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thing determined upon and known, free from those obligations and that of the three returned Mr. Ben- personal égards, which could not tham was to be the one chosen (Grey but have been imposed by the forms goire told him so after the Society's of a personal meeting. dinner, at the public table). A few Besides the Defence of Usury, days after arrived Charles James it was during his stay at his broFox. Mr. Rox vouchsafed to be a ther's, in Russia, that he wrote the member, and of course was the person first part of his work, styled “ Pa. seated. Mr. Bentham was already nopticon ;"or, the Inspection House. a French citizen. . By the second of The original idea was his brother's, the two French Assemblies he had by whom it was not thought of being received that distinction, in company applied to convicts, but only to work with Thomas Paine, Joseph Priest. ing hands, in whose instance it ley, Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. Clarkson, might be adopted with most unreand a few &c. &c. But in the very mitting constancy and universality focus of equality a mark of distin of inspection, at a minimum of extion had been contrived: first came pense; and by whom, some twenty Thomas Paine, next came Joseph years after or thereabouts, it was Priestley, third came Jeremy Ben actually applied to that purpose, tham,—these three separated from under the patronage of the Emperor one another by two commas; but Alexander, at the recommendation next to Jeremy Bentham came a of Admiral Tchichagoff, Sir Samuel semicolon, and by this semicolon Bentham then being there on a comwere these three distinguished from mission from this government; but the rest, who were distinguished Dot long after his return from Rusfrom one another no otherwise than sia, the building was unfortunately by commas.
burnt by the carelessness of the manaAboat the year 1817, Mr. Ben gers, the precariousness of his stay at tham, being a barrister of Lincoln's Petersburgh rendering it necessary Inn, was called to the bench, a master to erect it of wood for the purpose of of arts degree having been con- saving time. In March, 1792, Mr. ferred striking off two out of the Bentham having framed a plan of five years of studentship. He had management grounded on this plan been called to the bar very soon after of construction, and ascertained that he became of age.
management by contract was the In the year 1806 came out his only mode that presented any chance work intitled “Scotch Reform;" in of effecting any considerable part of letters to Lord Grenville. The oc- the good capable of being effected by casion of it was an invitation he re- it, presented to Mr. Pitt his proceived from Lord Grenville, during posal for that purpose; and on which his short administration, through was grounded a contract, the terms the present Marquis of Lansdowne, of which are to be found in the Partheo Chancellor of the Exchequer, liamentary Paper, printed by the and Sir Samuel Romilly, then Soli- House of Commons, in the year 1797 citor-General, to attend on a particu- or 8, as part of the grand report of ·lar day to consider of the plan to be the Finance Committee for those adopted for the division of the Scotch two years ; chairman, the present Court of Sessions into two sections, Lord Colchester; and reprinted in and the introduction of jury trial. 1811, by the committee, got up for Sir Samuel Romilly, by his practise the purpose of grounding the subin Scotch Appeals, had had parti- stitution of
the existing Penitentiary 'cular occasion to become acquainted at Millbank. It was embraced with with Scotch Judicature. Mr. Ben- enthusiasm by the acting men of tham's question to Sir Samuel Ro- that time, Mr. Pitt, Minister, Lord · milly was, “Are you to be at the meet- Dundas, Secretary for
Home Affairs, ing” Answer “No. "Mr. Ben- Mr. Rose, Secretary of the Treasury, tham's conclusion was, that nothing and Mr. Pitt's right hand man, the good was intended or had any chance only one of the two Secretaries by of being willingly adopted. He there whom any thing was done or underfore declined accepting the invita- stood, Mr. Long, now Sir Charles. tion, in order that, in his observa- Mr. Bentham's father dying, but tions on the subject, he might stand a short time before Mr. Bentham
succeeded to his present residence, had gone so far as to cause adver. it became a show place in which tisements to be inserted for the purSir Samuel's models of Panopti. pose of compelling the sale of the cons, and his inventions for the ulterior quantity, stipulated for unfinding appropriate employment to der the contract. For the issue of prisoners, were exhibited.
this £1,000, the signature of George By a cause then unknown, not- III. was necessary. It being looked withstanding all that enthusiasm, it upon as certain, considering the was made to linger till the close of length to which the matter had been the session of 1794, when an act brought, the Treasury clerks made passed, enabling the Treasury to no secret of the fact when the enter into a contract for the pur- intrument was sent to the King pose, and to appropriate to it the for his signature. ·· But there it groand allotted at Battersea Rise, stopped for ever. In 1811, a comby a former act, and a consequent mittee was got up by Lord Şidmouth, valuation of a jury, or to purchase a Mr. Holford, chairman, for the other land; for Lord Spencer hav- purpose of forming a ground for the ing an interest in the land in Bat- substitution of the existing inscrutersea Rise, and having acceded table Prison to Mr. Bentham's to administration as first Lord of literally, as well as metaphorically, the Admiralty, made that use of his transparent Panopticon. For the public trast. When Mr. Abbot's violation of public faith no reason Finance Committee was sitting, was assigned, either in the report Mr. Pitt and his associates thought or in the act grounded on it. "Bethe opportunity favourable for em- tween 20 and £30,000, or some such ploying its authority in support sum, was what it was to have cost of Mr. Bentham's plan against the the public under his plan for buildopposing, and to everybody out ing: under the existing plan, it has of the Cabinet secret influence; and already cost several hundred thou. upon reference made to the Treasury sand pounds, and will cost some by the Committee, a report as it may hundred thousand pounds more bebe seen, though in a tone of coolness fore it is completed for the 600 produced by timidity, was made in prisoners instead of 1000, which his favor of it. Mr. Abbot, the chair. was to have contained. To defray man, imputing the delay to negligence the expenses he had been at, in conon the part of Mr. Pitt's ministry, sequence of the arrangements which spoke in the committee in terms of ve-he had been indisputably called hement reprobation of the barbarity upon by the ministry to take, on of the treatment given to Mr. Ben the acceptance given to his proposal tham. Years were spent in a struggle in 1792, Mr. Bentham had sold between the ministry and the secret estates to the amount of between 5 influence. In the mean time the and £600 a year, to great disadvanground, at present occupied by the tage. In addition to £2,000 adexisting Penitentiary, was purchased vanced to him for a commencement, as part of the fourscore acres or it cost the public £23,000, for a thereabouts, stipulated for in the compensation under the act of 1811, contract entered into between the a sum a little more than the value of Treasury and Mr. Bentham, in vir- the estates so sold. As to the causes tue of the act. The land, subject to of the King's invincible enmity, certain leases at present occupied, they are not unknown, but to exwas paid for at the price of £12,000, plain them would take more room instead of for half the money, which than on the present occasion can be was the price for which the incom- -spared.. In 1785 commenced: Mr. parably more appropriate land at Bentham's acquaintance with Sir Battersea Rise might have been Samuel Romilly. To that acquainttaken under the valuation, was put ance. may be referred the small in the possession of Mr. Bentham. quantity of good which Sir Samuel To enahle him to enter into actual Romilly was permitted to effect, or possession, nothing now remained dared so much as venture to propose. but the payment of a £1,000 in Some of his motions were taken from compensation for the surrender of Mr. Bentham's papers. some of the leases, and the Treasury
(16 be continued.)
A TALE FOUNDED ON FACT.
BY MRS. OPIE.
It has been said, and perhaps death, his son, a dissipated, unprinjustly, that affliction has a tendency çipled young man, succeeded to the to harden the heart, and incline it business, and in a very few years to selfishness; but sometimes the Mrs. Beverley found herself obliged heart is rendered, by its own trials, to advance a considerable sum of more tenderly alive to the trials of money, out of her own income, in others; and the afilicted become ac- order to avert impending bankruptcy, tively solicitous to ward from the from Charles and his rash partner, breasts of their fellow-ereatures those William Dixon. arrows which have lacerated their . But, as is usually the case in own. An instance of this kind I am such instances, the money was exenabled to give in the following pended in vain, Charles was obliged narrative.
to own to her that it was not in her · After a happy union of several power to save him from ruin, and years with the man of her heart, Mrs. he had wisely resolved to insist on Beverley became a widow, and life calling the creditors together; when would have been to her compara- all at once his partner appeared in tively a blank, had she not been the highest spirits, produced money blessed with a son, to whom she for every emergency, and, forcing could transfer, and in whom she bank notes on the astonished Charles, could centre all those strong affec- desired him not to trouble himself tions, which had hitherto been di- concerning their affairs, for that the vided between her child and his storm was weathered, and all would father.
soon be well. She was naturally of a fine temper, Charles was "only too willing to and that temper was improved by believe him, and he eagerly imparted the strongest religious impressions. bis recovered tranquillity and its She, therefore, found the task of cause to that tender mother who resignation easier than she expected; had been the participator, the soothand, while thankfully contemplat- er, and the help of his troubles. ing the blessings which she still But the calm was transient, and the possessed, she learnt to hush every storm which followed of terrible duimpatient regret for that which she ration. Scarcely had Mrs. Beverley had lost.
rejoiced, though in trembling, over Charles Beverley was indeed of so this surprising letter, when, just as mixed a character, a being so calcu- she was preparing for bed, she heard lated to excite maternal anxiety, a knock at the door, and on its being while he gratified maternal pride, opened Charles, pale and agitated, that Mrs. Beverley had little leisure rushed into the house; sad, indeed, to revert to the past, so constantly was the tale which he had to tell. was she engrossed with cares for the Dixon, he found, had been for somepresent and fears for the future. time connected with forgers,-the She had vainly hoped that Charles, notes which he had circulated himwhen he had taken his degree,and had self, and given Charles to circulate, returned to his paternal roof, would were forgeries-he was already in have become a clergyman, and like custody, and so would Charles himhis father have been an ornament self have been had he not escaped to the church, and a blessing to his by a back-door, and hastened to the parishioners; but unfortunely he village where his mother resided, in was of a speculating, ambitious order to give her the comforting asnature, and he preferred risking his surance that he was an innocent vicfortune in a commercial concern, tim of his partner's guilt, and to in which he was offered a consider consult with her on what it was best able share. At first all went on for him to do in this alarming emerwell, but on his partner's sudden 'gency. Eur. Mag. April, 1823.
“Surrender yourself, and stand a Beverley was at length able to seek trial !" was the dictate of her judg- refuge, as usual, from her sense of ment, and also of her trust in Pro- suffering in active employment. vidence; but maternal anxiety, and But the idea that, had the proper Charles's conviction that it would remedies been applied to the body be difficult to prove that he was not of her son, he might have been privy to the forgeries, got the better saved, was constantly recurring to of every other feeling, and terror, her mind, adding bitterness to her lest this beloved child should be regrets; and she continued to cling condemned to perish on a scaffold, to this idea, occasionally with a demade her urge him to escape to gree of even insane tenacity, when another country, and to assist him she was forced from it by the power with the means of immediate fight. of equally painful certainties; for
Dreadful under such circumstances she learnt that she had to mourn was the parting of the mother and over a greater evil than that of the son but it was cheered to both by death of her son: namely, the conMrs. Berverley's positive declara- viction of that son's immorality of tion, that she would ultimately set- conduct. tle wherever he did, and would She found that he had private know no other home or country but debts to a considerable amount, and his. It was, indeed, impossible for that those debts had chiefly been inher to remain where she was, for curred for the sake of an abandoned Charles's flight had convinced every and expensive woman, who had long, one of his guilt ; and when Dixon been his mistress. But the mind of was tried, convicted, and executed, Mrs. Beverley rebounded at length she thought that she read in the eyes from the pressure of even this overeven of every friend whom she saw, whelming affliction, and she again “ Such ought to have been the fate endeavoured to forget her son's evils of your son!” while she knew that in active exertions for the good of her assurances of his innocence must others, saying to herself, as she did be given in vain. She, therefore, so, “Since it is the will of Heaven impatiently expected news of his safe that I should still exist, it is also arrival in Norway, whither he was its will that I should not live for hound, and in the mean while she myself alone!" made every preparation to join him 'It was to the abode of her childin that country. But all hope of hood, to the scenes where her materbeing reunited to her beloved son in nal heart had first opened to the this world was soon destroyed; for delight of seeing her son, when just she received a letter from a friend of able to walk, bounding before her his at Elsineur, informing her that on the pebbly shore in all the gaiety the ship in which Mr. Beverley sailed of infancy, that Mrs. Beverley had had been wrecked off the coast of directed her steps, and she had Norway, and that every one on taken up her abode in a large oldboard had perished !
fashioned house on a remote coast He added, that amongst the bodies of England. She had once possesswhich had been washed on shore, ed a house in this village, but had he had recognised that of Charles been forced to sell it in order to Beverley, and had endeavoured to answer some of her son's demands; revive him ; but, not understanding but wild, desolate, and straggling the means of resuscitation so well as the place was, it was so endeared known, and so successfully practised to hier by pleasing and even by in England, he had not succeeded mournful recollections, that she in his efforts, and that he was then preferred this situation to every going to follow the remains of his other for its own sake, and she soon lamented young friend to the grave. learnt to prize it still more for the
At first the reason of the bereaved sake of others. mother tottered under this unex- There was not a coast in England peeted calamity, but those, who in more notorious for repeated shipevery trial look upwards for relief, wrecks than the one on which Mrs. are always sure to obtain it; and, Beverley had taken up her abode ; though bending to the earth with and, scarcely had the Equinoxial the burthen of her sorrow, Mrs. gales begun to blow, when her
shrinking sensibility, and her most bodies that should be thrown on agonizing associations were called shore from wrecks in future. forth by wrecks of a very affecting Never was house better situated nature, for vessels were able to come for the purpose ; as it stood on a so near the shore that the cries of rock, and was the nearest building the crew for succour could be dis- to the spot where vessels were usutinctly heard, and their features ally ship-wrecked. could be easily distinguished.
The first time that, through the Those, therefore, whom fruitless means which she had caused to be humanity led as anxious spectators used, she beheld a fellow creature to the scene of misery and danger, restored to life, her joy and thank, were exposed to the additional agonyfulness were great even to a painful of forming an acquaintance with excess, but not long after, her bethe features of the despairing and nevolent interference received a still the sinking; and of not only seeing greater reward. them, in torturing, remembrance, One of the persons saved from when the last wave had closed over apparent death by the indefatigable their heads, but also of hearing, in efforts which she obliged her agents fancy, or during the stillness of to make proved to be the son of a night, their dreadful and unavailing sort of decayed gentleman, well shrieks, when those shrieks had long known both to Dixon, and once acbeen ended by the powerful grasp quainted with Charles Beverley. of death. To any one their remem- This man frequently visited Dixon bered looks and remembered sounds in prison; and, being with him the would have been fraught with an- night before his execution, the culguish, but they urged Mrs. Bever- prit shewed him a paper which he ley to a feeling of almost frantic had drawn up, in which he solemnly misery; for such said she to herself) declared the innocence of Charles were probably the looks and shrieks Beverley, and exculpated him from of my dear shipwrecked child ! But any knowledge, suspicion of, or par. this encreased degree of occasional ticipation in the crime for which he suffering, to which her new situation suffered. “ This paper,” said Dixon, exposed her, brought its own medi- " I mean to give to the sheriff, that eine along with it; for while it made poor Beverley's reputation may
be her live over again the scene of her cleared from all stains," son's death, and of recalling at the sheriff! No, no, give it to me," resame time her regret that his friend plied Williams, “I will take care had not been able to revive him, her that it is made public directly!” The benevolent heart was taught by the unhappy man believed him, entrustrenewed consiousness of her own ed the paper to his care, and Charles sorrows to feel for the sorrow of Beverley's name remained unclearother mothers, and not only to feel ed; for Williams was the father of for them, but to try as much as she Charles Beverley's mistress; and could to prevent their recurrence in having, though very unjustly, atfuture.
tributed his daughter's original fall “ Had my son's friend possessed from virtue to him, he felt towards (as he said) the means of resuscita. him sensations of the most vindiction known and followed in Eng: tive nature;. and now it was in his land, he might yet have lived !” power to gratify those feelings. she exclaimed one evening after her “ No," cried he, in the bitterness suddenly averted eye had uncon of his soul, when he left the prison, sciously' rested upon a corpse just and held in his hand the affecting thrown upon the shore beneath her. document, penned by a repentant
From that moment Mrs. Beverley sinner in the fullness of a contrite never rested till she had obtained heart. “No! This paper shall never from the Humane Society directions meet the light. As my poor child's how to proceed in endeavours to re- honor and reputation were destroyed store drowned persons to life, had by Charles Beverley, his reputation, procured every necessary assistance, as a sort of retributive justice, shall and had appropriated a part of her remain injured for ever?" own dwelling to the reception of all But when he found from the re