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tack; and in one of the corners of broad swords, cutlasses, and dagthe saloon, decorated with a large gers. What, at that moment, was ticket announcing its dignity in the the heir of France, with his warlike catalogue and the name of the won steeds, and the roaring of his canderful inventor, a tea-service, of ma non, and the shouts of the victors, terials not liable to be broken. This compared with this philanthropist service, which consists of only a tea- of pots, pans, and kettles? “In my caddie and twelve egg cups, is made mind's eye," as Sbakspeare has it, of lead, varnished and painted, and “they were both before me;” the is offered at the very reasonable destroyer and the preserver. There price of one hundred francs, or at stood the proud warrior flushed with the present rate of exchange some- victory, his eye flashing vengeance thing less than four English guineas. and desolation. Here the mild and In England the same thing, if in- benevolent philanthropist, distrideed any manufacturer would think buting life and health to the multiit worth his while to make it, would tude. Why are the delightful reve. cost a few shillings. I saw many ries and visions of our happiest moFrenchmen, however, very complai- ments to be destroyed ? Why, in santly admiring the invention as one such a dream of bliss, was I to be of real economy in the end, but just awakened to the worldly calculaobserving that it was un peu cher in tions of man, and a cool mental disthe purchase. In no part of this quisition on the comparative merits saloon was a single tool or instrum of the different methods of turning an ment of new invention which is iron saucepan? I had a two gallon really an improvement; not even a saucepan in my hand, shining in all hand-saw upon the English princi. the brightness of a full-grown moon. ple is exhibited, although it is no I might have fancied it a moon, torious that the saws used by the and then my reverie would have French carpenters perform only half been complete, but my evil genius, the service, and require twice the and a cursed spirit of nationality, labour of the English ; one of the which but too frequently possesses new things in this place is, a collec- me, and induces me to donbt the tion of saucepans announced in the reality of every blessing which is prospectus, which is given by the not English, induced me to quesinventor as the best and bitherto tion the inventor on the process of unknown method of protecting all his life-preserving apparatus. There articles of cookery from imbibing was benevolence, pure benevolence injurious qualities from the utensils in his answers, but the secret was of in which they are prepared. Hav- course a secret; after beating about ing read Mrs. Glasse, and that pro. the bush, however, for an hour, and found philosopher and physician, pretending to know much more Dr. Kitchena, and having also dip- about the matter than I really did, ped into the mysteries and revela. I at length discovered that this ima tions of that wonderful chemist, the portant discovery, this new invenauthor of “ Death in the Pot," I tion which had been thought worthy had become a little nervous on the of Exhibition at the Louvre by a score of my living, and therefore Royal Committee of Examination, turned with much real interest to was neither more nor less than a this “ new and hitherto undisco- double tinned saucepan. vered method of securing mankind On leaving the room appropriated from poison.” Judge, reader, what to articles of hardware, &c. we I must have felt when I took into ascend the staircase, and enter a my hand one of these life-saving saloon in which are fitted up, with pots; what must have been my sen- much neatness, a great number of sations of gratitude towards the places containing shawls, woollen philanthropic inventor. Just at drapery, laces, linen, and other arthat time, too, I thought of Spain. ticles in the same way. . In order to and the war, of the Duke d'Angou- judge of the improvement in the leme, and his hosts destroying the various manufactures of which lives of radicals and revolutionists. these articles are specimens, a man I saw those machines of death; mor should be well acquainted with the tars, and culverins, and swivels, art, which I do not pretend to be.

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According to my view of the matter, Agriculture has been too much dethe Cashmere shawls, marked at 1500 pressed, and there is too little spirit francs each, were very dear, and I in France, speaking in a general saw nothing in the room which is sense, to give any reasonable prosnot publicly exposed in the shops in pect of seeing such a cultivation of Cheapside and Oxford-street. With the growth of wool from crossing respect to the shawls, however, if I the breeds, &c. as would place am to pronounce an opinion from France, for at least fifty years to mere complaisance and politeness come, upon a footing with Great towards others, with a deference at Britain." In articles manufactured the same time towards public opi.

from fine Merino wool the French nion, which I have never been re are evidently our superiors, but they markable for paying when in oppo are much dearer than similar artisition to the evidence of my senses,

cles would be in England if they but which, nevertheless, it is proper were there general. There are many I am told that I should begin to specimens in the Louvre for ladies' shew, even though I may not feel it, dresses, which are really beautiful, I must confess that they are proba but the prices are from forty to fifty bly very beautiful and very excel francs per yard, making a dress lent, since a great number of very amount to more than five pounds well dressed persons, and who were sterling. It is a difficult thing to of course judges of the matter, since make comparisons between two they hesitated not to express them

countries in articles for which each selves very decidedly and loudly is so exclusively famous. Take, for, pronounced them to be magnificent instance, our poplins; a poplin at and incomparable; one of them add ten shillings per yard, which is of ing, with 'much emphasis, voyez si course of very fine quality, is supel'angleterre peut produire des pa rior to the best that they have here reils. Of the woollen cloths, I must at eighteen or twenty francs per say, that many of them are very yard." It is the same with our musbeautiful, and, considering the fine lins, and with many other of our Dess of the quality, cheap. There, fine articles; but the difference is are black cloths of superior texture still more perceptible when we de-, and rich colour at fifty to sixty scend to articles of ordinary use, francs per yard, similar to which is either in linen or cotton. Calicoes, not to be obtained in England at for instance, which in London may less than five pounds per yard ; butbe purchased at eightpence per yard, on the other hand, I consider that would here cost twenty-six sous, our black cloths at twenty-eight, or although at this moment they are twenty-nine shillings per yard, are nearly forty per cent. lower than very superior to the French cloths they were a few years ago, in conseof the same quality at forty francs. quence of the great depression of It is to be remembered, however, manufactured property. In cotton that the French yard is longer than handkerchiefs we get an article very ours, which brings things nearly good and pretty at about one shilequal. Perhaps if the use of very ling and sixpence to one shilling fine black cloth were to be general and ninepence; here cotton handin Eugland, it would be manufac- kerchiefs, which are sold as low as tured at as cheap or even at a three francs, are very common.cheaper rate than the French, since Even in silks I do not hesitate to we have so many advantages of ma assert, that the French are very chinery; the only thing in favour little, if at all superior to the Engof France is the lowness of wages, lish ; no good silk can be purchased but this is much more than counter here at less than seven or eight balanced by the superiority which francs per yard; and after allowing we derive from our engines; and it the difference of measure it will be is a well-known fact, that for so no falsehood to say, that this is not much of the wool that enters into ten percent. under the London the manufactory of cloth as is native price. Then, if we come to articles product, the English have a supe- of mixed manufacture, the beautiful riority, which may be estimated at shawls, which are manufactured in the very lowest at twenty per cent. England, from silk and cotton or Eur. Mag. Sept. 1823.

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worsted, or other materials, are themselves, to dread a successful much cheaper than similar produc- rivalry ; but it is worthy of remark, tions in Paris; the advantage in that there is little of improvement favour of England may be stated at in the patterns or execution. It has thirty per cent. without at all offend- long_been matter of surprise that ing against truth. In dimities there the French porcelain should conis nothing at the Exhibition which tinue to be so superior to the English, can be at all compared with those of particularly as England is said to England, either for price or for contain the primary substance nequality ; and in cotton stockings at cessary for the manufacture, and least twenty per cent. difference may French artists are to be had at a be set down in favour of our own very low rate for the decorative part country. It is not to be denied, of the preparation, which is so much however, that some of the fine linen admired. "Persons who understand in France is very good, and perhaps more of the subject than I do may a little cheaper than with us; but, on probably afford you some informathe other hand, they have nothing tion, but it may be as well to caufor general wear so cheap or so good tion the public against the old as the English. It would be very answer, “There is quite as good in curious, and, indeed, I think useful, this country." It is this spirit of if some person, partially acquainted prejudice and foolish pride which with these things, were to devote a' has kept France so long in the back few days to an examination of the ground as to some manufactures, articles manufactured from wool, which they might with care have cotton, and linen, and furnish the imitated from the English; and, alpublic with a faithful estimate of though not to the same extent, the the comparative improvement of the feeling exists frequently amongst two countries. Such a proceeding many of my own countrymen, whose might be attended with advantage education and habits ought to have to the government and to the manu. protected them from a prejudice facturers.

which is destructive to the interests . In the saloon where the articles of a commercial country. Wedgeabove alluded to are exposed there are wood has probably come nearer to two or three exhibitions of hats, but the French porcelain than any Eng. nothing amongst them denotes much lish manufacturer; but there is still improvement in the manufacture of a vast difference between that which those articles. Generally speaking, he produces and the French. The the French are just where they were white Wedgewood ware, in imitafifty years ago as to hats; and

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tion of French white porcelain, has haps there is no nation on the Con not the chaste transparency and detinent where they are so badly made. licate whiteness of the latter, and it In the whole of Paris there are only is, besides, less useful under the two hatters who make decent hats, hands of an artist, as he can never which are sold at twenty-nine and rely with certainty upon the action thirty francs each. These men, of the colours during the process of however, are far from rich, for bat baking. Whilst England continues improvement is not encouraged here superior to France in all the essential as in England.

manufactures, few men will, perhaps, Passing from the wooller drapery be found to insist with much fervor and hats, we proceed to a saloon upon the necessity of her being also devoted to luxury and taste. On superior in the ornaments and luxuevery side, and at every turning, ries of mankind; but it should be splendid candalabras, services of remembered, that a commercial couoporcelain and crystal, jewellery, try can nerer be too superior to her and plated articles meet the sight. neighbours in any of the articles, I should not be credited if I were to which bring trade and reputation to say that the porcelain and crystal the national character. are other than beautiful. France The most beautiful articles in the has been too long celebrated for Exhibition are several specimens these objects, which are among the of mahogany and other furniture. few in which they carry on a trade Oakley, and the most celebrated with other countries profitably to upholsterers and cabinet-makers,

excellent as the articles which they reputation to lose, and who are - manufacture may be, are completely comparatively few in number. I eclipsed by some of the Parisians. still, however, consider that the Angry at the success with which the French law, prohibiting the manu-English have imitated the French facture of gold articles under à polish for mahogany furniture, so certain standard, is very excellent. long a valuable secret in France, Here we purchase with safety ; in the Parisians have now introduced England only upon the reputation an entire new mode of polishing, and assurance of the jeweller. If which is called plaque, and is to I purchase a gold chain in Paris, I wood precisely what plating is to inquire the price of the gold apart metal. The wood, by some process from the manufacture, and the ven-of which I am ignorant, is made to der is bound to give me a true resemble marble, and has all the answer. Thus I know what I am beauty of that article with much of paying for the intrinsic material, its solidity. I am even assured by and its preparation; and at any persons who have made trial of the time the old gold will, according to new mode that, with the exception the standard stated, call for its of the actual strength of marble, market value. Foreign governments it has no qualities superior to the are much more rigid in this respect imitation, upon which water may be than the English; but no where is spilled without staining, and the it carried to a greater extent than in same attempts made to scratch it Holland. There, in order to diswithout success, as would be resisted courage as much as possible (withby marble. But it is not only in out an absolute decree of prohibithe polish that French furniture is tion, which would be disgraceful) improved ; its appearance is con the importation of articles manusiderably altered for the better; the factured from inferior gold, a duty form in which they make their arti- is levied, which is higher or lower cles being a happy medium between according the quantity of alloy in the French and English style.-- the article. An Englishman, a few Amongst the articles exhibited at the months ago, made a purchase of Louvre are two arm-chairs, one of gold watches in Paris, which he: which is of mahogany, inlaid with took to Amsterdam on speculation. pearl. I shall not attempt a de- On arriving there his property was scription of this splendid ornament, taken to the Assay-office, where it because justice cannot be done to was subjected to the usual trial, and the manufacturer without personal found to be manufactured from gold inspection. It has all the elegance at the Swiss standard, which had and grandeur of a throne, with the been smuggled into Paris. In conlightness and neatness of a common sequence of this circumstance, of drawing - room chair. The cost, which the Englishman was ignohowever, from the nicety of execu- rant, he having purchased the tion rather than the expensive na watches at the Paris price, he had ture of the materials, must have been duties to pay of such an enormous considerable.

amount, that, after getting rid of •: The articles of jewellery are not his goods at the best market in very numerous, and upon the whole Amsterdam, he was a loser of more they are infinitely inferior to some than thirty per cent., besides the exof English manufacture. The penses of his journey. The French French jewellers, for many years, government, aware of the extent to enjoyed an exclusive reputation for which the contraband trade in their jewellery, whilst the English watches, between Paris and Geneva, could boast of nothing but strength' has been carried, have very wisely in their manufactures. Things are adopted precautions which render now quite different. There are han. the commerce more difficult, and, dreds of English jewellers who therefore, protect the public. work as 'neatly, and with more so. Amongst the jewellery articles in lidity than the French; and the the Louvre there a few imitations complaints at one time so general of of precious stones of recent invenbad gold can now only be directed tion, but they are inferior to articles against manufacturers who have no of the same kind in England. A

few years ago a jeweller in the The hull is of gold, the candons are Palais Royal had, however, suo of silver, and the deck of the highceeded so far in imitating the dia- est polished steel. The masts and mond as to venture the sale of bis rigging are of gold and silver interfalse stones in the wholesale market mingled with pearls, for pullies and amongst regular dealers in dia- blocks; the sails are of silver, renmonds. As he acted with prudence, dered beautifully transparent, and and took care to offer his articles bent before the wind. The many only so far under price as would facture of this article must have induce a purchaser to speculate taken at least six months, and the upon the implied want of cash of materials also are of no slight value. the vender, be had carried on trade On leaving the saloon in which to an extraordinary ainount; no less, these curiosities and elegancies are it is said, than two millions of shewn, we enter the salon des mathefrancs before the fraud was dis 'matiques, which, to a contemplative covered. When the cheat was ex mind, is of all the most worthy of posed he had still the presumption attention; here are a great number to insist upon these stones being of mathematical clocks, and some real, and defended an action for the apparatus of a curious nature; but recovery of the money paid by a orreries and planetariums are the merchant for a tiara of these pretend- chief objects of attraction. In one ed diamonds On the trial more than part is a planetarium, which, when twenty dealers in the article were in action, would require a room for called, who gave different opinions, its exhibition of more than sixty 80'admirably had the inventor suc feet square ; and at another, one in ceeded in his imitation. By order a clock, beautifully made, which of the judge, one of the false dia- does not occupy the space of a commonds was ordered to be broken, mon sized saucer. It is gratifying and then only was the real state of to see things of this nature so exhithe case clear enough for a decision, bited to the public, as the circumwhich was of course against the stance is calculated to instil a taste vender. From that period imita for the study of astronomy, which tion stones made upon the same is very much wanted. In England, principle are only allowed to be thanks to the spirit of the age, and sold, with a full explanation of the number of transparent orreries their being unreal; but their re which have been shewn round the semblance to the real diamond has country, there are comparatively much damped the market.

few persons ignorant of the first Two of the most curious and beau principles of this delightful and netiful articles in the Exhibition are a cessary science, but in France it is drawing.room, in spun glass, or speaking more favourably of the inwhat is here called fil de verre (glass tellectual endowments of the people thread) and the model of a three than they merit to say, that one masted-ship in steel, gold, and sil- only in 20,000 knows any thing

The first-mentioned article is about astronomy. This is not to be of extraordinary manufacture. In wondered at when we consider that size it is about two feet square. no attempt has been made by perThe interior of the drawing-room is sons in power to inculcate this all shewn; on a glass table in the knowledge; on the contrary, indeed, centre is a vase filled with flowers; the very essence of the government is on the chimney-piece are a dial and opposed to its progress. Here every a set of ornaments; twelve arm- thing is in the hands of the priestchairs in glass stand round the hood, who sedulously, contrive to room, and in one part is a fine por- monopolize all knowledge for them. trait of the reigning Monarch. In selves, and their fellow-labourers in this manufacture, I may say, that the art of rendering the bulk of the the French are unrivalled. It is people slaves in body and in intelonly a pity that so much ingenuity lect. A few good transparent orreand industry should be bestowed to ries, like that which was exhibited so little purpose as it respects any use at the English Opera House, in to which the article could be applied. London, and a few lecturers, like The model of a ship is superb. Bartley, would do much to enlighten

ver.

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