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who would bestow tlie tenderness public; it might then have been re: of a mother even on a lap-dog, or ferred to as an authentic record; who would subscribe to the Society without any of those misgivings for the Suppression of Viee. In which must attach to the whole, fine, we prefer one practical to a where a part, however small, is thousand theoretical virtues.

justly subject to suspicion.

The Life of Ali presents many. The Life of Ali Pacha, of Jannina, curious and interesting objects of Vizier of Epirus. 8vo.

contemplation, both in the circuma

stances peculiar to himself indivi. So much of public attention has dually, and from the time of his been attracted to every memorial of political career, having brought the celebrated Ali, and particularly both him and the state of society of to the book before us, that we pre- his country into the more immediato sume there are but few of our readers notice of France and Great Britain. who are altogether ignorant of the In his own character he affords peculiar circumstances which attach an interesting object of observation, to the publication in question. owing in a great measure to its pea

We, therefore, think it incumbent culiarities being such, as the imon us, before presenting our readers proved nature of our social instituwith the contents of the book, to tions afford no scope for the exhibisubmit to them the opinion we have tion of, and which consequently we formed as to the authenticity of its can only contemplate at a distance. statements, and its claims upon pub. Possessed of courage, activity, lick attention. It is not our pur- discretion ; of perseverance which pose to go into the disputes which never tired ; of penetration which are said to have arisen amongst the could not be baffled; of the lof. pablishers, por will our limits allow tiest ambition; the most grasp us to lay before our readers the ing avarice; Ali was endued with analysis by which we have arrived all the incentives to enterprize, and at our conclusion; but, having at most of the means of success; but tentively perused the volume, we with less extraordinary men even venture, from its own internal evi these advantages might, by circumdence, to give a decided, though stances, have been made inoperative. not an unqualified, verdict in favour The authority of religion--the inof its general authenticity. We say fluence of morality--the restraints our verdict is not unqualified, be- of honour-the pleadings of nature; cause, in the first place, the anthor some or one of these might have preor compiler has, by concealing his sented obstacles to the designs of name, shrunk from that responsi. other men, but Ali disowned themi bility which the public have a right all. He knew no God; inorality he to expect that à narrator should had never heard of; his honour was take upon himself, as an earnest of forfeited whenever pledged; and the truth of his statements; and, even nature had no authority with secondly, because many parts of him, since he ruined, imprisoned, the book are tinged with that melo- and murdered his relatives, forced dramatic timidity, that labour at his own and only sister to an ineffect, which whenever we meet with cestuous marriage, and stupified, it gives birth to a suspicion, that and then debauched the wife of his too much license has been given to son! the faculty of imagination. We be There probably have been, and lieve the matter of the work has an. still are, many men as little fettered dergone more than one transmuta- by moral restraints, and as callous tion of language, and it is probable to the better impulses of humanity, the defects of which we complain bat his parallel can only be promay have been given to it in dress. duced by the union of his rare ing it for the palates of French abilities with his transcendent vices. readers ; if so, we can only lament In Ali, then, we behold the exthat it was not restored to its tent to which human depravity car “ round unvarnished state," before be carried when stimulated by the it was submitted to the cooler judg- passions, aided by talent, and toment and better taste of the British tally einancipated froni that con


troul, which the fears or the virtues tianity, whilst he conciliated the of other men' impose upon their Turks by promising them a copfisactions. We see in him a picture cation of the property belonging to we can but seldom meet with, but the Agas. which, from its singularity, must in Thus fortuitously commenced the terest, although it may often horrify, struggle, which still continues heand, perhaps, disgust us.

tween the Greeks and their oppresBy steadfastly pursuing the means Upon the advance of the of aggrandizement, which his sin Turkish army, Ali shut himself up gular talents, his avarice, and his with a powerful garrison and ample ferocity laid open to him, Ali ar. supplies in Jaonina, and, from the rived to an extent of territorial rapid defection of most of bis conpower and substantial wealth, which federates in other parts of his goaroused at once the jealousy and vernment, this soon became the only cupidity of his sublime masters, the place in which his power existed. Saltan and the Divan.

The seige was commenced by a conThe cruelties and violences he siderable Turkish force, and for a committed would never have at long time carried on with various tracted their displeasure; indeed alterations of fortune. At length Ali was the very beau ideal of a with a garrison, reduced from many Pacha, the preax chevalier of Mus- thousands to a few hundreds, Ali selmans; but the fame of hisimmense found himself compelled to retire to wealth had penetrated the walls of the fortress in the Lake of Ivanpina. the Seraglio, and although the Here the defence was still continued, Great Turk and all his faithful minis- and Ali, having provided an ample ters had found him most prolific in magazine of powder, resolved when golden eggs, most regular in the re- further resistance was impossible, to mittance of retaining fees, they explode it, and die with his few recould no longer refrain from laying maining followers in the general violent hands upon the goose, and wreck." The Turks, however, were accordingly. Ali's destruction was unwilling thus to lose the long dedetermined on. Upon receipt of sired treasure, which was deposited this intelligence Ali at once saw the in the fortress, or to participate in peril of his situation ; that he must the dangers of the vast explosion; either submit to the Sultan, or de- they, therefore, caused it to be anclare open hostility against him. nounced to him, that the Sultan His submission he knew would be would spare him his life and treaconsummated by the bow-string; sures, provided he would surrender he, therefore, decided boldly to and retire into Asia Minor. Ali, brave the efforts of the Porte, and so long the practiser of every deceit hence arose a state of affairs which himself, was now doomed to fall has since interested the best feelings by his own weapon; he listened to of the civilized world, and may be the proposal and surrendered. For productive of the most important some days he was treated with every consequences. Incited by the mo- deference and respect, the officers tives we have already mentioned, about him “ swearing even upon and by the stimulations of Pacha the Koran, that they had no intenBey, whom Ali had persecuted with tion to deceive him, but the sequel undeviating enmity, the Porte pro- shewed the value of their oath. A nounced its fearful anathema, and firman was brought for his execuimmediately commenced military tion. Ali made a furious resistance preparations, which, by their extent against those who were entrusted and magnitude, demonstrated at with the execution of the deathonce their determined purpose, and warrant, but he was overpowered the estimation in which they held by numbers. His head was sent to the power of the proscribed Pacha. Constantinople by Churchid Pacha, Ali was not behind his enemies in and, by a stratagem, his immense exertion. He organised an exten. wealth, deposited in the castle, was sive and skilful plan of defence, and obtained possession of by the conopenly raised the standard of revolt.

querors. He gave the Greeks to understand This work contains two portraits that he was about to embrace Chris. of Ali, the one, which represents


go no further, for, with every allow- meaning or principles of declensions him in the act of smoking and in or cases, than the vulgar mechanic a recumbent posture, is tolerably knows of the principles and science faithful, the other bears no resem of the manual operations he perblance whatever ; the former we forms. Now it is possible in teachhave compared with an original ing a child his declensions to give portrait, which we believe to have hiin at the same time the ideas of been the only one taken from life. division, order, and classification, We cannot say much in favour of and to shew how these principles of the style in which the book is writ- classification are founded in nature ten, but we recommend the volume and pervade all the mental operato our readers as one of deep in tions. The child would thus not terest, and considerable informa- only acquire a very useful species tion.

of knowledge, but it would be add

ing a permanent improvement to the The Parents' Latin Grammar, with quality of his mind, and superindu

an Essay on Latin Verbs. By Dr. cing a habit of enquiry and reflecGilchrist.

tion, and finally facilitate all other

studies by this improvement of his It is a just and a frequently rei- faculties; and by giving him an interated observation, that the world sight into the principles of knowhas not yet beheld the species of ledge in general. Such a mode of works adapted to the poor, and we instruction, with proper books to think the remark is equally applica- assist the teacher, is as easy as it is ble with respect to books intended useful, and this desideratum Dr. for children. All our elementary Gilchrist's school books are admirand initiatory school books ably calculated to afford. purely mechanical, and convey facts We conceive, for instance, that if and principles to the mind without a parent were to instruct from the the slightest effort to call into exer Latin grammar now before us any tion the reasoning powers of the child during the vacation, that child, learner, and boys at school acquire in the ensuing school term, would their knowledge by rote, and for the be found to out-strip, the boys who future application of that knowledge had previously been his equals. His must be indebted to their natural mind would be improved and every powers of intellect, untrained by question asked him by the master education to the use of any faculty would be called to his recollection but that of the memory. The many by many valuable associations. We works, with which Dr. Gilchrist has are happy to bear testimony to the favoured the public, have for their useful nature of Dr. Gilchrist's design the removal of this serious works, and to the clear and simple objection, by affording the student manner in which he has conveyed the facts and principles contained in such useful knowledge to the juveordinary school books, but accom nile mind. panied, in his publications, with copious explanations; and with the Points of Humour. Illustrated by reasoning upon which those princi a Series of Plates, from Designs ples have been ascertained and esta. by Geo. Cruikshank, 8vo. pp. 47. blished. Not only, therefore, is the

London. 1823. scholar better impressed with the words and principles which he is The professed object of this work made to learn, but in learning them is to display the talent of Mr. George he at the same time acquires a habit Cruikshank, and it consists chiefly of reasoning, and thereby improves of short stories in verse and prose, the most valuable faculty of his with engraved illustrations from his mind.


The editor has had the A boy, for instance, may have candour to state, that “ the literary learnt the Latin language from the part of this work is of humble premost approved grammars in the tensions,” and we are certainly not country, and he will know that disposed to dispute the assertion, there are five declensions of nouns, but our cordiality of sentiment will and that the noun has six cases, but ance for the difficulty of selecting he will know no more of the real subjects adapted to receive effect

from that species of graphic illas- The Temple of Truth, an Allegorical tration for which Mr. Cruikshank is Poem. 8vo. pp. 99. London, so eminent, we cannot admit such 1823. difficulty to be any justification of the indelicacy which pervades many Miss Renou is already known to of the stories contained in the book the reading part of the community, before us. We are not fastidious in as the authoress of a work which our criticism, at least to a degree of treats of recondite subjects; many rejecting broad humour; but, on of which have seldom, and others, the contrary, we are of opinion that we believe, have never been touched a man must be sublimated beyond upon by a female writer. Her first his species, or “duller than the fat literary efforts were successful, but weed” who has no relish for its pi- she now quits the “ Academic Bows quanoy; but when the grounds ofers," and the tortuous paths of abstrict decorum are transgressed, wę stract philosophy, to soar into the at least require the atonement of more attractive regions of Parnassus, wit, a redeeming grace which seems To be less figurative, Miss Renon to have been sedulously shunned in now honours the literary world with many parts of what is called the this new poem entitled the Temple literary part of the present work. of Truth; the object or plan of

As to the graphic illustrations, we which is to shew that temporal and feel great pleasure in being able to eternal happiness are to be obtained make a very different report of their solely by a life of reason, virtue, and merits; many of the designs are faith. Allegorical poems have rea forcibly humorous, and are replete ceived the repeated maledictions of either with ligitimate comedy, or critics, and few persons have renwith the

happiest species of broad tured upon a long allegorical poem farce. To support our assertion, since the days of Spenser. In the we need but refer to the Jolly Beg. poem now before us we have perso, gars, Frederick the Great, the Carnifications of Reason, Despair, An. dinal, and more especially to the ger, False-shame, Industry, &c. &c. wood-cuts.. Our praise however is with the Bower of Virtue, the Bow. pot altogether unqualified, for we er of Sloth, the Cave of lodolence, must confess that we think some of and all the other machinery of the the earlier works of Mr. Cruikshank Fairy Queen. Surely this is in bad have shewn more mind than the ma taste, and we scarcely need ipform jority of those in the present collec. our readers, that nothing but a very tion, in as much as they have con high degree of the “poetic tempetained more of episode and by-play, rameot” could make such a plan atand perhaps more of nature. tractive. It is therefore saying very

Upon the whole, with these faults little against the author's intellece and merits that we have noticed, had jual powers, to pronounce the work the work in question been an iso þefore us of mediocrity. We appre: lated one, the first and last of its bend that the poem has been com, race, we should not, perhaps, have posed in haste, for there are numerthought it necessary to offer an opi. ous instances of inaccuracy and of nion upon it; but as it is announced incongruities. to be the precursor of others of the But we have neither the wish to same sort, and as we entertain the be hypocritical, nor even to dwell most favourable impression of Mr. upon material faults. Miss Renou's Cruikshank's capabilities, we have mind is of so superior an order, her thought it our duty to the public, as pursuits are so laudable, and the well as an act of utility to himself, tendency of her works is so benefito make these few observations, with cial to society, that she need not feel a view of ensuring to the former mortification at an instance of fai. an unobjectionable and intellectual lure. Of her metaphors and other source of mirth, and of stimulating figures, or of the structure of her the latter to those exertions which verse we wish not to say much; our if used with diligence and discrer judgment will not allow us to praise, tion, will place him amongst the nor our gallantry to censurc. Hogarths of his country.

An easy

Introduction to Short Hand uniform eonnection between sounds By John Moon. 12mo. pp. 97. and their characters not only renLondon. 1822.

ders it impossible for any man to

learn a foreign language without It is singular to reflect that the oral instruction, but prevents even most useful of all arts, and that natives from ascertaining the sounds which is of the most frequent appli- meant to be conveyed by the letcation, is the art which has received ters, except by a process of reasonthe least improvement from human ing or by catching the sounds from ingenuity. We allude to the art of persons speaking. Our orthoepists writing, which, although everygram have found it extremely difficult to marian from the days of Quintil. convey to their readers a true prolian has shewn it to be imperfect, yet nunciation of words even by spel: remains in almost its original state ling them, dividing and accenting, of imperfection. To analyse the them merely for the purposes of sounds of the human voice, and to pronunciation. Of the great defect represent such elements by corres of European alphabets we may in. ponding signs, and to combine tbem stance that of our own country. into words, required such an accu For instance, our letter a represents racy of ear with a union of so many four sounds, both e and u repreother qualities, that it is not surpri- sent three sounds, the dipthong ou sing that the first efforts in the art of represents six sounds, and in rewriting were crude, erróneous, and presents five sounds, so that it is inadequate to its intended purposes. absolutely impossible to read our In the days of Cadmus the voice had language but by the aid of oral been analysed into only fifteen ele tradition ; that is to say, by our mentary sounds; it was afterwards mechanically catching these sounds supposed to consist of twenty-five or from those surrounding us in our twenty-six such elements, and every youth. As a further illustration of nation of Europe has adapted its this truth, we need only refer to the alphabet to what they supposed to total ignorance of the moderns as be so accurate an analysis. But a to the pronunciation of the Greek more careful attention to the human and Latin, and other. ancient lanvoice subsequently detected numer guages. When we find Middleton ous errors in this scale of sounds; pronouncing Cicero, ás Tchitchero; many that were set down as simple Bentley, and Lipsius, pronouncing it sounds were discovered to be com- Kikero; whilst others insist upon its pound, whilst many that were sim. being Sisero, we need seek for no ple had totally escaped observation. other proof of the necessity of betThus all alphabets were found to be ter adapting alphabets to the nature defective, representing compound of the human voice. And yet, imsounds by simple characters, and portant as the subject is, it was not having no characters at all for many until towards the close of the last sounds that were simple, they were century that orthoepy was studied obliged to represent them by double by English scholars, or reduced to letters, or by appropriating to them any thing approaching to a science. letters which had been previously dis But more immediately connected posed of. Every alphabet is therefore with stenography is the unnecessary deficient and redundant, for instance, length and complexity of the alphain English, the soft cand s, the hard e betical characters, as well as the and k, are the same sounds, and yet useless repetition of unnecessary each has two symbols or signs to letters in the same word. Thus, in represent it, whilst we have twelve the word accommodation, we have simple vowel sounds represented by fourteen up and down strokes in the only five letters, and 222 other ele two M.'s, allof which might be reprementary sounds represented by only sented by one, whilst the sound con. seventeen letters, fonr of the remain veyed by the last four letters might ing letters being useless, and five be represented by a sign of one-tenth of the elements being represented the length of those letters, and that by double letters for want of appro- without occasioning the least ambipriate characters. Thus the wantof guity or difficulty of interpretation. Eur. Mag. Aug. 1823.


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