle, the walls of that in this analysis we have so which are 45 feet high and twelve carefully marked the dates of the thick with buttresses: at different principal excursions of the French places are other ruins of various traveller. ages, equally worthy of interest, and A little to the north-west of the apon different temples are several Oasis of Thebes, there is another Greek inscriptions, one of which smaller one, known by the name of has more than nine thoasand letters. El-Dakkel : there is a way to go In traversing the Oasis from the to Manfalout upon the Nile, or rasouth to the north M. Cailliaud dis- ther to the Oasis of Thebes, in setcovered, measured and sketched mo- ting out from El-Kargeh; and M. numents that no European in mo Drouetti, consul-general of France, dern times ever saw before him. having made a journey by this route, All these discoveries were made and having seen some considerable before the 11th of July, and on the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman tuins, 12th the traveller set out for the that no European ever saw before, Nile, going along the road from El sent his itinerary to M. Jomard, Kargeh to Parchiont, which appears who annexed it to that of M. Cailto have been frequented by the an liaud. eients.
It is to him, indeed, that we owe
the writing and publication of M. years of the Emperor's reign, each Cailliaud's travels; it is by his itine-, new Egyptian year being that of a rary, and calculation of time in
new year of the reign: and the time, walking, that M. Jomard drew the however short, which had elapsed two maps of the desarts, to the east between the accession of the Prince, and west of the Thebaid, maps which and the renewal of the year, being he presents, particularly the first, as counted as the first of his reign. an Essay upon the geography of the Galba mounted the throne on the environs of Egypt, and which may 9th of June; the time from this day be perfected by some ulterior obser. to the 29th of August, was counted vations.
as his first year, and the second beMost of the chapters in the work gan this same day, the 29th of Auare by M. Jomard; the first con gist, and lasted to his death, which tains the explanations of the plates took place the 16th of the following and maps, and in the fourth he has January. It is thus easy to comreprinted the inscriptions already prehend, how a public act, made engraven after the drawings of M. under Galba, could be dated the Cailliaud, in the copper-plates 3, 8, second year of his reign. Some 23, and 24. The most ancient are Coptic inscriptions, copied by M. in hieroglyphick characters the Cailliaud, are given in a very bad others in Greek, in Coptic, in Latin, state, and criticism will scarcely be and Arabic; and the inscriptions able to restore them. One of them found to the east and west of The is not quite in such a bad state, and bes are added some other inscrip we shall here insert the translation. tions, copied by M. Cailliaud, in by R. Champollion, jun. in order to Upper Egypt, and amongst these give our readers an idea of the is that on a pedestalat Philac, so writings, left by the venerable faclearly explained by M. Letronne, thers of the desart in their own member of the Institute, and which tongue: it is taken from the catais thought to have some connec combs of Faras, in Nubia. Gostion with the Obelisk at Philae pel according to Mark, Beginning covered with hieroglyphicks, upon of the gospel of Jesus Christ, Son of which M. Champollion, jun. has God, according to what is written already published his observations in the Prophet, Isaiah. M. Jomard In general the inseriptions known has given explanations of all these by the copies of M. Cailliaud will inscriptions in a recent publication, offer many difficulties to the critic, wherein he has enumerated the prinwho shall endeavour to explain them; cipal discoveries made in Egypt this traveller not being properly from the commencement of the nineprepared for the difficult task of ex teenth century, and described the ploring these monuments. This is state of preservation of the monunot the place to enter into any de ments and the present government tails on this subject, it will be suffi- of Egypt; he has also made remarks cient for us to say, that most of on the emerald mines and the old these inscriptions bear historical Commercial-road, and observations dates, name several sovereigns who on the Oasis in general ; le has likewere masters of the country, mention wise given an explanation of the the worship of several divinities, and copper-plates, and a catalogue of the that the large inscription, copied antiquities collected by M, Cailliaud from the Temple of El-Kargeh, con for the French King's cabinet: and tains new and curious facts upon lastly, an appendix, containing difthe interior administration of Egypt. ferent things relative to this traIt is in the time of the Emperor veller, and some details upon the Galba, and dated the second year of first results of his new excursions in his reign; yet every body knows that the Oasis, in Nubia and Abyssinia ; Galba only reigned seven months, where he is accompanied by the arfrom the 9th of June, 68 to the 16th dent wishes and the just anxiety of of January, 69. But the begin all the lovers of literature, who ning of the Egyptian year, fixed in know his zeal and the dangers that the time of Augustus, at the 29th of menace him in regions almost un, August, was used in counting the known.
EPISTLES BY MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS.
MARY to Rizzio.-February 1566.
Come, I command thee! all thy terrors calm!
Epistle from MARY to her surviving UNCLES.- April 3, 1566.
Friends of my heart, by absence made more dear,
• There are sufficient historical documents to prove that Morton, and the other conspiring nobles, endeavoured to make Darnley jealous of Rizzio's intercourse with Mary, and that they succeeded in their attempt; but I cannot allow that these confederates believed themselves the calumny, which for their own base desigos they chose to promulgate, as both external and internal evidence were invincibly strong against its truth.
In the first place, though she bad been educated at the Court of France, it was at a time when the utmost decorum of manners and strictoess of morals prevailed there, as the influence of Catherine de Medicis had not yet superseded that of her predecessor, or of the many virtuous, accomplished Princesses who still graced the court. In the second place, she came to Scotland at the age of Dineteen with an unblemished character, and, though it was well known that she had been the object of more than one romantic passion, her cruelty, and not kindness, had exposed her to censure. In the third place, she lived a widow from the age of nineteen to twenty-two, and during that time, though exposed to the vigilent and uncandid observations of her enemies, not even their remorseJess hatred could discover an opportunity for slandering her fair fame, a circumstance wholly inconsistant with the unchaste inclinations which were afterwards imputed to her. In the fourth place, at the age of twenty-two, she married the man she loved, the man of her own free choice, and had been a wife only a few months, and was within twelve weeks of being a mother, when she was accused of intriguing with her secretary Rizzio, an ill-looking, and, some say, elderly Italian adventurer. No, not even the bitter malignity of partyspirit, could believe no improbable a calumny, though it delighted to propagate it for its own purposes, nor could Darnley himself, in his cooler moments, be ju my opinion deluded by it.Vide Miss Benger's interesting Memoirs of Mary.. Eur. Mag. March, 1823.