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sending him to Paris at the very page 161. The affairs of the remoment that he was putting the public were at the last gasp when finishing hand to his treason and Napoleon took the command of the my ruin. I have been betrayed by army of Italy. The great talents Murat, whom I had raised from a of Massena and of Augereau had soldier to a king, who was my sis- barely enabled them to maintain a ter's husband. I have been be defensive position near Savona and trayed by Berthier, a mere goose, Genoa. Napoleon brought them no whom I had converted into a kind succours of men nor of money, and of eagle. I have been betrayed in the yet in a few months he was in senate by those very men of the possession of all the tinest parts of national party who owe every thing Italy. The prodigious results of to me, and yet Macdonald, Valence, some of the Emperor's latter cainand Montesquiou (nobles or emi- paigns will secure them

a pregrants) were faithful; let them ob eminence in history, but in none of ject to me the stupidity of Murat, his military schemes did he evince I can oppose to it the judgment such vast resources of intellect, such of Marmont, &c." In short, says powers of calculation, such creative Buonaparte, man is the animal of qualities of genius as in his first circumstances, there is no consist- campaign in Italy. He took the ency either in his virtues or in his cominand of his beaten and dispiritcrimes. Las Cases, a prejudiced ed countrymen on the 29th of March old Bourbonite emigrant, is his 1796 ; they were couped up amongst faithful follower in exile. Mar barren rocks ; in want of artillery, mont, Augereau, Fouché, the crea of cavalry, of clothes, food and tures of the revolution and of his money. So empty was the military bounty, are traitors to his cause, chest that Napoleon could give to and now the slaves of his enemies each Marshal only four louis to and of legitimacy. But the same commence the campaign. A supeinconsistency was developed in the rior and victorious army was opposrevolutions of the Cæsars, and how ed to him, and it was impossible to admirably is it painted in one of force the Alps, for the King of the satires of Horace. Duroc was Sardinia held all the fortified places raised from a subaltern to the rank commanding the roads and passes. of duke, he was devotedly attached The Alps gradually descend from to Napoleon, who declared that their greatest elevation (St. Go· Duroc was the only man who thard) to the Mediterranean to the shared his intimacy and possessed south-west of Genoa ; Napoleon his confidence.". The dying scene conceived the design of turning the between this officer and Napoleon Alps at their lowest and most acces(Vol. I. Part II. page 146), be- sible parts near Savona, and, by speaks the kindness of Napoleon's threatening the roads both to Turin heart. The first rise of Junot is and Milan, to separate the interests told in an anecdote (Vol. I. Part I. of the Austrian and Italian armies. page 155), full of spirit and highly He completely succeeded; and to characteristic of the times. Whilst quote his own address to the sol. the republican army was taking diers, “in 15 days he had gained every opportunity of elevating to six victories, taken 21 stand of cominand every man from the ranks colours, 55 pieces of cannon, several who might display genius and in- fortresses, and conquered the richest trepidity, the Bourbons, in their parts of Piedmont; made 15,000 army of emigrants, were continuing prisoners, and had killed and woundthe old and absurd practice of pro

ed 10,000 of the enemy.' Thus moting solely by gradations of had the genius of one man, as if by pedigree. We find, however, that magic, in the space of 15 days overin spite of the number of great come all the barriers of the Alps, men that this free promotion brought and had transported his army from forth, and in spite of the unexam wretchedness and despair to the pled enthusiasm of the French peo- height of glory, and to the possesple, the revolution was yet, at

sion of the most luxurious country several epochs, within an ace of be in the world; effects unexampled ing suppressed, vide Vol. I. Part II. in military history. So thorough Eur. Mag. May, 1823.

G

Really

was his contempt of money that he admired Racine, but in a less deresisted the offers of immense trea gree. He seems not to have often sures made to him hy the Italians ; resorted to Moliere, and never to and after his conquest of this rich Crebillon; his opinion of Voltaire, country, and transmitting to the as a dramatist, was very humble: national treasury 50,000,000 of be pronounced him "full of bombast francs, he returned to France pos and trick, always incorrect, unacsessed of only 300,000 francs, or quainted either with men or things, about 12,0001. sterling. These im with truth, or the sublimity of pas. portant events are admirably told sion.” The fact is, that Voltaire's in about 30 pages of the first literary productions are

so incre. volume (Part il), we should sup- dibly numerous and diversified, that pose by Napoleon himself, for they his equalling Corneille as a draare told in the very perfection of matist was not to be expected, but style, that is to say, a style that the sentence passed on his dramas comprises the greatest possible num are so unreasonably severe, that we ber of facts in the fewest possible are inclined to think that the Count words.

has scarcely given us the Emperor's We are obliged, by the irregu- opinions with precision. The Emlarity and want of classification in peror admired Rousseau, and frethe Count's works, to be discursive quently expatiated on " the force of in the nature of our remarks, and his arguments, and the elegance of our transition must be from the bella! his style and expressions." He horrida bella! to the amusing and read the Nouvelle Heloïse for two instructive remarks made by the hours together, and observed, that Emperor upon the literary works “ Jean Jacques has overcharged that formed the solace of the hours his subject; "he has painted madof his captivity.

ness ; love should be a source of We have heard of Madame de pleasure, not of misery. Stael's ridiculous offer of marying this work is not without fire, it Mr. Gibbon, and of her numberless moves, it rouses the feelings.” The other extravagancies. A very amus Emperor thought very contemptibly ing anecdote is told of her by the of Rollin, and still inore so of the Emperor (Vol. I. Part II. page 131). continuation of his history by Crew Attracted by the young general's ver; he expressed a great contempt renown the lady had written to for all the French historians, “Vela him “ long and numerous epistles," ly,” said the Emperor," is rich in some of them, we imagine, not cal- words, and poor in meaning; his conculated to be very acceptable to Jose- tinuators are still worse : our hisphine; she had at length intruded tory should either be in four or five hier acquaintance on Napoleon to an volumes, or in a hundred.” Berinconvenient degree; and on one

nadin de St. Pierre was an object of of her visits, wishing to get rid of ridicule with the Emperor. Reading her, Napoleon sent her word that Madame de Serigne's celebrated he was scarcely dressed, on which account of the death of Turenne, the lady promptly and earnestly re and of the trial of Fouquet, he obplied, that it was of no consequence, served, with respect to the latter, for “that genius was of no sex.” that Madame de Sevigne seemed to The Emperor's great and favourite evince too much warmth, too much author was Corneille. Speaking upon earnestness and tenderness for mere the subject of ancient and modern friendship.” He was of opinion dramas, le exclaimed with enthu. that our youth is too much spent siasm,"

Tragedy fires the soul, in studying the classics. Napoleon's elevates the heart, and is calculated views of French literature were preto generate heroes. Considered un cisely in unison with those which der this point of view, perhaps are entertained on the subject by France owes to Corneille a part of the critics of this, anıt, we believe, her great actions, and, gentlemen, of every other country, except had he lived in my time I would France herself. He thought it dehave made him a Prince." But clamatory and diffuse. One day he Corneille lived under Louis XIV. amused himself by striking out the poor and neglected. The Emperor superfluous passages from Vertot,

and after the erasures the work ap in agriculture and in the modes of peared much more energetic and manufactures, would enable any of animated, on which the Emperor the leading nations of modern Euobserved, “ It would certainly be a rope to present a force, on any point most valuable and successful labour, of attack, equally numerous with if any man of taste and discernment that which gregarious nations could would devote his time to reducing assemble for the purposes of inva. the principal works in our language sion. But what is the efficiency of in this manner, I know nobody but the troops of the demi-civilized naMontesquion who would escape tions of Asia and Africa? Napoleon, these curtailinents." Napoleon seems before the frost at Moscow, found to have had a sound juigment with the Cossacs beneatlı contempt as a an excellent taste in literature; he military force; nor did he find the appears to have had the tact of Russian armies so difficult to defeat almost intuitively fathoming an au as those of Prussia, Austria, or Engthor's resources and depth of intel. land. How easily he defeated the lect, and of rapidly comprehending Arabians and Mamelukes of Egypt. his design, his method, his style, But there is one unanswerable oband the value of his reflections; and jection to all such calculations reof pointing out where any of these specting the subjugation of western are defective, and how they might Europe by Russia: we mean to have been improved. His opinions say, that the boundless extent of the upon points of ancient history ap Russian Empire, with the vast difpear to us to be extremely rational. ference in the opinions, the manHe doubted most of their assertions, ners, the religions, and interests of and positively disbelieved their ac her northern and southern populacounts of the numbers of their tion, are unquestionably seeds of armies. He credited the statements the ultimate dissolution of her power, relative to the immense armies of and of her dominions being divided Gengiskan and Tamerlane, because into separate states at some future they were followed by gregarious period. So that an internal war, in nations, who, on their part, were the badly amalgamated parts of the joined to other wandering tribes as

Russian Empire, is by far inore prothey advanced, “and it is not im bable than any union of such heteropossible,” observed the Emperor, geneous materials for the purposes of **that this may, one day, be the case foreign conquest. However, Napo. in Europe. The revolution pro- leon thouglit directly the reverse on duced by the Huns, the cause of the subject, and no man had greater which is unknown because the tract opportunities of forming a correct is lost in the desert, may at a future opinion. It seems almost imperii. period be renewed.” This is clearly nent to differ from him. an allusion to Russia, and it is The following observations are in evident from numerous observa. Napoleon's best style, and evince a tions made by the Emperor, that sound judgment and great sagacity. it was his firm conviction that He had been reading Racine's southern and western Europe would, Phedre and Athalie, and Voltaire's at no distant period, be over-run by Mahomet. “ Voltaire," said the Asia tic hordes, under the influence Emperor, “ in the character and of Russia. For our parts we can

conduct of his hero, (Mahomet) has not conceive the possibility of such departed both from nature and from an event. The modern arts of forti history. He has degraded Mahomet fication, of gunnery, and of field by making bin descend to the lowest tactics, give civilized nations a su intrigues. He has represented a periority over barbarians, infinitely great man, who change the face of greater than what was derived by the world, acting like a scoundrel the ancient Romans from their com worthy of the gallows. He has comparatively impotent missiles, and mitted a fundamental error in atimperfect discipline and maneuvres. tributing to intrigue what was solely Added to which, the denser state of the result of opinion, Those who modern population, and the im- have wrought great changes in the mense armies, which societies can world never succeeded by gaining now support by the improvements over chiefs, but always by exciting

the multitude. The first is the source buted to ignorance what was the of intrigue, and produces only se effect of his sagacity; Voltaire's condary results; the second is the great object in writing the tragedy resort of genius, and transforms the of Mahomet was not to give any face of the universe. Mahomet must portrait of the great genius of that doubtless have been like all chiefs surprising character, but to shew of sects. The Koran, having been that the miracles and revelations of written thirty years after his death, the Koran were either false and may have recorded many false. absurd, or the effect of trick and imhoods.* The empire of the Prophet, position; and his impious hope was his doctrine, and his mission, being to create in the spectators associaestablished and fulfilled, people tions of ideas with other revelations, might and must have spoken ac and to lead a christian audience to cordingly. Still it remains to be the conclusion, ex uno disce omnes, explained how the mighty event an object in which he has greatly which we are certain did take place, failed. We must all recollect the namely, the conquest of the world, very current report, spread for the could have been effected in the short purpose of casting ridicule on the space of fifty or sixty years. By Emperor, of his having taken leswhom was it brought about? By sons of declamation from Talma. the hordes of the desert, who, What sound good sense the Empeas we are informed, were few in ror displayed by his opinions and number, ignorant, unwarlike, un sentiments on this occasion; the disciplined, and destitute of system, report was false, and the Emperor and yet they opposed the civilized rallying Talma on the subject, the world abounding in resources. Fa- tragedian was disconcerted and connaticism could not have accom fused. “ You are wrong," said the plished this miracle, for fanaticism Emperor, “ I certainly could not must have had time to accomplish have employed myself better, if I her dominion; and the career of had had leisure for it.” He then Mahomet lasted only thirteen years. proceeds to give Talma a lesson ; Independently of the fortuitous * Racine,” continued the Emperor, events by which miracles are some 6" has loaded his character of Orestimes produced, there must have tes with imbecilities, and you only been in this case some hidden cir- add to their extravagance. In the cumstances which has never been Mort de Pompée, you do not play transmitted to our knowledge. Eu Cæsar like a hero, in Britannicus rope

had doubtless sunk beneath you do not play Nero like a tyrant.” some first cause, of which we are And Talma improved himself by ignorant ; the different races of the hints. people who suddenly issued from the The great work of Napoleon, deserts had, perhaps, been engaged which will transmit his name to in long civil wars, in which men posterity with more glory even than of heroic character and great talent his conquests, is his code of laws. might have risen up, and irresis- A code which seems to have attained tible impulses have been created.” to as much perfection as any thing In these observations there is an human can attain to, and on the abundant field for reflection. This principles of which all foreign jurisis reading history philosophically, consultes now build their systems. it is reading history as Tacitus The great effect of these laws may wrote it. But as to Voltaire, the be ascertained to demonstration by Emperor unquestionably has attri the following statement. France.

ENGLAND.
Condemned to Years,

Condemned to
Death.

Death. 34,000,000.... 882 1801.

16,000,000......3,400. 42,000,000... .392......1811.

17,000,000......6,400.

Inhabitante.

Inhabitants.

The Emperor was a disbeliever in Revelation, and probably meant this observation on the Koran to be applied to Christianity, some parts of the Sacred Volumes of Christianity having been written even so late as piuety-seven years after the death of him to whom they relate.

So that these laws had so improved most fertile, extensive and interestthe French people, that in only ten ing regions of Asia and Africa would years the capital convictions from at this day have been in a course of being as 26 to 1,000,000 decreased civilization. We have read of great as 9 to 1,000,000; whilst in Eng- praises bestowed on Alexander and land the capital convictions had in Cesar for their self-possession in creased from 212 to 376 out of every sleeping on the eve of a battle; but million. The condemnations in Eng- it appears that Napoleon would land exceed those in France in the sleep even during a battle, and on proportion of 42 to 1.

horse. back within range of the The Emperor's plans for educating enemy's cannon. “ I was obliged his son and the children of the differ to do so," said Napoleon, “ when I ent members of his family were admi. fought battles that lasted three days. rably adapted to render them efficient Nature was also to have her due; I sovereigns, and still better adapted to took advantage of the smallest inconsolidate the interests of his family, tervals, and slept where and when and to permanently establish his I could." The exertions of his indynasty, and to insure it a superio tellect were so prodigious as to exrity over the other sovereign families haust the physical powers of the of Europe. In the first Volume, Part brain, and he would fall asleep at a II. we refer our readers to interest tangent immediately he had proing passages, respecting the system nounced the last word of a speech of the French post as to opening or order, so that many persons conletters (page 52 ;) to his notions re ceived the idea of his being disposed specting the liberty of the press to apoplexy. In page 30, of Vol. (page 55;) to his tact in composing II. Part III. the Count gives us the his court of the old nobles, and assi. Emperor's opinions upon Talleymilating it to the old regime (page rand, Pozzo di Borgo, Bassano, 268 ;) to his opinions of the King's Clarke, Le Brun, Cambaceres, &c. of Saxony and Prussia, and of the but he often inserts whole lines of Emperors of Austria and Russia, asterisks when he arrives at any and of the mischief to be appre thing important, so that it really hended from this latter potentate seems as if he were quizzing the (pages 297 to 302 ;) to his remark reader. For instance, at the head able and highly important conver of a chapter he promises us the Emsation with Mr. Benjamin Constant peror's opinions of Prince Metterrespecting

his views and intentions nich, and anxious to learn something towards Europe in 1815 (page of so great a Cabinet Minister, we 314,) the Emperor's views in this refer to the page, and find the folconference are remarkably grand, lowing matter." He (the Emperor) and he shews clearly that it was both then spoke of M. de Metternich, · It his intention and his interest to ab was he,' said Napoleon, 'who'” and stain from wars and foreign con this is all we learn of Prince Metquest, and to govern France by a ternich, for immediately after the free press and representative consti “who,” we have three lines of astetution. If Europe could have de risks. Count Las Cases ought to pended on the ruling passion not blush at such imbecility, or at such warping him from such designs, a low trick at book-making; every rational and philosophic mind The following opinions, thoughts musi lament his downfall. In page and intentions, were entertained by 238, the Emperor shews clearly the Napoleon, and they are either exweakness of the principles on which traordinary or important. He was the Bourbons act, and concludes that a fatalist, and trusted much to his their errors will only irritate the “lucky star.” He saw but two French, and not subdue the spirit of chances of bis ever quitting Saint freedom. In page 361, the mind is Helena, that of his being wanted by Jed into a chain of great reflections the sovereigns to suppress the rebelby the Emperor's calculations of the lion of their subjects, or that of his prodigious effects, which would have being wanted by the people of Euresulted from his capture of St. Jean rope against their sovereigns in the d'Acre, and the permanent occupa contests that might arise between tion of Egypt by the French. The the despotism of courts, and the in

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