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speculations. The citizens have all verance in his maturity, and by rethe coast trade, and government signation in his old age. has taken measures to preserve it to The reader will find, in the · Methem.

moires of Jacques Fauvel,' that “ The army is on a respectable comic vein and talent of observation, footing, and the ranks are increas- which so eminently, distinguish ing: it is regularly paid and clothed, M. Picard, happily blended with and government takes great pains the mild yet elevated philosophy to maintain it. In every town which distinguishes the productions those citizens, who are not employed of M. Droz. In reading this work, in civil functions, incorporate them we could not help regretting that selves in the national guard. The M. Picard has so long underrated arsenals are well furnished with his talents, by confining himself to every article of war; the towns in the direction of young authors in crease; the roads are repaired and their dramatic career: his many kept up; bridges are erected in every skilfully drawn characters authonecessary place; manufactories are rize us to suppose him capable of improved ; and we daily perceive producing more of those dramatic fresh progress made in every branch productions, which have brought of national prosperity.

so much money to the theatres where “ Our manners are so changed they have been performed. for the better, that it would be dif Jacques Fauvel' will enjoy a ficult to recognize the same people privilege that the personages in a in the first years of independence comedy or tragedy can not now and at the present time. There is possess in France: it will cause inonly one point in which they do not tolerance to be detested, that enemy change—their proud and warlike to the happiness of the people, and character, and perseverance in noble the glory of kings. resolutions! If the colonies deny this fact, let them apply to the French merchants who trade with Hayti; and their testimony will fur Euvres complètes de Platon. nish proofs, from which may

be

pre The Works of Plato, translated dicted, that Hayti, already called from the Greek into French, with the · Queen of the Antilles,' will Notes and an Introduction on the become, and that at no very

distant Philosophy of Plato. By V. Couperiod, the centre of civilization, sin, Vol. I. 108. Paris. knowledge, and liberty.”

Until the appearance of this work the French did not possess a com

plete translation of Plato. Dacier, Memoires de Jacques Fauvel, &c. P. Grove, and Maucroix, have tranMemoirs of James Fauvel. Pub

slated some dialogues; but, since lished by M. M. J. Droz, and that time, critics, particularly the L. B. Picard. 4 vols. 12mo. German, have made such alterations Price 168.

in Plato's text, that the translations

anterior to the last twenty years This remarkable production, the are now found very defective : befirst of the united talent and imagi- sides, these partial labours embrace nation of two writers of great ability, only a part of Plato's works; and is particularly adapted to check the untranslated dialogues are preand restrain those young authors, cisely the most important and prowho, elated by an ephemeral suc found. The Parmenides, the Socess obtained by singularity, wan phist, the Timeus, the Phædra, these der from the right path of literature. ancient and venerable sources of the The authors, as some judicious cri- highest ideas of beauty, love, exist. tics have observed, wished to put ence, unity, and universal harmony, into action and develope one great were yet unknown to the French philosophical sentiment: they wish. reader. M. Cousin, who is a proed to describe a man brought up:

fessor of the Greek language, has during his youth, in “ ensouciance," undertaken to present the French sustained by firmness and perse. with the entire works of this phila

sopher. The first volume, which is man. M. Ségur has had before him now published, contains four dia- great examples, and his reflections logues. The Euthyphron, the Apo- on liberty, equality, and despotism, logy of Socrates, the Critic, and

government and factions, shew, the Phedon. Each of these dia that he has derived from them imlogues is accompanied by critical portant lessons. His remarks are and philological notes, and preceded at once general maxims, and counby a clear and perspicuous analysis sels for men of the present time. of Plato's doctrine. The argument But we fear these counsels will be of the Phedon especially contains, as much neglected as praised ; and in a style worthy of Plato, the sub- party spirit, while it acknowledges lime opinions of ancient philosophy that the author well performs his on the nature of the soul, and its office of moralist, will forget to folimmortality.

low his example. M. Ségur' seems The beauty of the edition, and to foresee, and is resigned to this the typographical skill with which sort of success. It is to be regretted it is executed, makes it equal to the that the editors seem to have forfinest works that ever issued from gotten, that the historian of nations the press of Firmin Didot. This is also a describer of women, for rework will be in nine volumes, orna flections of this nature are nowhere mented with a fine portrait of Plato, to be found in this collection. The a map of Attica, and a plan of greater part of their readers would Athens. The volume, containing have seen these with much pleasure, the Introduction upon Plato's Philo- but in spite of this defect, in spite sophy, will be last published. A of some thoughts not very new, and volume will be published every three often similar in thought or expres. months ; the price of each on An- sion, this little book will afford all nonay paper will be 108., on large classes of readers much amusement, vellum paper, of which there will be though they may not profit by the only twenty-five copies, 12. Ils. 6d. instruction it affords,

Pensées, Maximes, Reflexions, &c. Annali Musulmani, &c. Thoughts, Maxims. and Reflections. Annals of the Mussulmans. By G.

By Count Ségur, extracted from B. Rampoldi, 2 vols. 8vo. "Mihis works. 18mo. Paris, 1823. lan, 1822.

It was a happy thought to collect This volume is a history of the together all the maxims and re progress of Islamism, and the emflections M. de Ségur has dispersed pire of the Arabs, an account of the through his works. We think they doctrine of Mahomet, and a narrawill be as much relished by the tive of the election of a successor to public in this form, as they were this prophet. scattered about in the large collec The author remarks the ability of tion already well-known. Extracted this legislator, who, while sustainfrom a great work where they are ing the rights of his nation, comunited to the narrative of events, bined them with the dogmas of his they cannot be distinguished by that religious system ; he exalts his epigrammatic point which seems to moral and political character. In be necessary to this species of writ- fact, Mahomet made use of the reing. There is something peculiarly velations of his most respectable frank, and we may even say generous predecessors; he abolished idolatry; in this grave simplicity of style. The he perfected public morality; he reauthor addresses himself to the rea commended charity, brotherly love, son rather than to wit, an to concord, social virtues, and particuinstruct by the wisdom of his lessons larly the care of widows and orphans. rather than amuse by the malig- If he rendered his subjects credulous, nity of his censure. Most of these be also made them more united, thoughts are the result of the la stronger, and more independent. . bours of the historian and states Abul Bekr was elected kalif or heiz

of the prophet. It was he who ar his style and the beauty of his versiranged the chapters of the Koran, fication. Many parts are very hapdistributed and spread them amongst pily translated; the verse is somehis army, and M. Rampoldi gives us times imitated, and then harmony a very curious summary of them. is added to the thought. Some parts are taken from the code of However faithful the translation Justinian, some from the Bible and may be, it is still a translation, and Talmud, with a mixture of many we must admire the flexibility of a opinions of Arius, Nestorius, and language, which without losing its Sabellius. Moses, Jesus, and St. own peculiar character can convey John, the Baptist, are distinguished the most original conceptions of the by Mahomet as the most eminent foreign as well as the ancient lan. prophets.

guages. We could give several The Koran is thought by the proofs of this, particularly in the Arabs to be the perfection of style. tragedies of Othello, Macbeth, Mahomet is particularly eloquent Caesar, Hamlet, &c. if we could alwhen he speaks of God, Hell, or low ourselves the space to do so. Paradise. He was so impressed by the excellence of his own work that he had no doubt of its being dictated by God himself.

De dramatis Græcorum satirici oriWe cannot follow the author gine disputatio. through the details of his work, but Dissertation on the Origin of the he appears to us to have consulted Satirical Drama of the Greeks. the most approved authors, as may By Gustavus Pinzger, 8vo. 1822. be seen by the notes at the end of his work.

The author commences by defending the authority of Herodotus

against the attacks of the celebrated Tragedie, &c.

Schneider, and other philologists; Shakspeare's 'I'ragedies, translated who maintain that this historian

into Italian. By Michele Leoni, is mistaken in attributing to the in. 12 vols. 8vo. Verona.

habitants of Sicyon tragic choruses

anterior to Thespis. He supports it Sig. Leoni is constantly enriching by a passage from Themistius, and his country with the finest foreign thinks, with Suidas, that Epigenes productions, either in prose or verse. of Sicyon is the real inventor of Besides many others, he has tran- tragedy; of that ancient lyrical traslated the “ Traveller," by Gold- gedy, similar to the dithyramba. smith; Otway's “Venice Preserved;” M. Pinzger connects the fable of “The School for Scandal,” and the Arion with the origin of tragedy in “Rivals,” by R. B. Sheridan; and Peloponesus. Thespis followed after Hume's History of England. and gave a dramatic form to these

But of all this author's transla- lyrical songs. The author maintains tions from English works, that of with great skill that the tragedy of Shakspeare's tragedies does him the Thespis was serious, and did not most honour. He has published it admit of satirical chorusses; on the in twelve volumes, each of which contrary, that it approached the contains a tragedy, preceded by the dithyramba. According to him the critique of M. Schlegel, taken froin satirical drama rose from the popular his “Course of Dramatic Literature.” rejoicings at the feasts of Bacchus ;

King Lear and Richard II. are he thinks Pratinas of Phliuntes was translated into prose, all the others the author of it, and he dates its are in verse. In translating this origin in the 70th Olympiad. Lastly, poet, who is always original in he gives some fragments of the thought and expression, the tran- Tetralogies of Pratinas, and a critislator could not always preserve the cal examination of them. There is same equality of style and colouring. an appendix to this work, in which But though Sig. Leoni could not M. Pinzger disputes the authenticity avoid this irregularity, he tries to of the four books, “ De vita Consoften it down by the correctness of stantini," attributed to Eusebius.

ENGLISH BOOKS.

Memoirs of the History of France, sons in authority in different coun

during the Reign of Napoleon. tries; and which have, therefore, Dictated by the Emperor, at been deemed worthy of his special Saint Helena, to the Count de attention, And here we must obMontholon. 8vo. pp. 377. Lon serve upon Napoleon's style of condon, 1823.

troversy... He takes up solely the

points of his adversaries' statements, We have felt it an imperative, but disregarding their works as a whole; at the same time a pleasurable duty, and, in refutation of these points, he to lay before our readers a full ac- crouds a number of dates and indiscount of the various volumes, that putable facts, or appeals to the have successively appeared within simple unerring principles of our the last nine years, upon the subjects intellectual nature, and to the geconnected with the late Emperor of neral sentiments and impressions France ; convinced that these vo which are alike common to man in lumes contained not only a fund of all countries ; and this matter he instruction and amusement to readers states in the most forcible style, of every class, but that they formed without any form or arrangement the depositions from which posterity derived from study or art, but with wonld draw all their materials for the words falling in that natural the history of our age. The volume order which a strong conception and which is now before us may be said a consciousness of power would to contain less of mere amusement give them. There are, therefore, for superficial readers, and less to few epithets, for his weapons are gratify a crude curiosity, than any facts of the strongest description, of its precursors from Saint Helena ; and his words so accurately and but it is a volume of great use for precisely convey those facts, that intellectual study, and it throws a áll epithets would be supererogatory, light upon many points of interest and have the effect of offending the connected with the most important reader, by anticipating his associaoccurrences of the late eventful pe tions and sentiments: there are also riod ; and upon points which have no antitheses, nor long, involved, not only given rise to much contro and obscure passages, but every versy, but upon which the truth thing evinces that the Emperor most probably would never have dictated from a rapid sequence of been ascertained by our descendants, strong and luminous conceptions, if Napoleon himself, or somebody and from an intuitive comprehenintimately connected with him, had sion of his subject. We scarcely not elucidated the subjects, and need observe, that such a mode of given us data for reflection. Inde reasoning is to contingent subjects, pendent of its historical importance, what demonstration is to abstract we point out the volume as an ob science. ject of intellectual study to the man The first 28 pages contain Napoof profound thought, for it contains leon's strictures upon the Baron a model of that sound ratiocination, Jomini's “ Treatise upon grand devoid of all art or scholastic form, Military operations,” a work which which distinguishes the mind of has had an astonishing reputation Napoleon; and which, perhaps, it with military men upon the contimight hardly be extravagant to say, nent, and the merits and nature of amounts to pure intellection, at which we recollect to have been least as near to pure intellection as displayed to our own countrymen the finite nature of humanity will by an elaborate critique and able admit of.

analysis in the Edinburgh ReThe work contains the late Em view of about ten years ago.

The peror's strictures upon, and refuta Emperor begins his strictures by tions of, several of the various pub. confirming the already acquired relications relating to his reign and putation of the work: he begins by to himself, which have emanated saying, that “ This work is one of mediately or immediately from per the most important of all that have

been published relative to these sub- capacity to adapt his system to the jects;" and proceeds to add a vast altered state of Europe. By this deal of valuable matter, which he work, the “ Precis des Evenemens,' observes, “ may assist the author in it appears hat Mr. Pitt's views his future editions, and will be in being insular, his great object was teresting to military men." The to prevent the French from acquiring Emperor gives us a numerical state- possession of Belgium, and of the ment of the force of the French and maritime forces and positions of Austrians at the battles of Monte Holland ; upon this subject it is obnotte, Lodi, Castiglioni, Bassano, served, that Mr. Pitt's object was Arcole, Rivoli, in his memorable evidently unattainable after Austria campaign of 1796, and proceeds to had been compelled to cede all Belsimilar details relative to his passing gium to France, by the peace of the Tagliamento, and his forcing Campo-Formio; after the great suchis passage into the Tyrol, in his cess of Austria in Italy, during Nacelebrated German campaign of poleon's absence in Egypt, had 1797, and which indeed was nothing failed to rescue Belgium from more than his pre-calculated conse France; and, finally, after Napoquence of his successful operations leon's great successes, on his eleva. in the Italian campaign of the pre- tion to the Consulship in 1800, had ceding year. The general disposi reduced the power and influeuce of tion of the contending forces, the Austria to a comparative nullity. views of the different officers, with The Emperor then proceeds to argue the Emperor's elucidations of many that it was unjust, absurd, and imnice points of military controversy, politic in the English minister to reare given in a masterly style; but fuse the overtures for peace made to they relate so exclusively to the Great Britain in 1800. He shews military profession, that, however how advantageous to England a valuable they may be to command peace at that period would have ing officers or to continental states been, and that the peace he offered men, they are of little or no interest would have prevented the subsequent to the general reader, except per- overthrow of the power of the Pope, haps as specimens of reasoning, and and of the Kings of Sardinia and of as reminiscenses of the events which Naples, with that of the Duke of once filled the gazettes of all Eu- Tuscany; and the Emperor shews rope, and were the subject of hope satisfactorily that peace would have or fear, and of deep and anxious been personally injurious to himself, speculation, to every gentleman of war being the only means of his an age to contemplate the extraor- acquiring personal supremacy: in dinary and important features of short, Napoleon proves that his that eventful crisis, when thrones wearing a diadem, and his trampand dynasties were subverted, and ling upon the thrones of Europe, kingdoms destroyed and remodelled, were entirely, the consequence of as if by the rod of a magician. Lord Grenville and Mr. Pitt's re

Immediately succeeding to this jection of the offers of peace made chapter, we have 80 pages upon the in 1800. Upon this latter point we celebrated work entitled « Precis conceive there can be no rades Evenemens Militairés, ou Essais tional dispute ; but with respect to Historiques sur les Campagnes de the general ground and policy of 1799, à 1814," and the chapter is Mr. Pitt's rejecting the peace, we of much more general interest than must observe, that the Emperor arthe preceding, as it contains the gues the case as if it were a point to Emperor's views and observations be determined by intellect, forgetupon the Pitt system, upon the con- ting how much of prejudice and pastinental policy of that memorable sion was prevalent at that period in period, and upon the campaigns of all the old cabinets of Europe. General Moreau, with several ex With respect to the English minisceedingly important and luminous ter refusing to negociate with the remarks

upon the French and Eng- Consul on the grounds of his go, lish expeditions to Egypt,

verument not being legitimate and Napoleon speaks of Mr. Pitt's an- acknowledged, Napoleon observes, tiquated policy, and of his want of “ The republic had been acknow

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