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culty of pourtraying intellectual ex- struments should be perfectly in pression, and dignity of demeanoar, tune. The analogy will hold good whenever they appeared in his sub- with respect to a painters palette. Sir jects; and, in fact, he often ap- Henry Raeburn, it must be confessed, proached in his portraits to the ele- allowed the black and green occasitation of historical painting. His onally to predominate unpleasingly. facility and happiness of execu It is said of Sir Henry Raeburn, tion were admirable, and extended by one who had the pleasure of themselves to every part of the can- knowing him, that his modeste was vas. Heads, hands, and draperies, equal to his merit; that in his interwere equally well designed and course with the young candidate for freely executed. But, as indiscri- public favour in his own art, he was minate praise is little better than cen- uniformly kind, communicative and sure, we hope it will not be consi- liberal; that on all occasions he bad dered derogatory from Sir Henry the candour to bestow just praise Raeburn's fair fame, if we allude toa on rival excellence ; that in society slight defect, to which indeed we few men were more aceeptable, pos felt ourselves compelled in justice sessed as he was of a cheerful disto advert in our remarks on the last position, much good sense, and an Exhibition. It has been suggested inexhaustible store of anecdote; to us, by a gentleman for whose that no man could dispense or retaste we have great respect, that ceive a greater degree of happiness; Sir Henry was gradually getting and, above all, that those who had the better of this defect complained opportunities of seeing him in the of in his works, and that in the midst of his family, will ever cherish last Exhibition they evinced more the recollection of his amiable and harmony, of colour, more scien- endearing qualities. tific display, and a better arrange The Royal Academy, in testimony ment of the whole than in any for- of their bigh estimation of Sir Henry mer year; thus holding out a hope Raeburn's talents, elected him, first that, had it pleased God to prolong an associate, and afterwards an Acahis life, he would soon have left us demician, without solicitation. The nothing to wish for. From that first honour he received on the 2d of opinion we are, upon reflection, by November, 1812; the second on the no means disposed strongly to dis- 10th of February, 1815. When His sent. We trust that our suggestion Majesty on his visit to Edinburgh as to the benefits of the opportunity conferred the honour of knighthood of comparison which the Exhibitions on this distinguished artist, we do afford will not be mistaken. Far not recollect an occasion of that Daare we from wishing that our ture on which a more universal feelpainters should resemble one an. ing of satisfaction was expressed. Sir other. One of the great character. Henry was also a member of the Royal istics of the British school, and by Society of Edinburgh, a member of which it is most advantageously the late Imperial Academy at Flocontra-distinguished from that of rence, and a member of the Academy France, is the variety of our styles; of New York; and a few days bea circumstance which we may, per- fore his death he received a comhaps, be supposed fanciful in ascrib- mission, appointing him Portrait ing, in a great measure, to that bold. Painter in Scotland to His Majesty. ness, and independence of national Sir Henry Raeburn's practice was, character resulting from the free it is reported, worth about three and liberal institutions of our coun thousand a year. We understand try. But still there are some prin- that, since his decease, a very geciples which onght to be common neral wish has been expressed among to all artists. We do not wish to persons of rank, fortune, taste, and bear different musical performers influence in Scotland, that Mr. Philplaying the same piece; but we lips, the Royal Academician, would certainly desire that all their in remove from London to Edinburgh;

Vide remarks on “ No. 142, Portrait of a Gentleman." page 143, vol. 93,

and we have been told that he and of English genius; but we can have his amiable lady have lately paid a no doubt that Mr. Phillips's profesvisit to the northern metropolis, for sional excellence would be liberally the purpose of ascertaining how far rewarded, and that his general in. a residence there might promise to formation, manly character, and be agreeable and advantageous. We sound sense, would be properly should certainly regret the loss of appreciated in Edinburgh. so bright a star in the constellation


Peak Scenery, or Excursions in Der. Seal of Ireland. In communicating byshire, (the conclusive one) has this distinguished mark of Royal just appeared, with the same des- favour, conferred on the professors

criptive quality, and most pleasantly of Painting, Sculpture, and Archi- mixed, as before, with anecdote, tecture in Ireland, we confidently, kindly-breathing sentiment, and hope, that, under the influence of amusing local statements; and some Government, a School of Arts may of the scenes beautifully brought now be formed there, which will, into the reader's visible presence by ere long, redound to the honour of the pencil and graver, the former the country: in the hands of Mr. Hofland, Mr. The exhibition of paintings at Blore, Mr. Thompson, but most of the Subscription-rooms, in the City them in those of the celebrated of Exeter, has been very attractive. Sculptor, Chantrey, and the latter in Great admiration has been excited the admirable hand of Mr. G. Cooke. by the picture of Christ crowned If Mr. Rhodes does not surprise the with Thorns, painted by Mr. King, fancy with any new or animated (an artist of distinguished talent, touches in his portraiture of objects, now residing in that City) for the or in his appeal to our feelings, new church at Teignmouth. he agreeably renews whatever kin Girtin's admirers tolerated a dedred scenes, thoughts, and sensi- fect in his drawings, which proves bilities, had been implanted there. how much allowance the liberal We travel with him, in fine, through connoisseur will make for the sake and about the nobly-various scenery of genius. The paper which he of the Peak of Derbyshire, as with most admired was only to be had of a sensible, discerning, warm-heart a stationer at Charing-cross : this ed, and not unimaginative describer was cartridge, with slight wireand companion.

marks, and folded like foolscap or We have heard that it is the in- post. It commonly happened, that tention of Mr. Howard, R.A. that the part which bad been folded, the picture of the Solar System, when put on the stretching-frame, which attracted so much notice in would sink into spots in a line, enthe last Exhibition of the Royal tirely across the centre of the sky, Academy, shall be his last in the so that where the crease had been, historical line. We cannot but de- the colour was so many degrees of a plore the cause, whatever it may be, darker blue than the general tone of that puts an end to the exertion of the sky. This unsightly accident talents so rarely excelled in the his was not only overlooked, but, in torical line, and deprives the Annual some instances really admired, from Exhibition of some of its principal its having been taken for a sign of attractions. It is imagined that it is originality, and in the transfer of the more lucrative employment of his drawings from one collector to portrait painting that engrosses his another, bore a premium, according time.

to that mark. Royal Hibernian Academy.-It af Proposed School of Arts in Lyons. fords us great satisfaction to an -In a late number of the Constitunounce, that the Charter to incorpo- tionnel, it is strongly recommended rate the Irish Artists, under the that the Government should estabtitle of “ The Royal Hibernian lish in most of the large provincial

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towns, schools for teaching the among the paintings there are an
sciences to artizans and mechanics. Eresichthon and an Arion, by M,
The author very properly observes, Coutan, which are fine specimens
that Paris has many advantages over of colour, but are faulty in the draw.
other towns; that all the scientific ing. M. Cour has a picture of the
men of the kingdom crowd to it, and Deluge, which some critics say pos-
leave the great mass of the people sesses every thing such a subject
destitute of knowledge and of pro- should possess, except colouring,
per teachers. He proposes, there. design, truth, and expression. The
fore, that the very first men of most striking piece in the collection,
France, in respect of science, shall is a landscape by M. Remond. It
be tempted by some corresponding is very large, and the subject is a
advantages to forsake the seduction's view of Rome, from the hills be-
of the capital, and devote their time yond the Tiher. In front is Cincin.
to instructing the obscure artizans natus, at the moment when the
of the country. France is not, how messengers from the Senate are
ever, even at this moment, quite bringing him the ensigns of the
destitute of such schools, and the consular dignity. He is represented
Government is too deeply engaged at his plough, to which are attached
in schemes for re-establishing des two fine bulls; and the whole scene
potism and supersition to leave any is finely depicted. The best piece
hope that it will engage in so good of sculpture is an Eurydice, by M.
a work as the spreading of accurate Nanteuil. The architectual pieces
knowledge. , But for this circum- consist principally of restorations of
stance we are quite sure no French. Roman edifices, some of which are
man would ever have thought of ap. well designed.
pealing to the people to act on such A curious experiment, promis-
à recommendation, independent of ing some success, has lately been
the Government. The author of making at Paris. It is an attempt
this project, however, having evi- to preserve the large paintings of
dently visited Scotland, and become the most esteemed artists, by the
acquainted with the Andersonian employment of plates of pottery.
Institution at Glasgow, and seeing, The different parts of a large pic-
in point of distance from the capital, ture are united by a composition,
and the nature of the manufactures and so coloured as completely to
carried on there, a similarity be- disguise the joinings. The artists
tween it and Lyons, he boldly calls engaged in ihis experiment, hope
on the inhabitants of the latter city by these means to produce works as
to imitate the example set by the durable as Mosaic, but of much
former, and establish a School of easier execution, and at a very mo-
Arts for themselves at their own ex-

derate price.
pense. The people of Glasgow may Exhibition at Ghent.-Among the
well be proud at having their con most striking pieces in this Exhibi.
duct held up in this manner to the tion, we may reckon the Toilette of
imitation of the French, by one of Psyche, by Paelinck. The design
their own writers; and it must be is well conceived, and the general
cheering to them thus to see their execution entitled to high praise.
admirable example of establishing A Young Lady, her Nurse, and a
schools for the instruction of Me. Peasant, by M. Du-Bois, and vari-
chanics, made known to foreign na ous portraits of persons of distine
tions, leading, we would fain hope, tion, by Kitson, are also worthy of
to the establishing similar schools commendation. Narer has contri.
throughout civilized Europe. buted a variety of pieces, of which

The inhabitants of Paris have the Fortune Teller is the best. A Jately been gratified with an Exhi. Boy Drawing, by Vanderbaer, is a bition, consisting of works of art very expressive picture ; and the sent from Rome by the students of Game of Chess is remarkable for the the French Academy in that city. fine display of triumph in the counArchitectural designs, sculpture, tevance of the fortunate player, and historical and landscape painting, the indication of disappointinent in and engraving, have all contri- the looks of his competitor. buted to form this Exhibition;



foreign and Domestic.



Choir des poèsies originales des literary history of Europe; and we Troubadours.

know not which astonished us most, Selection from the original poetry of the order and method; the enlight

the Troubadours. By M. Ray- ened philosophy and criticism; or nouard.

the immense difficulties M. Rayno

uard bas so happily conquered. The poetry of the Troubadours Invincible patience and indefatigforms a distinct period in the litera-' able activity were absolutely neces, ture of the middle ages, and is con sary to restore every form, rule, and nected with the history of the twelfth word of a language which had been and thirteenth centuries so little for four centuries buried in manuknown. Written in a language scripts, most of which are mutilated, chiefly derived from the Latin, and all incorrect, and many of the characwhich seemed to have become, in its ters nearly effaced. There are freturn, the mother tongue of the dif- quent abbreviations, words mixed férent idioms of the South of Eu, together, want of punctuation, disrope, the remaining documents of order of orthography, and a thousand this species of poetry must be equal' other difficulties. Such is the task M. ly interesting to the learned of Italy, Raynouard has undertaken to exeSpain, Portugal, and France.

cute, and he is worthy of the assistThe language of romance still ance of that distinguished French' exists, in spite of the revolutions academician, M. Pelissier, who so occasioned by time, in several parts' eloquently revenged the memory of of these kingdoms. Many of the the Knights of the Temple, rescued Troubadours were born there, and from injurious oblivion the renown it is not unlikely that their poetical of the Troubadours, and raised to compositions had great influence the glory of those fathers of ancient upon the literature of their different literature, a lasting monument which countries. Yet, notwithstanding may serve as a guide to all who dethis literary and philological im- sire to study the annals, manners, portance, the Troubadours were and literary history of the middle only known by vague tradition, ages. transmitted from generation to ge Beginning with the origin of the neration, and dignified by the en romantic idiom, and giving a hasty logiums of Dante and "Petrarch. sketch of the decline and alteration Learned men have, it is true, endea of the Latin tongue, M. Raynouard võured to penetrate into this fertile follows those successive gradations field ; but their unfinished labours which form materials for a new lanand want of perseverance produced guage. nothing of consequence, and all the By the aid of these scattered fragessays published up to this time ments, which the learned academihave given but a very imperfect cian discovered and gathered togeidea of the celebrated poets who ther, he has, in a manner, recomgave such brilliancy to the middle posed the language, established and ages. The work we now announce developed the principles, the cha-' will fill up this great void in the racteristic forms, and in a word, the



whole grammatical system, of which masters of the government, as even he finds the principal elements in to dare to sit in judgment on their the other languages of the South of sovereigns; the Court of Rome setEurope formed from this common ting a scandalous example of licenorigin.

tiousness; the Popes carrying into This subject is included in the the humble chair of the apostle, the fourth volume of the collection, and spirit of domination with all the preis of an importance which will be judices of the cloister, are the prinfelt by all learned philologists, with cipal features of the 11th century. respect to the etymology and ge The excesses of the sovereign neral theory of modern languages. pontiffs, the violent struggle be

The author evinces profound saga tween the clergy and the empire, city in his comparison of all the gave a strong impulse to every idioms of Latin Europe with the mind, already excited by the brilgrammar of the Troubadours, and liant heroism and enthusiasm of chievery one must be struck with the valry, and still more increased by analogy and conformity resulting that religious fever which produced from identity of origin, which the the crusades, and precipitated warsecretary of the French Academy, like and barbarous Europe into has established, not only by natural peaceful and flourishing Asia. relations and

It was in the midst of these sanguitions, but by a multitude of facts nary conflicts that the Troubadours supported by examples selected from appeared. Their compositions in the the ancient authors of the different history of letters form a class in idioms; the only proofs that can manner, thoughts, form, and ex. carry conviction in the discussion of pression, perfectly distinct from the philological problems, and whichwill classical literature of the ancients. receive new developments and more Without masters or models, these evidence in the four volumes still courteous and warlike poets cele. remaining to be published, contain- brated, by turns, beauty and vaing the lexicon of the language of lour; and, travelling from castles romance, the last and most impor- to courts, were every where wel. tant part of this magnificent work. comed and honoured, charming their Our readers will easily perceive illustrious hosts by romantic songs the impossibility of giving a suc

and brilliant recitals; receiving at cinct analysis of this immense work, once the favours and rewards which all the parts of which are ar- kings, lords, and ladies vied with ranged with such method that the each other in bestowing. whole must be read to appreciate its The poetry.of the Troubadours is precision and merit.

divided into two principal kinds : We must then confine ourselves oue was intended to be sung, and to some reflexions upon the import- the other had no music to accomance of the poetry of the Trouba- pany it, such as the satires, epistles, dours, in reviewing the national re tales, and romances. Amongst their membrances, manners, customs, and lyric poetry, songs are particularly opinions of that interesting period, distinguished. It was in this spe when it flourished in the different cies of poetry particularly that the countries of which it promoted the Troubadours created a new literacivilization. The violent commo ture. Ignorant of the ingenious al. tions which followed the dismem.' legories of antiquity, they made berment of the vast empire of Char- love a quick-sighted but submissive lemagne, occasioned the barbarity god, and placed all their hope, hapof the tenth century, which, in spite piness, and delight, in sentiment, of the apology of Leibnitz, must al. respect, and the most absolute devoways be regarded as the iron age. tion. Always animated by that The following age produced some amiable courtesy of which these studies, but science was then re poets were the models, each of them duced to vain disputes on words. attached himself to one court; where The ambition of the great, who were he made choice of a lady, who only intent on arrogating to them- formed the subject of his eulogy: selves new rights; the clergy so far it was for her that his practical

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