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retires. The mode of election now a cardinal who is not agreeable to in use is by secret ballot. Two them; and when once he is excluded chalices stand on a long table in from the Pontificate, he never rethe Chapel of Sixtus, into which turns to it. There are only three the cardinals deposit their bulletins, crowns (the Emperor, the Kings of containing the name of the indivi. France and Spain) who have a right dual for whom they vote. One of to exclude. Thus, the cardinal, who the scrutators reads it aloud, whilst is commissioned to accomplish the two others mark the number of secret object of any crown, makes votes for each individual, by the a protest in the name of his master, side of his name, on the large tablet that he has an objection to such a where all those of the cardinals are cardinal, on account of being wellinscribed. Whoever obtains two- informed that he is not friendly to thirds of the votes present is cano his dominions; but it is to be obnically elected. His name is im- served that each crown can only exmediately proclaimed aload, and the clude one person. But it is here cardinals sitting on his right and that the Roman poliey makes use of left rise and quit their places. His all its ingenuity. For example, as consent is asked, and when it is soon as a faction perceives that such given, the cardinals, beginning by or such a power wishes to exclude the oldest, perform the first “adora an individual, it is sure to propose tion;" that is to say, kiss his foot, another person, who it knows is not and then his hand. The first Car- agreeable to that crown, and whom dinal Deacon announces the election it is certain that crown will exclude, to the people, and the artillery of which generally is the case ; after the Castle of St. Angelo and the having thus played this trick upon bells of the city spread the news those who are in the interest of that afar. The people are then allowed power, it returns to the former into break into the conclave, and to dividual whom that power cannot carry off all they can.
exclude, because it has already ex. There are a multitude of circum. ercised its privileges. The person stances which promote or prevent who is proposed cannot be in cir. the election of such and such a per- cumstances which are in themselves son as Pope. In order to understand reasons for exclusion. These reathis matter, it is necessary to know sons, amongst others, are—first to that the sacred college is divided be under fifty-five years of age; into factions, and there are as many secondly, to be a prince by birth, or factions as as there are cardinals of to be allied to a reigning house, lest different Papal reigns, of which the such a Pope should dismember the cardinal-nephew of each pontificate patrimony of St. Peter in order to is the leader.
invest some member of his family The Emperor, the Kings of France with it, and that he should not and Spain, and several other sove abandon that neutrality which a comreign powers, have also their fac mon father should observe to all tions. They are composed of cardi. Christian Princes; and finally, that nals who are their natural-born he should not treat the cardinals subjects. The leaders of those fac. with too much hauteur; thirdly, his tions are such persons as the king having been promoted to the degree pleases to nominate, in order to ac of cardinal, at the nomination of complish his object.
some crown, especially that of Generally the leaders of the fac- France and Spain; or his being a tion are assured of the votes of those natural-born subject of either of who depend upon them: and it is these powers, lest gratitude or nasufficient that two of three leaders tional attachment should render him of factions, not very numerous, too devoted to the interests of one should agree, in order to be masters or other of these powers. This is of the election, provided they make the reason why the cardinals are up two-thirds of the votes. 'Hence extremely circumspect, and proit is that the sovereigns who have foundly dissemble their real intenbeen mentioned, and who take a tions, lest they should be suspected considerable part in the election of of favouring one crown to the prea Pope, on account of the vicinity judice of another. of their states, never fail to exclude
MEMOIR OF SIR JOHN FLEMING LEICESTER, BART.
(Continued from page 104.) After this happy revolution a the thunders of their eloquence ; number of the nobility and gentry, and the heroes who bore the Briwho, probably, would have made tish banner over land and sea, victhe attempt many years before buttoriously through the 'world, grew that they des paired of being able to ap alike in this one lamentable lead the times, met to second those
They were ready to lay boneficial movements.; and, in 1805, down their lives for the superiority amply attoned for past coldness and of Englishmen in every other art neglect, and merited the thanks of and science of war and peace, but, their country by founding that pa- in the art of historical painting, they triotic body the British Institution, made it a merit to neglect or decry which has since so largely contri- the genius' of their countrymen! buted to the advancement of the Even Burke, Fox, and all the other British school.
encomiasts and personal friends of The public-spirited Institution the first President, were; by a strange last-mentioned is adverted to, in inconsistency, contented to employ the preceding passage, before its him to paint their portraits or those due place in these memoirs, accord- of their families, without ever dreaming to the date of its formation, to ing of affording him an opportunity shew in its true light the Anti-Bri- to display his powers in historical tish feeling of the preceding period. or' poetical painting, that field in The time now adverted to com which they were pleased to honour menced many years before the him with a rank as high as the founding of the British Institution, greatest masters of the most reand continued until checked by Sir nowned ages. This inconsistency, John Leicester's example. Malone, which is merely mentioned as a feaBurke, Northcoté, and Farrington, tare of the British character in the agree in stating the fact, that Sir eighteenth century, is more worthy Joshua Reynolds was personally of remark, because neither the want known to, and even intimate with, of money nor the prices of Sir almost all the eminent men of the Joshua's works could have been the age. That master of grace and cause of so strange a contradiction elegance flourished in the midst of between the words and actions of the great, and enjoyed as high a his eulogists. Some of his most patronage and popularity as any charming fancy pictures were priced painter ever enjoyed in his own by that great artist at no more country. His knowledge of the than from 100 to 125 or 150 guineas, world was equal to his professional and for some of his historical efforts skill. The nobility and gentry ex he was not paid more than 300 tolled his genius as higbly as Burke, guineas. One or two solitary inFox, and all the other leading cha- stances, in forty years, of a commisracters who spoke and wrote of Sir sion given to him for a fancy or Joshua, as the equal of Michael historical picture do not disprove Angelo, Raphael, Titian, Correg- the general neglect of his great gio, and their celebrated contem- friends. Sir Joshua did not live to poraries. Yet such was the force finish the whole-length portrait of of that prejudice, which entrenched Sir John Leicester, which he had the spirit of the age against British began, or to gratify the Baronet by historical painting, that the best undertaking an historical picture and bravest men, the most endowed for him. by nature, the most enlightened and · Although the most vigorous and invigorated by education, were its enlightened minds were comparaslaves. The most distinguished tively cold and clouded on this delipersonages in the Church and State; cate subject, they were not inter-, the inspired elect, who shook the ested in the continuance of darkness pulpit, the senate, and the bar, with in the country, and were too liberal Eur. Mag. Sept. 1823,
to interfere with the opinions of I extract the following passage others : but certain persons of a from a tract published more than far more numerous class were not twenty years ago.
Sir John Lei. contented with endeavouring to cester is the only English gentleshew their taste, by reviling the man who has the manliness and works of the British artists in the public spirit to bear up against the annual exhibitions of the Royal bad taste and Anti-British feeling Academy: They also endeavoured of the amateurs in this country, by to depreciate the taste of any gen. forming a collection of paintings tleman who ventured to manifest a exclusively produced by English more favourable opinion of their artists. The circumstance is altocountrymen. There are, in every gether so full in the teeth of fashion walk of life, numbers who seek to and established practice, that one keep their own want of proper feel bears this Baronet's name ing and neglect of duty in coun- tioned with as much surprise and tenance, by forming an authorita- opposition as if he was about to tive and busy sort of combination effect a mighty resolution in the to discourage the advance of libera- moral world. 'He has done much lity and improvement: the mem- for the living painters by having bers of these bodies lie in ambush, made a beginning, and his examand make their attacks with slander, ple will do more, when it is fol. scoffing, and ridicule ; weapons as lowed. At present I know of no contemptible as their motives, but one nobleman or gentleman who sufficiently powerful, with the aid of has adopted the same truly British fashion, to exercise a mighty influ: principle. Sir John has the honour ence in society. Sir John Leicester of being the first Englishman of had courage to do what few dare to rank who has attempted to lead his attempt, that is, to be the first Eng- contemporaries from the disgraceful lish gentleman of rank and fortune prejudice against native genius, and in facing a confederacy of this for- to create a national spirit in England midable nature. As an extreme on for the encouragement of the British the right side is sometimes peces, school."-(Page 21.“ Thoughts on sary to counteract anextreme against the best means of checking the prethe public interest, be judiciously judices against British works of art. set up the sound principle of col- 'Respectfully addressed to the Hon. lecting the best works of the British and Rev. Richard Byron, Houghartists exclusively, in opposition ton, Durham: by William Carey, to the prevailing bad habit of ex for gratuitous distribution.” York, clusively collecting the works of the 1801.) foreign old masters. In this laud In the Life of Opie, published by able attempt he left other gentle- bis widow in 1807, the following men to follow their own choice, passage throws a light upon the without any reflection or interfere state of Anti-British prejudices ence from him. The libels which among those who were then collectwere uttered upon his good sense, ing pictures. Mrs. Opie, with a and the satirical efforts to sneer at warm and delicate sense of Sir his taste, only stimulated him to John's patriotism, refers to the fresh exertions. As his collection' head of " Miranda," painted by her increased in number and variety, the husband, and purchased by the correctness of his judgment, and the Baronet. “ I shonld regret that it power of the British pencil, forced was the property of any one but an unwilling approbation from those myself, did I not know that Mr. who had, at first, hoped to laugh him Opie rejoiced in its destination, and out of his public spirit. In a few were l not assured of its being years the effects of his example was placed in that rarest of Jituations, a visible, and the public opinion de- gallery consisting chiefly of modern clared loudly in his favour. The art, doing honour to the genius press took the right side, and the
who painted, and the amateur who daily, weekly, and monthly publica- admired it." -The patriotic examtions bore ample evidence of the ple of Sir John Leicester had so general feeling
far produced a good effect as to ob
tain admission for a few English fessional distinction and a public pictures into some established col recommendation. The restricted lilections of paintings by the old mits of this publication forbid a foreign masters : but “a gallery merited notice of the several picconsisting chiefly of modern art" tures : the names of the painters was still, in 1807, the “ rarest of will shew that particular remarks situations" in which a picture by a would occupy a volume. There are popular British artist could be performances by Northcote, Hoppplaced. Mrs. Opie, herself, had pro ner, Calcott, Shee, Owen, Sir Wm. bably not then seen Sir John's collec- Beechy, Collins, Howard, Gainstion, or she would have known that borough, Devis, Hilton, Vincent, it was unique, composed not chiefly Atkinson, B. Barker, Coates, Barbut altogether of modern art, that ret, Sir Francis Bourgeois, Garrard, is, exclusively of select pictures by Ibbetson, Harlow, and some other the best English artists.
artists. The narrow principle of Courage, perseverance, and good selecting only one specimen by each taste have wrought wonders. Sir master has been avoided. There John, by a munificent expenditure are five pictures by Sir Joshua Rey. from year to year, has succeeded in nolds, six by Turner, ten by Northdrawing together in one view the cote, and two or three each by many flower of the British school, that more of the artists, in this collecsuperb collection, which has been tion. "The number of paintings befor some years a boasted ornament ing far too many to be hung up in of the British capital, and has con the Hill-street Gallery, a portion of tributed so largely to spread the them are displayed in the superb fame of the British pencil on the mansion at Tabley. Engravings Continent. His gallery contains have been executed, by able artists, splendid specimens by three succes. from so many of the subjects, and sive Presidents of the Royal Aca: they have been all so frequently the demy, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Benja. theme of critical description in the min West, and Sir Thomas Law. periodical journals, that their merits The other pictures are as
are well known in every part of judiciously selected from the best England. works of the respective artists. During the long continuance of Turner, the giant of modern land- the late war the printsellers being scape-painting, is there seen in his shut out from the markets on the glory. Wilson never painted a finer continent, the British line-engravers picture than his magnificent “View laboured under great discourageon the Arno." Collins's “ Fisher ments. Sir John Leicester, to preBoys on the Sea-shore at sun rise," vent the utter depression of that in truth of local colouring and fine important branch of the arts, em sentiment of nature, vies with any ployed his influence in founding production of the most celebrated the Calcographic Society. His apFlemish painters. Loutherbourgh's plication to the Duke of Gloucester
Avalanche" is a scene of sublimity was successful, and he introduced and terror represented with great a deputation of able engravers to poetical power. Altliough that ar his Royal Highness, who, with his tist was a foreigner by birth he had usual graciousness and zeal for the been naturalised by a residence of promotion of every proposal for the fifty years in England, and by his public good, warmly co-operated admission to the honourable rank with him in forming a plan for that of a Royal Academician in London. Institution, and on the 16th of Romney's playful composition of May, 1810, the regulations, which “ Titania, Puck, and the Change- formed its constitution, were adoptling," is one of the most delightful ed at the Clarendon Hotel. A comeffusions of his fancy. Fuseli's mittee of managers was appointed, " Puck, or Robin Good Fellow,” is consisting of the Duke of Gloucester, also one of the most happy flights the Marquis of Stafford, the Marof that artist's fearless imagination. quis of Douglas and Clydesdale, To have a picture in this select col- the Earl of Dartmouth, Sir John Jection is esteemed a mark of pro- Fleming Leicester, Bart., Sir Mark
Sykes, Bart., Sir Abraham Hume, would accept of, and censured as Bart., M.P., Sir T. Barnard, Wm. an injudicious competition with the Smith, Esq. M.P., S. Whitbread, ancients, which could not but be Esq. M.P., J. P. Anderdon, Esq. prejudicial to the English artists. and Thomas Hope, Esq. The first The trial proved that he was correct. projector, Sir John Leicester, was His Gallery was thronged by the appointed Treasurer, and several rank, fashion, and talents of the thousand pounds were collected, country, and the view of the pictures but when the fairest prospects of excited an enthusiasm of which it benefit opened on the Society a is impossible to form a conception difference among the professional from report. The force and splenmembers took place, which pro- dour of the British school flashed duced violent heats. Sir John Lei. conviction on the public mind, and eester had several meetings with that truly British Exhibition opened his Royal Highness to terminate an era of triumph to native genius, those jealousies, but, unfortunately, which caused much astonishment their mediation was fruitless, a re upon the continent, and will ever union was not to be effected; the be remembered with gratitude by money was returned to the sub the British artists. scribers, and the Society was dis When Sir John was making these solved.
powerful and efficacious exertions, A few years after the founding of artists, literary men, and the press, the British Institution, in 1805, the were warm in applauding his pubMarquess of Stafford and the Earl lic spirit. Northcote, the Royal of Grosvenor, to contribute in dif- Academician, the pupil and biofusing a taste for fine works of art, grapher of Sir Joshua Reynolds, in had publicly exhibited their pic- å letter to the writer of these metures by the old masters, on free moirs mentioned the good effect tickets of admission to their respec- produced by the opening of the tive Galleries. This pablic-spirited Hill-street Gallery, in very strong idea was first suggested by Mr. Shee, terms, and added these remarks :the Royal Academician, in one of “Long as I have had the honour of his very valuable publications. The knowing Sir John Leicester I have British Institution, by having ex every year had new reasons to adhibited the works of a few deceased mire the excellence of his taste, and British artists, had contributed to his sincere desire to bring the works dissipate prejudice; but still the of the English artists into favourand principle of exclusively collecting popularity. Having had bitter exthe best works of the English mag perience of the prejudices against ters, to correct the long-established English painting, I own I never exbad practice of exclusively collect- pected to see an Exhibition of Eng. ing old foreign pictures, required to fish pictures, opened for the free be enforced by some additional sup- admission of the public, in the house port: no English gentleman ho- of an English gentlemen. He has noured the artists of his own coun never spared his word, his influence try with a public exhibition in his or his fortune, to produce a revolu. mansion, and this neglect produced tion in our favour. There is no an unfavourable impression of their mark of public hononr and gratiinferiority upon the minds of many. 'tude to which he is not entitled. I It was clear that so long as the would say more, but that I know modern English masters were ex your opinion of his merits is as cluded from an equal display, they high as my own." One of the late must be sufferers by that disadvan- President West's letters to the writer tageous notion. Sir John Leicester of these memoirs, in 1819, contains here again took the lead, and the following observations :-"No opened his Gallery, in Hill-street, English gentlemanever did so much to the public, on tickets of free ad- for modern art as Sir John Leicester. mission, one day in each week, in He has left nothing undone that he April and May, 1818. When he could do to encourage and serve the first mentioned his intention it was English artists, and I could name ridiculed as an invitation which few many others who have only just