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taken place? Is it because the former nations have professed a pubbrave patriots of Oporto have pro- lic right, far more devoid of prejuclaimed the constitutional regime? dices than our's. But this regime is not, however, an : In the time of the Romans, the infernal machine, it is not even a word.“ Republic" "made nobody's new invention. From the eleventh hair stand ou end; regicide even century there existed States-general was one of the commandments of the in Portugal, either composed of the Roman Decalogue. The Goths were Cortes, the higher clergy, the nobi- jacobins, since in their military aslity, or the deputies of several semblies they commanded, judged, villages.
and deposed their Kings Charles • The Portuguese are farther ad magne was a jacobin, since he asseny vanced than the English in repre. bled the legislative corps of the emsentative government. There bas pire'in the Champ de Mai. The Popes scarcely: transpired a century' in who dethroned Kings, and bastinawhich the States-general have not doed the Emperors of Germany; were been convoked, and no King has jacobins. The Council who made even yet abolished them. It is in and dethroned Popes, and the Polish this manner, that the right of im Diets who would not acknowledge posing taxes has fallen exclusively the legitimacy of Dynasties, were to the Cortes. The Queen, mother
also jacobins. Alexander III. who of the reigning Queen, was the first bestowed his benediction on the and only Sovereign, who imposed assembly of the Republics of Lom. taxes by ber absolute will, and with bardy, and who excommunicated out any restriction. Thus, the re Frederic Barbarossa, was a Cara establishment of the Cortes, in Por. bonaro. Julius II. who cried out tugal, is no other than the restora when dying, Hors de l'Italie les tion of the people of Portugal to barbares ! was a Carbonaro ; in their ancient rights.
fact, the Guelphes of the middle age, Yon are not, perhaps, acquainted who would never bear the yoke of with the profession of political faith, the Austrians, were all Carbonari. ** which the Cortes of 1640 caused to Speaking of the Portuguese Cortes be printed in Latin,' and accoin M. Pecchio gives a very favourable panied with a picture of the King, and animated account of the mem: to whom it was dedicated, in order bers, and of Portuguese eloquence. that it might circulate throughout He thus concludes the account of his the world. The following are a few visit to one of the Sittings :-quotations :
Although the distance from the 1. That the power of Kings re new city to the palace of the Cortes sides in the people, and that they is a full league, the last time I was receive it directly from them. there the galleries appropriated to
2. That this power is conferred to the public were filled. The most Kings temporally; the people being perfect order and tranquillity pres always able to resume it, when ne vailed; but in the course of the day cessary, for their legitimate defence Andrada, the Deputy of Brazil, hava and preservation; and whenever ing risen to combat the opinion of the kings render themselves odious the favourite 'orator, Borges Carby their administration.
neiro, the people in fear for their 3. That kingdoms and people may tribune began to be agitated. This break their oaths and withdraw Deputy controlled them immeditheir allegianre from Kings who do ately by the following exclamation : not govern with equity.
-Here you should be respectful. Sueb were the principal articles At the elections you are kings; in of faith, which the Portuguese pro this assembly you are subjects. fessed a century before there were The following anecdote is an ineither philophers, jacobins, liberals, stance of the self-importanee of these or carbonari, &c.
Portuguese Deputies. Before the Either the cabinets of Europe are revolution, it was usual for the King very ignorant, or they thiók the to present his hand to kiss to all liberals so. They accuse them of those who were presented before being the authors of perverse prin him. This custom was, undoubtedly, ciples of politics, whilst all ages and ridiculous;, but still less 90 than
Eur. Mag. Jan. 1823.
that established by the Popes, of liberty, a friend of the Spaniarda, presenting their toe to be kissed. and the intimate acquaintance of Mr. When the King entered for the first Bentham. He converses with ease, time among the Cortes, forgetting holds a discussion with urbanity, that a Deputy was, like himself, and bears with patience my invec Sovereign, his Majesty presented his tives against human nature, and hand to kiss to the first who ap- against heaven and earth because peared. The latter, pretending to they do not unite to succour Italy. imagine that the King desired to Could I find a more agreeable fellowbe supported, took him by the hand, traveller? He always carries about and with the King, leaning on his him an album, in which be collects arm, they ascended the stairs toge- the remembrances of the most disther.
tinguished friends of liberty in ExThe extraordinary Cortes were rope. He sometimes disputes beinstalled the 26th of January, 1821, cause I call this album a martyre. to prepare the Constitution apon logy. the fundamental basis already ap Du fait, has not the age of the proved and sworn to, by the King martyrs returned for the liberals of and the people. This work may be Europe ? terminated in the month of August Having spent only a month in next. The experience furnished by England, I cannot pretend to un Spain has been a guide to the Por- derstand the English eharacter thor tuguese legislators. This new Con: roughly, but I must confess I did stitution contains all the errata car- not find John Bull so gross and inrige of which that of Cadiz-stood in tolerant as he had been described to need. The King has preserved his me. It is true, he observed with title; but his power will not be ironical curiosity: a redingote e lo greater than that of a Doge. So française whiøl I had on; but he much the better for him, because he neither pelted me with stones nor will not be truly infallible, until the mud: John Bull is embonpoint; he period when he will be no longer is robust, well fed, well dressed, and able to do evil,
well lodged.;, but I doubt whether The Congress proceeds slowly he be happy; he works too much, with reform: it appears they have he condemns himself to tle perpeadopted the maxim of building be- tual labour of drinking tea twice a fore they destroy. The only ame day, of spreading batter on his lioration, which has hitherto affected bread, and of being elegantly dresindividual interests, bąs been the sed. In all this I do not see but law which reduces the feudal rights. John Bull may be a good calculator. The privileges of the Morks and After six years' separation, with of hereditary property are still un. what pleasure did I embrace in Lontouched, as well as the scandalous don my dear friend Ugo Foscolo! riches of the higher clergy. The He is my favourite Italian writer. command of the troops do not de. In his romance of Jacopo Ortis he volve upon the States until the de has opened to the Italiads a new cease of the present holders. The career of glory, he has taught the direction of the police and the gen. means of awakening sensibility and darmes are likewise untouched. It is enthusiasm, which are the two quanot only because the Congress flat- lities necessary to a nation wishing ter themselves of disarming the ene to acquire independence and liberty. mies of liberty by holding out; but, I also admire Foscolo because he has it is also evident, they want to never bowed the knee before the idol gain time and strength before the which has flattered all the sovereigns struggle.
of Europe. He lives near the ReAt Madrid I became acquainted gent's Park; his honse is solitary, with Mr. Bowring, whose friend and situate on the banks of an ever, ship enchanted me. Mr. B. is a troubled canal, similar to Lethe, model of French amiability, founded You might imagine his house a herupon the English character. He mitage, were it not for being the rebispeaks a number of lapguages, and dence of two pretty and modest varda. has travelled throughout all Europe; Ugo Foscolo has, however, made he is an eloquent poet, a lover of the same bad calculation as Joļip
Bill. To live with ease, he is. The Portuguese, not wishing to be obliged to labour night and day for outdone in generosity, left them the the literary journals of London. It choice of remaining in the army is too great a labour for so small a“ with their rank, or of retiring upon sbare of glory. He ought rather to equivalent pensions. Neither of live on the top of a steeple like a these officers accepted either; sevesolitary monks in order to wageral of them even offered their sereternal war against the Austrians, vices gratuitously to aid the liberals, who have horribly scandalized him, and continued upon terms of friendthan to be forced to quit his country ship and esteen with General Sepulto save his honour. S.
veda. The Portagaese patriot, General • The opinion of the Gerreral reSepulveda, employs all his time for specting Marshal Beresford, appearthe good of his country: he mightied to me equally frank and imparlive in a glass hotse, for none of his tial. He attribates to him the merit actions beed to be concealed. He is of having disciplined the Portuguese ever surrounded by his friends. His army. “Before the time of Marshal conversation is always interesting Beresford,” said he, “ no profession by the frankness and simplicity of was more servile than that of arms. his recitals. He abhors the anthou The court presented commissions rity which England pretended to even to their domestics. Beresford exereise over his country'; but in his saved the officers from this ignomihatred he never confounds indivi- ny; he has left us an army filled duals with the government. When with honour, and equal in discipline speaking with him on the conduct and bravery to English troops. So of the hundred and fifty English much so, that no innoyation bas otheers, who set ved in the Portuguese been made upon his regulations. army before the Revolution, he He was a despot in admisistration, highly praised them without any but just. Beresford had not suffici affectation of generosity. At the ent greatness of mind to save front first movement which took place at punishment the brave General Gomez Oporto, the English officers with Friera, and twelve other officers, drew, declaring that they ought not, who conspired against him in 1817; neither would they, mingle with the but he will ever deserve our esteem internal affairs of the kingdom. for his military regulations."
ON A MOURNING RING.
Whose lov'd remembrance time can ne'er destroy;
Tho' not the emblem of soft smiling joy.
Unbidden flow, and fancy will retrace
To charm with every mild attractive grace.
Twelve circling months consign'd to the cold earth;
But, oh! ne'er, ne'er forgotten be thy worth,
(Few in its full extent that worth could know;
Sull mourn thy death, tho' with a chasten'd woe.
Full many a useful lesson it may give;
Like thee, blest Saint, in innocence to live.
S, B. R.
THE FINE ARTS.
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE.
If Architecture were to be consi. root of an Acanthus, and the plant dered merely as the science of build- being thus depressed in the middle, ing, it might safely be asserted that its leaves and stalk spread outwards, " its origin inust have been nearly co and grew up around the sides of the eyal with that of the human race. basket, till they were bent down by In the present epitome, however, we the tile, which lay projecting over shall confine ourselves to a glance the top.. Callimachus, the sculptor, or two at its history, as one of the passing by, was struck with the branches of the Fine Arts. In this pleasing appearance of the whole ; view of the subject, we necessarily and adopted it as the capital of a . begin with Grecian Architecture. new order, of more delicate propor
The only authentic accounts we. tions than had been until that time have respecting Grecian Architec used, ture commence about 600 years be About the period at which Grefore Christ; and it appears that in cian Architecture was rising to emithe course of about three centuries, nence, the Tuscans, by whose name that is, from the age of Solon and one of the five orders of ArchitecPythagoras to the age of Pericles, ture is still known, began to distinall those inventions and improve- guish themselves in Italy, and espe- . ments took place, which rendered cially in Rome, the walls and the Grecian Architecture the model of Capitol of which were built by them. beauty and perfection. Anterior to The conquest of Greece, and subsethe Macedonian conquest, the tem-, quently of Asia, gave the Romans at ples of Greece and, of its colonies once a taste for the Fine Arts and seem to have been of one order, the the means of, indulgence. One of Doric, and of one general form; the earliest and most celebrated Ro-, and it is probable, from the nature man architects was Cossutius, who, . of that form, that the earliest Greek aboat two hundred years before the temples were of wood. The strength Christian era, was employed by and simplicity of the Doric order, as King Antiochus to proceed with the finely illustrated in one of its most Temple of Jupiter Olympus, which admirable examples, the Parthenon Pisistratus had begun. The extent, at Athens, give it a peculiar claim the materials, and the decorations to the character of sublimity. By of the dwellings of Rome, under the invention of the lonic and Co. the Emperors, were such as almost rinthian orders, the resources of ar to exceed the bounds of credibility. chitectural composition were con Augustus particularly signalised siderably extended. The former himself in this respect; and it was was no doubt invented in the coun his boast that he left a city of martry the name of which it bears. Vi- ble, which he had found of brick. truvius fancifully supposes that this He was emulated by Herod the graceful order was founded on the Great, King of Judæa, whose arimitation of the female form, as he chitectural designs were conceived also imagines that the proportions and executed upon a scale which of the more sturdy Doric were de- surpassed all others of that age, termined by those of men. Every and-by whom the Temple of Jerubody knows the origin of the Corin salem was rebuilt;--a magnificent thian order. A young maiden of and wonderful undertaking, which Corinth having died, her nurse col- occupied during eight years the lected in a basket the toys of which labour of ten thousand artificers. she had been fond when alive, and The Emperor Domitian was fond of left them near her grave, covering Architecture, but his taste was very the basket with a tile, to preserve indifferent. Soon after his time flouits contents from the weather. The rished Apollodorus, an architect of basket happened to be set upon the extraordinary powers. Under his
direction was constructed the cele own country. - The Saxon style of brated bridge over the Danube; a architecture was in a great measure Fork surpassing in its kind every the Roman, rudely and incorrectly thing that the Architecture of Greece, executed. Its characteristic features or Rome had produced. In all the were thick walls, generally without noble edifices that were raised by buttresses ; and the arches employed Trajan, he was employed or con- in it were nearly all seinicircular. salted; and the stately. column in. Then came the Norman architecture, Róne, which is yet standing entire, practisedby. that people after their distinguished by the name of Tra- conquest of England, but which jan's Pillar, is a monument to his was little more than an adoption of abilities. Apollodorus fell a victim the style of Architecture of their to the revenge of the Emperor Saxon predecessors; the only mateAdrian, by whom he was ordered' rial difference being in the superior to be put to death in consequence magnitude of the Norman structures, of a sarcasm, in which the indiscreet and the more frequent use in them architect had indulged, on a temple of stone, together with a neater built after one of Adrian's own de- mode of building, and the introducsigns. Nevertheless, Adrian was a tion of some newly-invented ornagreat encourager of Architecture. ments. The prelates in the early By him were built the city of Anti- Norman reigns were men of connoopolis, in the South of Egypt, and summate skill in Architecture ; espethat wall of defence in the North of cially Gundulph, Bishop of RochesEngland, eighty miles long, the ruins, ter, who flourished at the latter end of which still bear_his name. He of the eleventh century. Of the also completed the Temple of Jupi- twenty-two English cathedrals, no ter Olympus, in Athens, which had less than fifteen retain considerable, been six handred years in building. portions which are undoubtedly of The period of the Antonines pro- Norman workmanship. From the duced some good works in Archis year 1155 the style of Architecture tecture; of which the column yet practised by the Normans began to standing, commonly called Anto be mixed with new forms and deconine's, is one example. It may here rations; and at length it was superbe observed, that the introduction, seded by that much more elegant ef arches into buildings by the and lofty style of building, vulgarly Románs bad operated an essential and improperly denominated Gochange in the forms and principles' tbic. of Architecture. While this was an . Rather before the middle of the extraordinary improvement in the twelfth century, and not earlier, a art of construction, it may, perhaps, new style of ecclesiastical architecbe doubted, whether by destroying ture was produced, it is believed first the inestimable simplicity of Gre in this country, called the pointed cian Architecture, it did not lead style. When it is recollected that to its deterioration as a Fine Art. the power of the Goths was every Certain it is, that from the period where crushed in the course of the of the Antonines the art declined; sixth, and their very name extinand the vast palace erected by Dio- guished in the beginning of the clesian at Spalatro may be consider- eighth century, it will be evident ed as the final degradation of good how inapplicable the term “Gothic'' Architecture in the Western Empire. is to pointed Architecture. The ori• The removal of the seat of em- gin of pointed Architeeture has been pire to Constantinople taking place the subject of great dispute. By after the Fine Arts had received the best authorities it is attributed their mortal wound, that city was to the Norman English, and the nerer illustrated by, anypublic English. After its introduction, it works of a pure and noble taste. underwent great changes. There The church of St. Sophia, founded are three distinct orders in this style. by Justinian, though a grand effort The characteristic of the first order of construction, is of barbarous Ar- is the acute arch; and it lasted from chitecture.
the middle of the twelfth to the end We now descend to the middle of the thirteenth century. Of this ages, and change the scene to our order, Lincoln, Beverley, and