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Incalculable will be the benefits con- plabets consist of curves and straight ferred upon literature and upon sci lines applied horizontally, perpenence by the man who can substitute, dicularly, and diagonally, the comfor this barbarous system of no mon reader may be at a loss to contation, an alphabet and an ortho- ceive what can give rise to so many graphy corresponding with the true new publications upon the subject. principles of human speech.

For our parts, we cannot agree So sensible were the Greeks and with the present author in the proRomans of these defects, that it was priety of his styling his work an a practice amongst their authors to

easy introduction, for to our view abbreviate their words either by oc it is the most difficult system of casionally using arbitrary characters Stenography that we have ever for whole words, by letting the roots perased. Mavor has nearly accuof words stand for the words them. rately adapted his alphabet to the selves, or at most by affixing to such analysis of the voice, established by roots short and easy marks to re our best orthoepists, and has, therepresent their prepositive and termi- fore, made his alphabet, excluding national additions.

vowels, to consist of twenty-three But it does not appear that the letters. This is admirably simple, ancients had any other ideas of what but our present author actually we now call Brachygraphy, Steno- gives us four alphabets, consisting of graphy, or Short-hand. So young 41, 35, 35, and 35 letters respecis the science in modern Europe, tively; and, not content with this, that even Mr. Locke, in his Essay we have seven arbitrary characters, upon Education, speaks of its being and sixteen other arbitrary characin the most crude and undigested ters for double letters in the middle state, and complains that its advan and at the end of words. We need tages were then but little appre- not say that to learn such an art ciated. Until within these few would be the business of a whole years it was an art exclusively con life; and if, in writing, it may be tined to this country, and even now called short-hand, in learning it how few amongst us are there that must be viewed as the longest hand understand it. But its immense ad that ever tortured human ingenuity vantages are beginning to be gene to invent. rally appreciated, for we find that Our author's observations are not even in the elementary national always correct, are frequently far schools of Columbia, amongst the from pertinent to his subject, and arts, that are directed to be taught not unfrequently contradictory of to the public scholars, that of short each other. For instance, in page hand bears a conspicuous place. two, he talks of the correct steno

From what we have now observed graphic reports of the speeches of it is obvious that the principles of Mr. Fox and Mr. Pitt, and in the Stenography, if the art is an object very next page, he tells us, that it is of general study, must be confined impossible for a speaker to be fol. to three views. The spelling of lowed verbatim by the short-hand words as they are pronounced, by writer, unless he have an impediattaching to each elementary sound ment in his speech. But the author a distinct character; the abridging should have known, that the speeches the forms of the alphabetical charac. in Parliament are not reported by ters; and, lastly by the representing short-hand at all, but by merely of the prepositions and terminations taking down, in common hand, the of words by short arbitrary marks. prominent words of each argument, If the art be intended for professional the reporter afterwards filling up purposes, to these three principles the interstices according to his memust be added the omission of vowel mory and judgment. sounds, and a more copious use of The two systems which have suarbitrary characters for long words perceded all others are those of of frequent occurrence. These are Gurney and Mavor. Gurney's systhe sole principles of the art, and as tem is incomplete, whilst Maror has all authors agree in this point, and reduced his to the most obvious and egree moreover in making their al- simple principles. Of these systems

the first is the easiest to read, and then would be the perplexity created the last the most easy to write. But by such a practice in short-hand, it may be observed, that the facilities where the most able practitioners of of writing and reading in this art are, the most able system find it so dif. in their nature, opposing, qualities; ficult to peruse their own writing. the one being always attained at the In short the system of Mr. Moon is expense of the other. Whatever entirely useless, except to men whose system a person may study he will minds are what he says of the liquids, find himself disposed to modify that l, m, n, 1, that is to say, sui genesystem in some respects to bis pecu- ris, and moreover, unless men of liarities of mind, but we conceive such minds would devote all their these two systems of Gurney and lives to its acquisition. Mr. Moon, Mavor to have so fully attained all however, displays some ingenuity the objects of the art as to super and great industry in the work becede the necessity of any thing more fore us, and he deserves our praise than, perhaps, a few improvements for a laudable although an unsucin some of their details.

cessful attempt to improve a highly Our author, in classing the letters, useful art. tells us that the liquids are letters We have entered at more than orsui generis ; not more so, we appre- dinary length into this subject, conhend, than the vowels, semi-vowels, vinced that the art of Short-hand, ør mutes. He classes s, sh, st, ch, to a certain extent, ought to be &c. under the head of hissing sounds, taught in all our higher classes and informs us, that B. and P. F. of schools. It would incalculably and V. &c. are sounds differing only abridge the labours of the students, in intensity, and his character re as well as facilitate their acqu sition presenting them are made to differ of knowledge in general. Its utility only in size. Now it must be ob- would be still greater to the profesvious, that the confounding of such sional man, and to the scholar of distinct sounds as 8, sh, ch, B, and laborious research and literary apP, would, even in common hand, plication its benefits would be inr ereate endless perplexity; how great calculable.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE,

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC.

SOUTH AMERICA.

revolution, was estimated at 11,500,000 A census, taken in 1790 and 1791, francs. The revenue exceeded the makes the population of Peru at expenditure by more than 10,000,000, 1,500,000, inhabiting 14 cities, 14 bo and yet there was a public debt of roughs, and 977 hamlets, or single more than 60,000,000 of francs. But houses. The country contains 44,000 the greater part of this debt had been square leagues (Castillian) equal to raised for the service of Old Spain ; about 100,000 French port leagues. the republic of Peru holds itself liable The inhabitants are, therefore, about only for that part which was expended 15 to a square league French. But it in the colony, and which being but of must be remembered that a great part small amount, the new government of this country is covered by the Upper may be considered free from debt. Andes. The agriculture, grazing, and The Bell and Lancasterian systems manufactures are estimated of the an of education, which have happily nual value of 39,000,000 of francs, been introduced throughout the greatthe tithes being nearly 2,000,000. er part of the civilized world, producThe balance of trade is 6,000,000 of jng such an evident melioration in francs annually in favour of Peru. The the public morals, have been adopted church property, before the present in the kingdom of Chili, where they

ASIA:

have been productive of great advan. pean had before penetrated. He main. tage. The Chili Gazette of the 19th taips that the source of the Niger is in of January last, announces that the a hill in Soma, and he has collected a government is determined upon pro number of important facts relative to moting, by all possible means, the ge Africa. neral education of the people.

The learned Mandarin, Sunk Tadjin, NORTH AMERICA.

of Pekin, in Chiva, bas presented to In January last was published in the Emperor bis work on the provinces Boston the first number of a periodical of Tartary, lately occupied by the work, called “ The New Monthly Chinese forces. Magazine," by Mr. Oliver Everett. Australasia.-In the month of De

Discovery relating to the Blue Iris. cember last, Lieutenant John Stone - Professor Ormstead, a member of discovered a new river in Australasia, the University of North Carolina, has to which he has given the name of discovered that the petals of the gar- Clyde. He sailed forty miles up the den Iris or Fleur de Lis, will produce a stream in his brig “Snapper," and, as blue dye superior to any yet known. far as he could discern, ibe river apIt may be turned to a red, like the peared navigable: it empties itself into turpsol, by introducing a stream of Bateman's Bay, carbonic acid gas. It is more suited for dying than the violet, because the

DENMARK. flowers furnish more liquid ; and the The bookseller, Gyldendahl, at Co'colour produced is very beautiful. Pro- penhagen, has advertised a Davish fessor Ormstead will soon publish the translation of Sir Walter Scott's novels process.

to appear in montbly volumes. Profes

Bor Rahbeck has translated Sir Walter's Population of the United States Halidon Hill, with a Latin dedicaIn 1753......1,051,000

tion to the Baronet. ..3,026,678

Captain le Chevalier d'Abrahamson, .3,929,328

in a letter dated 14th April last, states 5,306,032

the great success of the Danish Lan. .7,239,903

castrian schools. He states that on .9,637,999

the 21st August, 1822, the King first

authorised this system to be tried in AFRICA.

eighteen schools;on the 1st of January A letter of the 30th of November last, last it was introduced into 100 schools; from Cape Coast, speaks of a Tartar and on the 14th of April, it was exmerchant, who, after incredible diffi. tended to 147.-Captain d'Abrahamson culties, bad succeeded in penetrating has been appointed President of a into the interior of Africa. He set Commission to reorganize the Deaf and out from Tripoli and travelled to Alex Dumb Institution. andria, thence through the desert to Angela, Zula, and Mozoock, Bournon,

SWEDEN. Knackua, Nyku, Zeppoo, Moossedoo, The Committee of the Constitution and Jendee, from which he repaired has recommended to the States of the to Timbuctoo, and then over the moun kingdom to suppress the indirect centaivs of Hong at Diambella, in the coun sorship of the journals and periodical try of Mundinga, towards Sierra Leone. 'works exercised by the Chancellor, He visited the capital of the Ashantees, and they have required that the Courts and pursued his route to Cape Coast. should declare the degree of responsiThis traveller lost his camels and all bility attached to journalists. his goods in the desert, and suffered The academy of Fine Arts, History, incredible hardships. He contrived to and Antiquity, has published the gain a subsistence by making a dye for eleventh volume of its memoirs; in the eye-brows. His accounts agree which is a well written article on the with what is already known of many Scarabæus of Egypt, by M. Palin, parts of Africa, so that there is no Swedish Minister at Constantinople. doubt of the veracity of his journal, and which is of great importance to

RUSSIA. the geography of that continent.

A work entitled Boreo-Orientalis et Captain Laing, of the African light Occidentalis Tartarorum lingue Polyinfantry regiment, has arrived in Eng. glotta is now in the press: it consists land from his travels into the country of a vocabulary of names, numbers, and of Soolima Looso, into which no Euro other principal words of thirty-three

1774......
1790......
1800......
1810..
1920......

different pations, which inhabit Euro

POLAND pean and Asiatic Tartary, Bulgaria, M. Asili Henrick has just established Kamschatka, &c. with maps of each at Okainon, near Warsaw, a manufackingdom, and astronomical observa tory of paper from straw. At present tions. Each vocabulary is preceded he manufactures only pasteboard and by a short description of the country coarse paper, but he purposes to exto which it refers. After which follows tend the manufactory, and has also a an archeological disquisition upon the plan for making a paper for roofs of origin of each nation, as well as a houses, which will be impervious to sketch of its religion, manners, and rain, and indistructible by fire. customs; also a description of its sea. ports, rivers, canals, and productions.

GERMANY. The plant, polygonum minus, abounds Hesse Darmstadt. As a fine in. in the deserts of the Ukraine. About the stance of a tolerant and Christian spirit, end of June they pluck up the roots, we may relate that the Doctor Leanwhich are covered with a worm that dre Van Ess, a Catholic priest and proinduratcs immediately it is exposed to fessor of Darmstadt, known for bis the air. The roots are sold for culinary translation of the Bible into Gerpurposes, and the worms being im man, has just published, at a low price, mersed in water and alum, dye the several volumes of the excellent diswater of the finest crimson.

The

courses of Doctor Reinhard, a Luthe. Cossac women use it for dying their ran preacher at Dresden, as well as thread, and the Russian merchants a complete collection of the prayers of purchase it as a rouge for ladies. The Reinhard. For these and similar good Polish and Armenian Jews sell it to the works he has been vituperated in the Turks, who use it to dye clothes, and Catholic Journal of Strasburgh, but the to colour the tails and manes of their theological faculties of Breslaw, Bonne horses, as well as to dye their own and Tubingen, have bestowed their, hair, beards and nails. These worms applause upon this conduct. are called Coccus Polonorum. From Halle -Mr. Pbilip Rung, lecturer an experiment made at Moscow it ap on the English language to the Unipears that a poupd of these worms, versity of Halle, died on the 11th of which cost only one rouble, yields as February last, aged 70. Among his much dye as half a pound of coebi many esteemed works was his Dictionpeal,

ary of Jews and Jewesses distinguished The Golovnin and Baranof, vessels by their literature, and comprehending fitted out by the Russian American the Patriarchs, the Prophets, and the Company to explore the N.W. Coast of must celebrated Rabbids. This Dic America, are on their return home, hav. tionary was published at Leipsick in ing discovered a large Island called 1817, and in 1820. Mr. Rung, who Mumirak, situated, according to their was an Englishman, published an Engcalculation, in lat. 59° 54' 57" N., and lish translation of a German play in long. 190° 17' 12" E.

brought out at Halle. The Synod of St. Petersburg has Mon. Andrè, of Stutgard, member of published an official report of the the Aulic Council, and editor of a population of the Empire in 1820. periodical collection of pieces called The births have been 827,729 males, Hesperus, has just offered a prize of 742,670 females, making 1,570,399; 100 ducats for the best Defence of the ibe deaths were 467,683 males, and Liberty of the Press as the Security of 449,997 females, in all 917,680; giving the Rights of Citizens. The question a surplus of births of 652,719. The to be determined on the 1st of January, births of 1820 have exceeded those of 1825. Communications upon the sub1819 by 48,265, and the deaths have ject are to be addressed to Mon. Andrè, decreased by 1,429; 243,029 of chil at Stutgard. dren (about one half of the total num The dome of Spires will soon be ornaber of that age) have died before reach- mented by a colossal statue of the Eming the age of five years. Among the peror Adolphus of Nassau, which is deaths in 1820, are the following ages, now completing by the celebrated viz.;-1 of 145, 4 of 135, 7 of 130, 14 sculptor Ohmacht of Strasburg. The of 125, 41 of 120, 78 of 115, 143 of Emperor is represented on his knees, 110,301 of 105, and 807 of 100 years. his hands joined in prayer, and his The numbers married in 1820 were eyes turned towards Heaven. Adol. 317,805 or less than in 1819 by 22470. phus was destitute of fortune, but born The population of Siberia is 1,604,495 of a noble family; he owed his eleva. souls, that of Kamschatka oply: 4,506. tion to bis sword, to his cousin the

PORTUGAL.

Arch-bishop of Mayence, and to the in Europe. The King has paid the hatred which the other Electors bore to price of their redemption, and has sent the imperious Albert, of Austria, the them to the University of Halle, where successor of Rodolph of Hapsburg. they are to be instrueted in European Adolphus, however, could not have languages, in order to teach their own. gained the crown but by the pecuniary assistancc of his cousin, and by his

NETHERLANDS. submitting to be paid by England for The learned Professor, Herman Tol. opposing Philippe-le-Bel of France. lius, who assisted in the education of The pride of Adolphus soon roused the reigning Sovereign of the Low against him several of the Electors, and, Countries, died at Leyden, the 29th of although assisted by his powerful April, 1822, aged 80 years. family, he was soon reduced to a few faithful companions at arms, and shortly after he fell by the hand of his rival at The government have just invited the battle of Gelheim, near Worms. into Portugal M. Bourg, a Swede, His ashes, having been deposited in the who has distinguished himself by his Cathedral of Spires, were fated to be method of instracting the deaf and mixed with those of his enemy by the dumb. M. Bourg is to establish, at subscquent destruction of that building Lisbon, two institutions, one for the The reigning Duke of Nassau, being a deaf and dumb, and the other for the descendant of Adolphus, has obtained blind. from the King of Bavaria permission

ITALY. to erect the statue upon the dome of The last publication of the Court Spires, where his first funeral monument Almanack at Rome makes the number had been erected.

of Cardivals now living to be 44. The M. Thienemann has just published, number of congregations at Rome, of at Munic, an embellished description which that of the Inquisition is the first, of the Lithographic drawings of the is 26. Those of the Patriarcbs, ArchRoyal Gallery of Painting at Munic. bishops, and Bishops, (exclusive of This gallery consists of eight Jarge those in partibus infidelium ) amount to halls, and contains many of the prin. 650. There are 1450 Priests, 1532 cipal works of the most distinguished Monks, 1464 Nuns, and 332 Lystrucmasters.

tors. In 1821, the population of Rome, The Mosaic pavement found in 1815 exclusive of the Jews, amounted to among the ruins of the ancient city of 146,000. Suvavia, near Saltsburgh, has been re The Convent of the Capucbins of the moved, for the purpose of cleaning it, to Redeemer at Venice, and the order of Schonbrun. The four divisions of it the Philippines at Chioggio, have been represent the destruction of the Mino- re-established during the last year. At tanr by Theseus.

Toulouse they have re-established the There has been discovered on the Holy Brotherhoods of the Black and banks of the Necker, near Stutgard, Grey Friars. in a stratum of clay, some bones of a On the 10th of March last, the Pope prodigious size, which are supposed to created ten cardinals, all of them Itahave been those of a mammoth. lians. The oldest was Luigi Pandolk,

The fine royal domain of Schleishem born on the 6th September, 1751; and is to be converted into a School of Agri- the youngest was Carlo Odescalchi, culture. The pupils are to be divided born on the 5th of March, 1785. into three classes, which will be thus Academical Society of Saroy.-Sevedisposed of by a decree of the King: ral individuals, by permission of the the first class will comprehend those government, have associated under the destined to subaltern employments, or above title, and have since increased professions relative to agricolture; the the number of their members, and bave second, those who desire to obtain in- elected several correspondents. Several formation as to the arts connected with useful papers had already been proagriculture ; and the third will be duced, when the events of March, formed of those, who, principally at 1821, led to the suspension of the estatending to theory, wish to make them blishment. In the middle of last year selves deeply acquainted with the the government authorized the Society auxiliary sciences.

to meet again under its original laws. A Dutchman, named Loothausen, From the zeal and intelligence of its carried with him, and exhibited to the members it is to be hoped, that the public for money, two young Chinese, Society will dissipate those prejudices, who had no other means of subsistence which at present totally prevent the

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