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withdrawn.' On the 18th of Decem General Dumerbion, Commander-inber, however, Napoleon captured chief, and on the 8th April, (1794) the Little Gibraltar, by a nighit at Massena carried them into executack; and, bringing the whole of his tion, occupying, after several coni cannon next day upon this promon- diets, Oneglia, Loano, Ormea, and tary, Lord Hood resulved imme. the whole road to Turin. The posidiately to abandon the town. His tion of Saorgio, which had cost the Lordship bumanely took with himi Piedmontese so much blood to mainall the royalists who chose to de- tain, was now tarned and abanpart, and, carrying away such of the doned, and on the 7th of May, they Aeet as were réarly for sea, he des were driven from the Col di Tende. troyed as many of the remainder, By these manoeuvres the French had with the forts and buildings and taken 'sixty pieces of cannon, and stores, as it was possible to set fire had possessed themselves of all the to. Napoleon, with a beautiful con- higher Alps. The remainder of the ciseness, describes the magnificent year was employed in strengthenspectacle of the burning ships, and ing the line occupied by the French, the more moving spectacle of the and in May,' 1795, Napoleon redespair and terror of the Toulonese, signed his command, and returned who, but a few hours before, had to Paris. He had previously escaped judged from the distance of the be- the danger of the guillotine, for siegers, that their town was not one of his military duties had been even in danger. Not more, how- construed into a plan favourable ever, than two of the unfortunate to the Royalists. royalists felt a 'sacrifice to republi At Paris, he refused a command tan vengeance. Napoleon was cre offered to him in the army of La ated for this service a Brigadier Vendée. The Italian army, after General of Artillery, and appointed his leaving it, had been entrusted to the chief command of the artillery tó General Kellerman, who, by the of the army of Italy. We cannot end of June, contrived to lose conceive a tiner promise of a career every advantageous position, which of glory, than that ofa young officer, it had before acquired. Napoleon's commencing 'his service, by not only talents were again put in requisition, correcting the errors of his veteran he was summoned before the comsuperiors, but by introducing a sort mittee of government, and, by his of new species of' warfare, for se advice, the army was made to take completely ignorant of Napoleon's up the line of the Borguetto, from principles of attacking this distant which the Piedmontese forces in point wete all his commanders, that vain'atteinpted to dislodge it. This to the last they viewed their posses- position saved the whole coast of sion of it only as a means of facili. Genoa. Kellerman was superseded tating à regalar approach to the by General Scherer, who beat the town, according to the old rules of enemy at Loano, but lost the op
portunities which his victory gave Napoleon joined the head quarters him of conquering Italy. These of the army of Italy at Nice, in operations, with a sort of Essay on March, 1794, and, rapidly survey the defence of coasts, fill up the first ing the country, he immediately Gfty pages of the volume. laid before his commander an ex There is now a great chasm in posure of the causes of those disasters the volume. Napoleon's first camwhich had hitherto attended the paigh as Commander-in-chief, and French army, and he proposed the his conquest of Italy, are omitted, taking possession of the Col di as well as the expedition to Egypt, Tende and of other positions, as the and the next chapter opens with his means of driving the enemy beyond return from Egypt, and his landing the High Alps, and putting the at Frejus, on the 9th of October, French in possession of impregnable 1799. We have then a long and points, which could be defended by highly interesting account of the few men, and thus leave largor Revolution of 18 Brumaire, by which bodies disposable for offensive opera- Napoleon acquired the Consulate. tions. His plans were adopted by The history of this event, given to Eur. Mag. Oct. 1823.
us here from Napoleon's own dicta. ous crisis. To him Franee is intion, is remarkably coincident with debted for the division, not departthe account of the Revolution, which ments, which destroyed all previnappeared in our Memoirs of Bona- cial prejudices; and, though he was parte, in our number for April last. never distinguished as an orator, The account in the volume before us he greatly contributed to the succomprises numerous details, with cess of the Revolution by his advice several ingenious speculations upon in the committees. He had been of government, and with Napoleon's great service in checking the proopinions of many of the leading gress of the Societé du Manège, he characters of the times. The imme was abhorred by that faction, and diate operations upon the 18th are fearless of bringing upon himself so told with great spirit, and the whole powerful a party he courageously narration has a brilliant dramatic resisted the machinations of these effect upon the reader, which would men of blood, in order to avert from be lost or diminished by any abridge the Republic the evil with which it ment within the compass of our was threatened." We believe that this limits. The narrative abounds with celebrated character affords the only Napoleon's opinions of the cele instance of an individual boldly and brated actors in those perturbed resolutely opposing a course of abtimes, and which, we apprehend, stract justice and theoretical purity, can always be implicitly relied on; against the sanguinary and furious they seem so devoid of spleen, re measures of the different parties, sentment, or partiality of any sort. without falling beneath the guiloiIn this revolution, Napoleon tells tine. He lived to the age of ninetyus that he could not win over Ber- two, and witnessed the return of the nadotte, he was so strong a jacobin, Bourbons. Barras had consented to and that, on the very day of the con betray the Republic to the Bourbons, test, Bernadotte left him, and went stipulating for his pardon, and for over to the demagogues of the Ma 12,000,000 of livres, the sum which nege ; and now this Bernadotte is a he calculated he would make by his Royal Prince of Sweden, a great corruption during the two years of abhorrer of liberal principles, and his directory; it is difficult to say a leaguer with the Holy Alliance, whether the bribers or the bribed were to suppress the free spirit of the the most infamous in such a transtimes, and to support the divine action. Moreau and Macdonald right of Kings. Such is human succombed to Napoleon's higher genature! Augereau, Jourdan, Mar nius; Moreau's confidence was so bot, were partisans with the jaco great that he offered his services to bin Bernadotte, and yet few of the Napoleon without even requiring Marshals bave been more devoted to be let into the secret of his de to the arbitrary principles of Louis signs. Fouche's services, as well XVIII. than this Augereau. The as those of other infamous characConsul, Ducos, “ was a man of nar ters, were rejected. After the rerow mind and easy disposition." volution was effected, the danger of Moulins, was “ a worthy man, and a counter revolution by the depased a warm and upright patriot." “Go directory was, in the view of Sieyes, hier was of exalted patriotism, a extreme, and he strongly advised man of great integrity and candour.” Napoleon to arrest the forty prioSieyes was tbe author of the cele ciple leaders of the opposite party. brated pamphlet, Qu'est ce que le “I swore in the morning," erTiers Etat, which put France into a claimed Napoleon, “to protect the flame. “He was not a man of bu. National Representation, I will not siness, knowing but little of men, this evening violate my oath.” This he knew not how they might be magnanimity on his part had Rearly made to act, all his studies having cost both him and his brother Lucien been given to metaphysics he bad their lives, in the succeeding agita. the fault of metaphysicians of too . tion in the Council of Ancients and often despising positive notions; but of Five Hundred. he was capable of giving luminous The next chapter upon “ Proviand useful advice at any moment sional Consuls,' is extremely il
structive; it is an exposé of the frontier to Wesel in Treves, twenty state of parties in France, and of miles south of Coblentz. The sea the system of government and con cond under the command of Jour: dition of the nation, after the over- dan, with its head-quarters at Dusthrow of the Directory. It is from seldorf, protected the line of the this chapter, to use the words of Sambre and Meuse, and blockaded Pope, that “ Posterity will take Mentz and Erenbriesten. The third their books." The intellect of Na commanded by Moreau, with its poleon must have been almost super- head quarters at Strasburg, was human to have overcome the myriads called the army of the Rhine ; its of difficulties that opposed him. A left blockaded' Phillipsburgh, and demoralized people familiar with its right on Switzerland. In blood, and habituated to the most 1796, Jourdan crossed the Maine, atrocious crimes ; the country torn took Wurtzburg, and took up a by the conflicts of infuriated parties, position on the frontiers of Franno laws existing but those of force; conia, and Bohemia, his right in the an exhausted treasury, peculation valley of the Danube. Moreau pervading every department of go. crossed the Rhine and Lech, and vernment; armies unclothed, unpaid, entered Bavaria in a line south of disorganized and commanded by Wurtemberg. These two officers officers corrupt, spiritless, and ig- acted without concert, and the norant of their duty; the greatest Arch.duke Charles, concentrating military and naval powers of Europe his forces on the Danube at Ingolassailing the country on every side;- stadt and Ratisbon, penetrated bethese were the difficulties Napoleon tween the right of Jourdan's army had to contend with ; his own genius and the left of Moreau's, and deand inorals were the talisman by feating Jourdan's right under Berwhich, in a few years, he restored nadotie, Moreau, who had made his country to the blessings of so. no movement to his support, was cial order and good government, obliged to retrace his steps back to and by which he made her the most the Rhine. It was at this time that powerful kingdom that ever existed. he made the retreat through the If historical truth compel us to say black Forest of Wurtemburgh that thus much in his praise, moral truth gained him so much celebrity, and as imperiously commands that we covered him from the disgrace of should do him still greater homage having occasioned the retreat of for the justice and mercy which he both his own and of General Jourextended to all his opponent parti- dan's army. sans. There was no proscription In 1799, by a similar plan of like that of Marius or of Sylla, divided and independent operations, nor a conventional sacrifice of hu- the French lost part of Switzerland man lives like that agreed upon by and all their ground to the right of Mark Antony, Augustus, and Lepi- the Rhine. Their army of Italy dus; all was mercy and oblivion of had been defeated at Genoa. The political animosities. Alas ! Austrians occupied the beautiful wish that Louis, on his second re- plains of Piedmont and Mount-Ferstoration, had followed so benign a rat; the French were cooped up on precedent, and had preached “ Peace the other side of the Appenines, in and good will to all men."
the barren country between Genoa Succeeding to this chapter upon and the Var. Every army had been the internal state of France, we defeated, and they were without have a masterly outline of her pay, clothes, spirit, or confidence in system of military operations, so their officers. Napoleon, in 1800, clearly related as to be both in- repaired all these disasters. He telligible and instructive, and we sent Augereau to oppose the Duke may add, entertaining to readers of of York in Holland. General Brune every class. The system of the re was dispatched to meet the dreadful public was to maintain three great insurrection in La Vendée, and, conarmies. One, with the head-quar- centrating all the armies from Switters at Amsterdam, to guard the zerland and the Sambre and Meuse coast from the Scheldt to the Ems, about Strasburgh, he encreased and the north and north-eastern them to 150,000 men, and gave the
bommand to Moreau. Austria raised a General who did not even comtwo great armies, one of 120,000 prehend them; and, after many momen under Field-Marshal Kray, to difications of the orlginal plan, he defend the Rhine from Møreau; it was obliged to order Moreau to pass extended from its left on the Tyrol his army in three divisions at Strasto Basle, Kehl, and along the whole burgh, Brisach, and Basle, enjoin. line of the Rhine as far north as ing him to depart from the old sysMentz. The other army of 140,000, tem of divisions, and to have but men under Melas, was intended to one single line of operation. The take Genoa, Nice, and · Toulon, army passed the Rhine according to where it was to be joined by 18,000 these directions, and the three diviEnglish and 20,000 Neapolitans, sions formed a junction at Wattach To oppose this prodigious force on the 27th of April, 1800. On the Napoleon had only 40,000 men to Ist of May the French captured guard the Appenines and heights of Fort Hohentwoel with eighty pieces Genoa, and lie posted 35,000 in the of cannon, but Moreau's inactivity central position of the Soane, so gave Field Marshal Kray time to that it might support either the, assemble in line with his left at army of the Rhine or that near Stochach, and his centre at Engen, Genoa, as occasion might require. and which occasioned the battle of The position of this latter corps: Hohenhoven, won by Moreau, the was admirable, for it threw the Austrians losing 11,000 and the Austrians into great perplexity, as French 7,000 men. The battles of by marching to the right or left Moeskirch, Biberach, and Memit gave Napoleon the means of mingen, were successively gained ; making either the Rhine or Italy and on the 12th of May the French the principal objects of his atten were manæuvering before Ulm, tion. Europe now anticipated the But it appears that Moreau had lost annihilation of the French power; many tine opportunities of comMr. Pitt's hopes were at the highest; pletely ruining the Austrians, and and it must be confessed, that, had so divided and detailed were his opFrance continued under the Direc. perations that, after some unskilful tory, the conquest of that country manæuvres and, disastrous fighting by the allies would have been çer, before Ulm, he found himself with tain, but a different genius now five of his divisions on the right and directed her destinies. Napoleon's six on the left of the Danube, and situation, however, was very critical. his troops scattered over a line of He saw that Austria had committed fourteen leagues in length. It is a great error in making Italy the useless to trace the minutiæ of the principal object of attack, for the campaign, but suffice it to say, that campaign would depend upon the Moreau with his vastly superior operations upon the Rhine. Rea force, in spite of bis irresolution, maining at Paris, Napoleon sent his tardjness, and his insulated orders to Moreau, to throw the movements, gained possession of whole of his army simultaneously Ulm and Munich, and compelled over to the other side of the Rhine the Austrians to sigo an armistice at Schauffhausen, to take the Ause on the 15th of Jaly, 1800. trians in their rear at Basle, and, In the mean time Melas comby moving in the line of Stochach, menced offensive operations against to take in the rear the whole of their Massepa in Italy. He broke up for corps between the right hank of the the Var in the beginning of March. Rhine and the defiles of the Black Napoleon bad placed Massena's Forest. Napoleon computed that troops in the best possible state of in six or seven days Moreau would equipment. The grand operations be at Ulm, and that all Swabia and commenced on the 6th of April, and Bavaria would be in his possession. Massena's Jittle band performed But Moreau's tactics savoured of the prodigies of valour, but they were old school, and he was incapable eventually driven into Genoa by the of grasping with such comprehen, immensely superior force of the sive schemes. Napoleon observed Austrians, and became, in short, that it was worse than useless to the mere garrison of the town, from entrust the execution of schemes to the 21st of April, (1800). Melas
swept all before him. blockading mont and the south-eastera provinces Genoa, be entered Nice on the Ilth of France a mere matter of meof May. Sachet defended some in, chanical calculation; he has reduced trenched posts in the mountains to such exactness the best and only with great bravery, but his position good plans of campaign adapted to was about to be turned by the Aus- this line of country. trians, who now planted their flag We have next a most circumon the territory of the Republic. stantial detail of the passage, of General Melas was in the full tide St. Bernard, of the battle of Ma. of success when he suddenly learned, rengo, with all its antecedent moveon the 21st of May, that Napoleon, ments, and of all its glorious conat the head of the 35,000 men from sequences. The “pride, pomp, and the Soane, had crossed the St. Ber: circumstances of glorious war," are nard, and had arrived in his rear at here detailed in manner that warms Aoste. He directly marched to op- the imagination, and carries the pose this unexpected attack. On feelings of the reader in the career the 23d he entered Coni. Massena, of tlie hero of the piece. We can hearing of this diversion, attempted say, moreover, of this work, what by a sort of desperate valour to drive we can say of no other work of this the blockading force from Genoa, description that we ever perused, but his efforts were fruitless, and we mean that even those parts, that his eventual surrender was retarded relate purely to military movements, only by his confidence in the vigour are always intelligible and often inof Napoleon's operations. No suc- teresting to readers unacquainted cour arrived, and, compelled by fa, with military affairs. The relation mine, he sent his aid-de-camp. to of the manner in which Napoleon the head-quarters of the blockading disguised his real object in making army to propose a capitulation, but Dijon on the Soane the rendezvous of just before the arrival of this aid his reserves, his breaking up from de-camp, an Austrian officer had Dijon, the passage of the St. Bernard, brought intelligence of the rapid the manner of transporting the canmovements of Napoleon, and of non over the mountain in hollow General Melas's orders to raise the trees, the point of bonour in not blockade of Genoa immediately. deserting a single gun, the military The French, however, not aware of bands triumphantly, playing up the this news, finally surrendered, but ascent of this cloud-capt mountain, on advantageous terms. On the the critical passage of the Fort Bard, the 28th May the blockading army are narrations which have the aubroke up from Genoa, garrisoning thority of history,and excite a breath the city with 10,000 men, Napoleon less anxiety in the reader, some. was pushing the Austrians with the what similar to the effect produced rapidity of lightning; and in spite by the dilemmas of a melo-drama. of his very great inferiority of num, The arrival of Dessaix from Egypt bers his successes were as constant on the eve of the battle of Marengo, as they were swift. On the 14th of apd. Napoleon sitting np with him Jane he won the decisive battle of all night to talk over the affairs of Marengo, and which led to the Egypt and their campaign in that total ruin of the Austrian interests country, is a sort of historical picture. in Italy. Genoa was retaken by It has always been a received notion Suchet, on the 24th of June. All that the battle of Marengo was won the details of these events are given by, a desperate charge of cavalry, in the volume before us with great headed by Dessaix; but the absur, precision and clearness, and they dity of this report is evident from are followed by Napoleon's obser- the plan of the battle given in this yations upon Massena's campaign, yolume. The brave Dessaix , was in which he shews where Massena's shot through the heart as he gave movements were erroneous, and by the word to charge; but the battle what means he might have sain. was won by no charge, but by Natained himself in his positions till poleon's manqavres in altering his the arrival of Napoleon. We appre- line of retreat after the battle had hend that these chapters of Napoleon gone against him in the beginning will render future warfare in Pied- of the day. This sanguinary battle