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ing that it is made use of in refer. on which are painted youths dancence to subjects which have nothing ing the Pyrrhic dance. This may to do with beauty; as, on the vase be thought an example too modern, we are speaking of, it is found over as Augustus was the founder of Nitwo, men fighting. On a vase ex- copolis, and instituted those games plained by Signor Millingen, to re- in honour of Apollo, in which, acpresent Theseus obliging Procustes cording to Spanheim, were intro
, to lie on the same bed in which he duced Chori et saltationes ad aram was accustomed to torment stran- Apollinis. gers, is seen a young man crowned However, it is certain, the ancient with an axe in his hand, and who custom of giving these vases as rehast just conquered another; on it is wards was imitated. A medal of written Αληιμακος Καλος. Millingen, Perinthus, coined in honour of Hehowever, takes this word in an ama- leogabalus, is a confirmation of this, tory sense, and believes it to mean on which is a naked man, taking the beautiful Alchimachus, to whom hold of a vase with his right hand, this vase
was presented. Passeri and thus explained by Sestini; athmentions a vase on which is drawn leta nudus, capite pileo obtecto, adanother vase between two men, on stans, e vase repando aliquid exi-, one side of whom is written Καλοί. mens; a victorious athlete about to We are of opinion that these vases, carry away a vase obtained as his with such inscriptions, allude to the prize;
and this will explain the reavalour of the conquerors in the son of vases being crowned with games, gymnastic exercises, or other palm so frequent on coins. Horace sports, to whom they were given as also alludes to this custom in his a reward; to this correspond the Ode to Censorinus, Donarem patesubjects of the paintings on the pa- ras, donarem tripodas, proemia for. tere, the five players of the quin- tium Grajorum, where fortium has quertium : on the vase of Millingen, the sense of Karwi: it may be said the two combatants; on that of Passes that Horace here alludes to bronze ļi, two young men to whom a reward vases, but in former ages they might is promised, and perhaps the inscrip: have made use of earthen ones, tion was not Καλοι, but Καλoις, to the whose construction is more simple brave ; and on the Agrigentine vase than those of metal; antiquiorem Κλιταρκος Καλοs, which is written near writes Isidore, fuisse dicunt usum the young man holding the balance, fictilium vasorum, quam fundendi whilst a man with a beard, on foot, æris, aut argenti, apud veteres enim standing between the youth just nec aurea, nec argentea, sed fictilia, mentioned, and another on the vasa habebantur. They were then opposite side of the balance, put bestowed as rewards on conquerors, something in the first basin to equa- particularly those inscribed with lize the weight, and indicate the Kalos. But what has been the use justice of the reward to the con- of those, which have not this word queror or conquerors. The names upon them, and the subjects of whose Κλιταρκος, Καλλικλες, were perhaps painting are foreign to the ideas of allegorical and suited to every vic- prowess and valour ? We think tor, signifying an illustrious prince, they were of service in celebrating renowned for glory. The circum- the mysteries of Bacchus; and for stance of vases being given as prizes what sort of vases were at that time is mentioned by Pindar; not only employed to contain must and wine, for the gymnastic exercises, but also see Origen, lib. xx. In Campania, for music and tragedy.
which produced the best wines, esDuring the feasts of Bacchus there pecially the Falernian, these vases was a musical contest of three days must have been in frequent use. called Antisteria, on the third of Because then all that belonged to which was awarded the prize of Bacchus and his mysteries served poetry; and in Troezene annual as symbols of human life, its various games of music, rowing and swim- stages and future state, it came to ming, were instituted in honour of pass that they thought of adorning Bacchus Melanegides. That they these vases, which were first of wood were presented as rewards, the vase and afterwards of baked clay, with of Nicopolis adds a farther proof, pictures and emblems analogous to the mystical ceremonies, allegories vases used in nuptial feasts had anand initiations into the rites of Bac- other intention, that as they ought chus. The God represented as a carefully to be preserved, so young child, a youth, an old man, was a men and women should bear to the type of the progress of human life; marriage their bodies pure and and compared with the sun, which chaste; and there are several proofs rises in the morning, is vertical at of the body being compared to a noon, and sinks behind the moun. vase: Corpus quasi vas est, aut alitains in the evening, through which quod animi receptaculum. Cic. Tusc. it happened that the mysteries of Vas suum possidere in santificathe sun were often confounded with tionem, St. Paul. Facio quod manithose of Bacchus. On these vases, festo moechi haud ferme solent, refero therefore, and to such intents were pasa salva, Plautus. Words meaning, painted natal feasts, and the toga that as the vases are to be preserved pretexta, relative to the first stage of entire, so the body is to be kept in life, marriages, gymnastic exer- chastity. For some such reasons cises, hunting, wars, triumphs, spec- those painted with the rites of Bactacle, initiations, Bacchanalian sa- chus were placed in the graves, in crifices, and other scenes pertaining which they are found of all sorts to youth and manhood : finally, in- and qualities; and tire ancients were struction given to youth, sorrow, accustomed to pour libations on the death, funerals, expiation, &c. give sepulchres, as Cicero witnesses (de us a melancholy presentiment of our legibus, lib. 2.), which was prolatter days. To express all this, al. hibited by Solon, and afterwards by legory was frequently employed; for the xii tables, ne sumptuosa respersio example, the labours and deeds of fiat, and Festus affirins that, in the Hercules and Theseus exhorted the xii tables, it is prohibited ne myrryoung men to open themselves a hata potio mortuo injiceretur. Sig. road to glory by despising idleness Pran. Cancellieri, in his learned iland pleasure. The contest of drink. lustration of Epitaffi delle SS maring between Bacchus and Hercules, tiri Simplicia ed Orsa, treats in a in which the latter is overcome, most learned manner of these libapoints out that strength falls before tions and feasts. In proportion to wine, and therefore we must be the wealth, rank, and number of guarded against drunkenness. With the friends of the deceased they the same intentions the Duke d’Ur- placed in the tomb, or left them bino caused to be painted the deeds after their libations, more or less orof Sacred History on his utensils. namented vases. Some with inThe worship of Bacchus being thus scriptions, such as παις καλλός, or applied to the stages of life, it is no witli emblems and allusions to differwonder that the vases were painted ent games, might be placed with in this manner, and not only were the dead to illustrate his victories, made use of in his religious cere- or attest his honours or profession. monies, but, when their ornaments Others with Bacchanalian ceremoand elegance gave them a splendid nies, initiations, Bacchanals, &c. appearance, that they should be pre- miglit have relation to the different sented as rewards and adorn the degrees in those rites, and were palaces of princes and nobles, as our buried with the Bacchanalian imporcelain and alabaster do at pre- plements of their possessor. sent.
The initiation into the mysteries To the conquerors in the Baccha- of Bacchus gave hope of a better nalian games, no doubt, were given life; hence Cicero, neque solum cum vases with paintings on them, re- lætitia vivendi rationem accepimus, lating to such contests: when pre
sed etiam cum spe
meliori moriendi. sented as marriage gifts they were (De legibus, lib. ii. 24.) Libations of adorned in a suitable style, &c. &c. wine and precious liquors, poured On a vase in the possession of Sig. on the dead body, augured a future Santangeli, of Naples, is seen a and happier life; and, as earnest of nuptial ceremony, in a room fur-, his hope, they buried with him the nished with several utensils, among symbols of his initiation. The same which is observable a vase adorned subjects, and for the same reasons, with a similar subject. Perhaps the are sculptured on sarcophagi and
cinerary urns, and allude to the fuisse videtur quo apud Xenophonstate, profession, degree in the tem Cyrus utitur : redditur enim ter. mysteries, and the actions of the ræ corpus eodemque ritu reg em nosdefunct.
trum conditum accepimus, gentemque Now let us proceed to their an- Corneliam usque ad memoriam nostiquity, and the length of time they tram hac sepultura scimus esse usam. were probably in use. The founda. C. Marius sitas reliquias apud Anition of their great age rests on that enem dissipari jussit Sylla victor. of the sepulchres they are found in, Pliny is of opinion that burning which are hollowed out of the earth the dead was not a very old custom or rock, just large enough to con- of the Romans; when it began in tain a human body; in some of Greece and Italy cannot be exactly which are found more than twenty ascertained : burning is mentioned of different shapes, size, and co- by Homer, and it was resorted to lour. At Polignano, in Puglia, during the plague at Athens, pera sepulchre was opened in the haps through the frequency of the garden belonging to the Bishop's deaths on these two occasions.palace, and in it were found twenty. Among the Romans it was practised four. Suetonius, in the Life of at the time of the institution of the Cæsar, writes thus, (lib. i. c. 81.) xii tables, when it is said in urbe ne Cum in Colonia Capua deducti lege sepelito, neve urito. Julia coloni ad extruendas villas se- As the progress of philosophical pulchra vetustissima disjicerent : opinions became general the funeral idque eo studiosius facerent quod rites were conducted in a more simaliquantulum vasculorum operis un ple manner, particularly when the tiqui scrutantes reperiebant, tabula nature of the soul was better underænea in monumento, in quo diceba- stood. It is attributed by Plutarch tur Capys condilor Capuc sepultus, to Pythagoras, that he commanded inventa est, conscripta literis ver- nothing but a branch of olive should bisque grecis. It appears in this be put into the grave ; and thus passage that he speaks of these Pliny says defunctos se multi fictilibus vases, and if in Cæsar's time they soliis condi maluere Pythagoreo modo were called antiqui operis, to what a in myrti et oleæ atque populi nigre height must their antiquity now be foliis. Solon about the same time carried! The fact of their being prohibited libations to be made over found in this place, and a tablet of dead bodies, and restrained the cerebronze with a Greek inscription, mony and pomp of funerals. His favor the idea of their Grecian mortuary laws were also adopted origin. As a farther proof of what by the Romans. It appears then we have said, Strabo in lib. viii. that after Solon and Pythagoras in writes, Corinthus, cum diu desertus Greece, and the laws of the xii tables jacuisset, instaurata est a divo Cæsare in Rome, the advance of philosophy propter loci opportunitatem, missis eo changed the manner of conducting in coloniam libertinis plurimis. Hic burials; and by degrees the custom cum rudera coepissent moliri, simul- of burning was established, chiefly que sepulcra effodissent testacea from the doctrine of the Stoics, who opera multa, atque etiam ænea in- taught that every thing would end venere, quorum admirati artificium, by combustion. nullum sepulchrum non effoderunt, When the costly libations were magnaque id genus rerum copit put a stop to, and the manner of potiti, iisque magno divenditis Romam burying was changed, vases could impleverunt necrocorinthiis, id est, no longer be placed in the tomb, mortuis Corinthi. The custom of and this luxury ceased on the introburying in graves, or holes in the duction of cinerary urns, which rock, is
very ancient : Nam et were sculptured ; this might be Athenis, (says Cicero, de legibus), about the fourth or fifth age of jam ille mos a Cecrope, ut aiunt, per- Rome. We conjecture the use of mansit hoc jus terra humandi; quam painted vases to have continued becum proximi injecerant, obductaque yond Olym. 83, and U. C. 300, from terra erat, frugibus obserebatur: and the circumstance of a vase being in the same book, at mihi quidem dup up at Athens, painted with the antiquissimum sepulturæ genus id frontispiece of the Parthenon, which
was sculptured about that time. scarcely be termed designs, but raThe inferences that have been ther caricatures, with which they drawn, respecting the age and the please those equally rude and igprogress of the arts, from the style of norant as themselves ? May it not, painting on these vases, the cos- follow, then, that when the arts rose tumes of the figures, and even from to a higher state of pefection, whatthe shape of the letters, appear to ever motive might have induced us very uncertain ; we will take for them, they continued in some of example the Agrigentine vase, which their works the ancient style, beLanzi refers to the first age of Rome. cause in that manner men were acThe form of the letters, says Sig. customed to worship the images of Boni in the words of Lanzi, is very their gods, sculptured or painted ? ancient, nor are those of Simonides Thus, writing was not equally well to be found amongst them; and the preserved by all men in every nafigures in profile declare it to be tion; and although Simonides did much anterior to his time : then he not invent his alphabet till the adds, “ On it are two inscriptions, fourth age of Rome, it is impossible one is Talides made this, which re- from this to affirm, that a monument peated on the inside and outside, on wbich his letters are not, must signifies that the artificer was pleased be anterior to him ; it might have with his work.” Now the authority been erected in the preceding age, of Pliny fixes this expression to be- or long after the times in which he long to a much later period ; he lived, as this manner of writing says, that among the statuaries, could not have taken place suddenly Policletus, who flourished Olym. 87, in every part of the world, and and among the painters, Åpelles, those trivial artists are particularly in Olym. 62, introduced the custom fond of copying whatever has been of adding to their works the word in use, or what they have learned faciebat, and afterwards the prin- from tradition. Should the style of cipal artists did the same, tanquam painting, and the characters on this inchoata semper arte atque imperfecta, vase, be allowed to be very ancient, ut contra judiciorum varietatcs su- it does not necessarily follow that peresset artifici regressus ad veniam, the vase and the artist belong to veluti emendaturo quidquid desidera- the same age as the style. From retur si non esset interceptus. From this it appears to us that the use of which he gives us to understand, painted vases, for whatever purpose, that they put this mark on their was continued at least to the fifth works either through modesty or
age of Rome, caution. According to Lanzi, then, As the custom of burning the this painter Talides, gave the ex- dead prevailed, small urns were used ample to Policletus and Apelles to deposit the ashes in, and the more than two centuries before the luxury of the vases was absorbed in. time when the want of improvement that of the urns, which were emwas confessed ; and this not through bellished with sculptured ornaments modesty but from complacence to of every sort, and were composed of himself. It appears very clear to baked clay, earth, marble, alabastery us, that this miserable vase-maker, stone, or whatever the country most although conscious of his inability, abounded in; and after the introyet wished to emulate the great duction of riches, of bronze, and masters in his inscription at least, other precious materials, the comas inferior artists have their ciphers mon people alone still continued to and marks in imitation of the great use pots and vases of haked clay, masters. The execution of this de especially those living among the sign is more conformable to the in: vines, who joined the rites of Bacfancy than the youth of the arts, chus to the funeral ceremonies; and and the want of the letters of Si- thus, in later times, they still enmonides cannot be considered as closed in the graves small vases material; for who can be ignorant which were made use of in the that in every age there exist some simple traditionary rites of that rude and barbarous artists, who, God, although libations had been without genius or study, foolishly discontinued, or, if not entirely so, endeavour to execute what can they had dwindled into a mere ceremonial form; whilst the Christians scriptions; but the figures are of that continued to place in the tomb of ancient style which has been found their martyrs, bottles, lamps, and on those of Campania. The design, other utensils, they altered only the colours, and size of this vase, the emblem of the practice ; and were accurately made in Naples by though it was entirely a Pagan su- Christofer Wiesiolowski, an amateur perstition, they did it from an habis and collector of antiquities, residing tual custom, without being able to at Warsaw, from the original, which give any oth reason.
Count Walincki, a Pole, obtained As it always happens that that with thirty others from Prince Pewhich has fallen into disuse comes tropersia, a Sicilian. They were into fashion again, thus it was with all carried to Warsaw, and offered these vessels after the time of Au- for sale to Stanislaus Augustus, gustus ; this might have been King of Poland, but he not paying through the earthen vases found at much attention to them, part were Capua and Corinth ; and as the sent to Petersburgh, and sold to great desire for works in Corinthian Prince Bedborodko, and at his death brass caused speculators to counter- were dispersed into several hands. feit these labours, and as every one One, they say, is in the possession of who gave himself airs of conse- Baron Morenheim, Secretary to the quence must have either the true or Grand Duke Constantine. The shape the false, the very same thing pro- of it is like a crater, which was debably occurred to the vases of Capua stined to hold a large quantity of and Corinth. They were sought for wine, from whence they served it and ordered from those places that round at table in small cups; as were most famous for making such Virgil vases. Cicero commissioned Atticus to procure him some from Rhosus
Crateres magnos statuunt et vina coin Cilicia.
ronant. The art of painting ancient vases was not entirely lost in Greece, or A bearded combatant crowned Augustus endeavoured to rivive it, with ivy, a long thyrsus in his right as the one said to have been found hand, in his left, from which arm at Nicopolis proves.
hangs suspended a panther's or Quintus Coponius, condemned for tiger's skin, a branch putting aside raising a sedition, was charged with the lance of his bearded antagonist; having presented an earthen am- who is overcome by him, and in the phora, full of wine, to one who had act of falling sustains himself on given him a vote, according to one knee, and rests on his shield, Pliny, lib. xxxv. C. 46, and in his whilst he endeavours to retain his time were celebrated the earthen lance with his right hand, and not vessels of Samos, Pergamus, Sagun- to yield to his conqueror. The tum, Arretinum, Sarrentum, Reg: thyrsus and tiger's skin point out gium, Cumæ, and Mutina. But to as Bacchus, or at least a Bacthe kind of which we are speaking chanalian; and we certainly ought was not made, only those in com- to consider this as some exploit of mon use, which is implied in the Bacchus, and, perhaps, the followfollowing words, major quoque pars ing:-Bacchus, returning from the hominum terrenis utitur vasis. One Indies, finds his preceptor, Nisus, may judge of the expense attending unwilling to restore to him the even these, for Esop, the player, kingdom of Thebes, which had been gave for one of baked clay a hun- entrusted to his care by that hero; dred sesterces ; and the Emperor and Eginus relates, that a certain Vitellius caused one to be made of respect deters Bacchus from using
exorbitant price and size, so force; and, waiting till the Trietethat they were obliged to construct ridian games, he disguised his a fumace in the open country, to
soldiers as Bacchanalian women, bake it in. (Plin. 1.c.) Applying and arrested him in the middle of what has been said to the vase in the feast. This picture will not ilquestion there is no doubt that it is lustrate this passage of Eginus, unGrecian, because it was found at less we suppose Nisus to be arrested Lirgentum, and has on it Greek in- by Bacchus himself, or one of his