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the people, and expose in all its de government of the Bourbons, by formity the atrocious policy of the whom he is oppressed, debased and priesthood. I have resided many persecuted. years in France without having once The last saloon is that of models, seen a transparent orrery in a public but by the time I had entered it i Exhibition, and I fear I may be many was so much fatigued, that I had more years here without seeing one ; not time to bestow much attention for no sooner is any thing, in the upon the objects which it contained. way of civil, religious, or political I will pay another visit to it, and if improvement manifested, than the I find any thing in it worth noticing priests and their vagabond spies I will make it the subject of another pounce upon the offender, and de article. nounce him at once to the paternal

G.

SKETCHES OF POPULAR PREACHERS.

THE REV. EDWARD IRVING, M.A.

MINISTER OF THE CALEDONIAN CHURCH, CROSS-STREET, HATTON-GARDEN.

MR. IRVING's yoice is rich, full many instances ungraceful, is genetoned, and powerful; in level speak. rally redundant, and sometimes uning it does not appear endued with necessarily violent; during the first the variety which it really possesses; part of a discourse it would be adits lower tones are decidedly the visable for him almost to omit best; the transition to these from ture, for as he then usually confines the higher notes is extremely beau. himself to that part of his subject tiful, for it is done naturally, with which requires an unimpassioned out effort or affectation; the quiet delivery, it injures, rather than adds ipartificial pathos of these intona. to the effect, as the principal charm tions goes directly to the heart, and of action consists in its appearing when employed, as they frequently to be the consequence of an involun. are, in giving audible existence to tary burst of feeling ; he also freconceptions which illustrate or ad- quently suits the action to the word, vocate the milder charities of our which is a habit, to say the least of nature, and the gentler doctrines of it, in very bad taste; stamping with our religion, have the effect of pow. his foot, and distortion of counteerfully contributing to the success nance fall under the same censure.. of his eloquence. When delivering His general deportment is ani. sarcasm or irony, some of his lower mated, energetic, and impressive ; tones singularly resemble those of he appears completely absorbed by Kean when he expresses the same the subject he is discussing; he feelings.

abandons himself to the domination Mr. Irving's voice, when he is de- of the impulses which impel him; claiming with great vehemence, oc he resigns himself unresistingly to casionally becomes discordant; but the guidance of enthusiastic feeling. if an analogous inference may be This impassioned earnestness tends permitted, if the excellence which considerably to produce the rapt athe has attained in managing its sub tention which is paid to Mr. Irving's dued intonations may be considered discourses ; the ardour and vehea criterion by which to estimate his mence of the preacher indicate the capability of perfecting its higher intense interest which he takes in infexions, I am inclined to con the success of his mission, and they clude, that in the burst of indigna- simultaneously generate correspondtion, the taunt of contempt, in short, ing sensations in the breasts of his in all the sterner emotions, he is hearers. . In reading, Mr. Irving's able to modulate his voice accord- enunciation is deliberate and dising to the laws which true taste and tinct, and his emphasis correct, harmony imposc. His action is in while the deep unaffected solemnity ,

of his voice and manper renders. it a kind: of shadowy indistinctness impressire. His doctrines have been detrimental to, if not subversive of upon every occasion that I have perspicuity. heard bim strictly consonant with He is likewise sometimes guilty Scripture; when he confines him- of carrying his metaphors too far, self to deductions from the Bible and of mixing them; it is here that his inferences are always admissible; the pernicious results accruing from but when not derived from this the want of perspicuity I have alstandard, I regret to say, that he kuded to are peculiarly recognizable; advocates some opinions without, I obscurity almost annihilates the should presume, sufficiently exa- beauty of all figurative language, mining the grounds upon which which should be clear and definite, they are founded.

and its application instantaneously A blameable habit in which Mr. apparent to the mind it is addressed Irving indulges is, that he too fre- to. Mr. Irving's metaphors, on the quently repeats a sentence; if this contrary, are too often confused in was done seldom, and only once, it their arrangement, and are destiwould no doubt tend to increase the tute of that unity and simplicity of impressiveness of any thing suffici- design and execution so indispensiently important to justify its repe- ble to their perfection. He is also tition; but he sometimes iterates frequently censurable for his use of sentences which have no claim to words and phrases which are both this distinction, he does it several inelegant and obsolete, when, by times during the delivery of a single adopting those which have had sermon, and he often extends it to their right of currency stamped by three distinct repetitions.

their admission into the purest mo. Mr. Irving's style displays both dels of verbal excellence, he would faults and beauties ; it is occasion- acquire refinement and grace of exally obscure, which in the pulpit is pression without compromising ori. peculiarly objectionable, as the

the ginality and force. mind of the hearer, if it fails to re The whole of Mr. Irving's faults ceive the idea when first presented to are excesses; this remark is appli. it, has no other opportunity of ac- cable to the management of his quiring it. His senteuces are some voice, to his gesture, and to his times too long, and involved one with style; he possesses the natural qua. in the other, both of which have a lifications necessary to constitute a very destructive influence upon the preacher of no coinmop rank, but the clearness of his style. Another of erroneous operations of a vitiated his errors is, that he indulges in an taste, and a perverted judgment, unnecessary iteration of epithets concur to dim the lustre of inherent where one would be sufficient; he intellectual excellence. I am aware will employ several, without adding that many of Mr. Irving's faults of either to the force or beauty of the style are attributable to the necessentence. Diffuseness of thought sity which exists for him to compose and language is another of Mr. two discourses for every Sunday, Irving's besetting, sins; he multi- each of which occupies an hour and plies words when it is not essential, a half or very little less in delivery, and ramifies ideas into such a diver- and when to all this is added the sity of forms, that their pristine consideration of the time he is obbrilliance is dimmed, their original liged to devote to the private daties strength enfeebled; by this means of a Christian Minister, and to the he impedes the operation of his own acquirement of knowledge, he is intellect, and in a manner neutra-' possessed of a powerful apology for lizes its influential character. He inaccurate composition. 'Notwithis also blameable for not paying standing the faulty arrangement stricter attention to the connection and construction of many of Mr. and classification of his conceptions, Irving's sentences, still they conwhich are sometimes disjointed; and tain much to excite admiration; he instead of that regular concatena- has' an unlimited controul over tion of ideas, which suffers by the language ; this absolute command removal of its minutest part, he dis- of words completely prevents the plays an indefinite vagueness, and slightest approximation towards

tautology of expression. He com- by its strength and power to call bines words in a manner indicative into existence the loveliest forms of of talent; for a tame succession of the mind, becomes, by its facility of common-place phrases he substi- employment, the instrument of octutes those which have novelty and casionally vivifying incongruous vigour for their characteristics. masses of thought, which, though His métaphors and similes are often they contain the germ of beauty, are felicitously imagined, but it very nearly allied to extravagance, in rarely happens that his words do consequence of wanting that curb justice to his ideas; with him, to which a fine imagination imperiborrow one of his own beautiful ex ously and incessantly demands. pressions, “ All language is a pale Whenever Mr. Irving does submit reflection of thought, whose faint to this restraint its advantages are lustre imperfectly represents the instantaneously apparent ; his ideas brilliance of those conceptions which start into being, redolent with it attempts to embody.

beauty, and they will endure the The tone of Mr. Irving's mind is severe ordeal of analytical examibold, spirited, and independent; it nation. Mr. Irving is not an ivdois unshackled by the trammels of lent thinker, be tasks his intellect prejudice, and bows obedience only to the very utmost; he does not to the dictates of conscience, to the allow any one of its powers to relaws of God. He is fearless and un- main unemployed, but calls them daunted in the prosecution of bis forth into successive and vigorous duty, and pursues it regardless of exertion. the obstacles which may be thrown He is not trifling and superficial; in his way to interrupt his pro. or satisfied with skimming the surgress.

face of a subject, but endeavours There is a class of thinkers and and often succeeds in drawing from writers, who have the dread of do their depths the richest treasures of ing wrong so incessantly and vividly reflexion and of thought. He

posses. before them, that they never do ses a warmth of feeling which comright; they are oppressed and municates an indescribable charm eramped with a species of mental to his eloquence, but which is much cowardice, which' paralizes their easier to admire than to define; in the best efforts; to this class Mr. Ir same manner as bright hues of the ving is decidedly and determinately airy bow of Heaven are palpable opposed; he never sacrifices a prin- to the sight, and yet mock the most ciple at the shrine of interest or elaborate efforts of the painter to timidity; he unsparingly reproves' delineate them. It is when advocatvice in all its ramifications, and ex- ing the nobler sympathies of our poses error in all its disguises and nature, such as devotion and benedelusions. This lofty independence volence, that this warmth of feeling, of feeling he sometimes carries to by its fervor and intenseness, so excess, and does not permit his effectually co-operates with his mind to be passive to the objects it arguments, in awakening in the encounters, but to mould them ac breasts of his hearers the dormant cording to its own moods. I do not sentiments of religion and virtue. say that is invariably the case, other. When he is expounding scripture wise he would never advocate any it is impossible

' not to admire the truth that was not in unison with critical acumen he evinces ; he rehis own peculiar prepossessions. conciles the apparent discrepancies His imagination is inventive, and of the sacred writings, and seizes rich even to exuberance; its crea- itumediately on the correct meaning tions often exhibit those connections of the passages he is considering, and associations of ideas which are whether it is attainable by a cursory the certain manifestations of intel- but penetrating glance, or is aclectual fertility ; it is to this ex corded only to the researches of la. treme luxuriance of fancy that the borious investigation. Mr. Irving ornateness of his style is referable ; never omits an opportunity of ex, he is capable of multiplying meta- posing and refuting the errors and phors and similes so profusely, that anomalies of Unitarianism; he rethe very faculty, which is calculated solutely and skilfully unravels the

more

concen

web which it has span around Chris he is conversant, than, as it appears, tianity, and displays its close afli when moulded by circumstances ; nity to Deism.

this will be corrected almost insenWhatever may be the object that sibly to himself by a longer resithe mind of Mr. Irving comes in dence in, and a more intimate accontact with it is certain to elicit, quaintance with the world, and the by the collision, that brilliance different forms into which human which talent alone can supply. In nature is moulded by the influence mental painting he has very few

of social institutions. His irony is equals; the deep tinge of poetry keen, caustic, and pointed; it is with which his spirit is embued in his hands a formidable engine, communicates to his pencil the which demolishes the entrenchments power of tracing all that is grand of those who oppose him. There in outline, or beautiful in colouring: are some men, who whatever may In reasoning he would be more be their efforts, however strenuous forcible if he was

and unremitting, can never attain trated; he is so anxious in an ar to a high grade in the profession gument to avail himself of every they have selected, in consequence aid, whether direct or collateral, of their minds being destitute of the which may support his cause, that elements of greatness; not so Mr. their number counteracts and dimi Irving ; his ultimate failure or sucnishes their cogency and conclusive cess depends, humanly speaking, ness; he would be more likely to upon his own exertions ; let him win conviction by limiting hiš at- but be just to himself, and he may tention to his stronger positions, as

defy the shafts which envy and the minds of his hearers are liable to malice hurl at him in such plentiful become confused in following a long profusion; the high and diversified consecutive chain of evidence, how- powers of his mind are sufficient to ever close may be the dependence of produce results equally honourable its several links. Still, after all this to himself and beneficial to the age is conceded, he will frequently be in which he lives. His principal found an irresistible champion of errors are, that his mind relies too truth; he intrepidly meets every implicitly upon its own strength, difficulty half way; he looks undis- and that his taste and judgment are mayed upon all that his opponents frequently incorrect, all of which can urge in their defence, and then are remediable. Mr. Irving is endetects and proves the fallacy of dowed by nature with the qualities their assumptions. To accomplish most essential in the formation of this purpose he unreservedly sur an orator; he unites the lofty imarenders every power of his intellect; ginings of the poet with the rewhen he considers a subject his sistless deductions of the logician. mind revolves completely upon its Indefatigable in his researches be axis, and seeks, by making the en never leaves a subject till he has tire circle of its faculties, to draw exhausted it, till he has distilled from them whatever may tend to the latest drop of spirit which it establish the particular truth he is affords. He traverses creation to its endeavouring to establish. One of boundaries, and brings hack all its the causes, that have produced the endless varieties in aid of the great variety which characterizes Mr. Ir. cause to which he is devoted; ardent ving's discourses, is, that he has in pursuit, no difficulties can repress familiarized himself with general his industry ; determined in resolve, knowledge, by this means he has his consistency is untainted by teravoided that monotonous train' of giversation; he employs his intel. thought so inseperable from con lect to bend opinion to the controul finement to one line of study, of religion and virtue, and labours

He is likewise deeply read in the to turn the strean of thought into a pages of the human heart; he tears channel, where no error shall sally open its secret recesses, and traces its purity and cause it to spread ruin to their source all its mazes and and desolation instead of beauty and windings; but it is rather with fertility in its progress. human nature in the abstract that

CRITICUS.

THE FINE ARTS.

THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES.

By John Flaxman, Esq. R.A:

How often does it occur that while The shield, the circumference of the ears of the public are stunned which is no less than nine feet, with the praises of mediocrity, ex. and the convexity six inches from cellence is allowed to exist wholly the plane, has been executed from unspoken of. In the Fine Arts es- drawings and a model, by Mr. Flax pecially, how frequently does em man; which occupied that able piricisin succeed in calling the at-, sculptor, at different times, fór. a, tention of the world to productions series of years, and were finished in which, if not absolutely worthless, January, 1818. It is intended to are nevertheless of very inferior represent the shield forged by Vulvalue; while the works of true ge- can, “ the artist of the skies;" and nius, in the absence of the just no presented by Thetis to her son, 1 tice to which they are entitledg. Achilles, to supply the place of that remain in comparative obscurity. which he had "lent to his unhappy It is one of the most imperative, friend Patroclus. As any descripand at the same time one of the tion which we could give of the most pleasing duties of the press, multifarious subjects introduced to redress, as far as it is capable of must necessarily be feeble and inredressing this wrong. Its efforts, perfect, compared with Pope's harto do so must of necessity be spon- monious though somewhat decotapeous; because there is a com-, rated translation of the close of the bined delicacy and pride accompany. eighteenth book of the Iliad, we. ing merit of the highest class, which subjoin the passage:forbids any immediate appeal to criticism,

« Five ample plates, the broad expanse Happening the other day to stroll compose, into the shop of the celebrated gold. And godlike labours on the surface smiths and jewellers, on Ludgatebill, Messrs. Rundeli and Bridge, There shone the image of the master

mind : among the many gorgeous and vaJuable articles by which we found There earth, there heaven, there ocean ourselves surrounded, our admira- Th' unwearied sun, the moon complete

he desigo'd; tion was singularly excited by a

ly ronnd; magnificent shield, which, although the starry lights that heaven's high of silver gilt and of large dimen-·

convex crown'd; sions, and consequently, very, pon.. The Pleiads, Hyads, with the northern derous, was so nicely balanced on a

team; massy and elegant stand ingeniously And great Orion's more refulgent , constructed for the purpose, as to

beam; admit of its being turned about, and To which, around the axle of the sky, examined in every part, with the The bear revolving points his golden greatest facility.

eye, Every body knows the politeness Still shines exalted on th’etherial with which Messrs. Rúndell and.

plain, Bridge, and the several members of Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the their unrivalled establishment, gra

main. tify the curiosity of their visitors. Two cities radiant on the shield apFrom them, and from other sources,

pear, we collected various particulars re The image one of peace, and one of specting this splendid production, which, together with a few of our Here sacred pomp and genial feast deown observations upon it, we hope light, may prove not unacceptable to the And solemu dance, and Hymenial readers of the European Magazine.

rile; Eur. Mag. Sept. 1823.

2 H

rose.

war.

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