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ledged by all Europe ; England re- country, into whose ever bands the cognized it in 1796, by empowering government may fall." Lord Malmesbury to treat with the We have afterwards some obserdirectory, this plenipotentiary had rations upon Moreau's German successively attended at Paris and campaign of 1800, the substance of at Lisle, he had negociated with which has appeared in the work of Charles Lacroix, Letourneur, and General Gourgaud. Marel, &c.” The facts are certainly We refer our readers to page 67, conclusive on the subject. But says for some valuable and interesting Napoleon, in page 65, " In Janua

“ In Janua. remarks relative to Egypt. “ry and February 1800, France so Kleber was the protegé of Na“ licited peace; Lord Grenville re- poleon, and esteemed by him only “plied only by a torrent of invec. inferior to Dessaix. He was assassi“ tive, he desired that the Princes nated by a fanatic for having order“ of that race of Kings should re ed a priest to be bastinadoed, and “ascend the throne of France; and the army fell to the cominand of “ now (a few months after) Lord Menou, by whose excess of bad “Grenville was soliciting as a fa- management alone Sir Ralph Aber“ your

to be admitted to treat with crombie was enabled to dispossess " the Republic.” This alludes to the French of Egypt. With all our the period wh

M. Otto was in zeal for the success of our arms, we London, into whose negociation the can not but regret the issue of this present volume briefly enters. contest, as it deprived the French

The Emperor then proceeds to of the means of establishing a Eushew that Moreau's campaign on ropean system of moral and social the Rhine, in 1796, was replete with government in Egypt, from which procrastination and military errors; its benetits might have radiated in his campaign in Italy in 1799, throughout all Asia and Africa, he gives Moreau great credit for reclaiming to justice, to social bravery and talent as the command. regularity, and to science, those er of a division under Scherer, but countless boards of semi-barbarians shews that when he was raised to that now commit every excess of the chief command by the recall of cruelty and violence upon each Scherer, his errors ensured the suc. other, rendering the finest portion cess of General Suwarrow, the ruin of the earth worse than a desert. of the French forces under Serrurier How contemptible is the politician; and Macdonald, and the loss of all to the philosopher! How contempo Italy to France. The Emperor tible is the patriot to the philanthroappears to us to conclude his obser pist! The Emperor proves that vations by a very able summary of " the army of Egypt might have Moreau's character, he says,

" Mo

perpetuated itself in that country, "reau had no system, either in po “ without receiving any assistance “ lities or war; he was an excellent “ from France; provisions, cloth" soldier, personally brave, and ca ing, all that is necessary to an pable of manæuyring a small enemy, abounded in Egypt; there

army on the field of battle effec “ were military stores and amunia “tually, but absolutely ignorant of “ tion enough for several cam“the higher branches of tactics, paigns; besides, Champy and " Had he engaged in any intrigues “ Conté had established powder " to bring about an 18 Brumaire, “mills, the army had sufficient “ he would have miscarried, he “ officers, &c. to organize a force “would only have effected the ruin “ of 80,000 men, it could obtain as " of himself and his adherents.” many recruits as might be desired, To this we may add, that Moreau's especially amongst the young appearing as the commander of a Copts and Greeks, Syrians, and foreign force, against his country, Negroes of Daifur and Sennaar; must for ever ruin his fame in his many recruits (Copts) had receivtory. Our Admiral Blake abjured " ed the decoration of the legion of the government of Cromwell; but “ honour." The Emperor then profought for England, observing, that ceeds to shew, that with ordinary “it is our duty to fight for our good management, neither England, Eur. Mag. Júly; 1823.

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Turkey, nor Russia, could have dis ron of Aboukir, which increased possessed the French of the country; “it to 33,000 mep, 24,000 returned and that the French vessels traversed “ to France, 1,000 had previously the Mediterranean almost with im gone home wounded or blind, but punity, conveying necessary, sup “a like number had arrived in La plies to Egypt; he says, “ the ex “ Justice, &c. The loss was there

pedition to Egypt was completely “ fore 9,000 men, of whom 4,000 “ successful. Napoleon landed at “ died in 1798 and 1799, and 5,000 “ Alexandria on July 1, 1798; on “ in 1800 and 1801, in the hospitals

Aug. 1, he was master of Cairo “and in the field of battle.” Napo“and of all Lower Egypt; on Jan. leon makes the total English force “ 1, 1799, he had conquered the to amount to 34,000 men, with “ whole of Egypt; on July 1, 1799, 25,000 Turks; but adds, that “ “he bad destroyed the Turkish they came

ne into action only at in“ army of Syria, and taken its train “ tervals of several months, victory “ of 42 field-pieces, and 150 ammu “must have infallibly declared for “nition waggons; in the month of “ the French, if Dessaix or Kleber “ August, he destroyed the select “ had been at the head of the army, “ troops of the army of the Port, “or indeed, any general but Me“ and at Aboukir took its train of

“ non." “ 32 pieces.” The Veni vidi vici It is curious to compare the of Cæsar was tardiness itself com astonishing rapidity of Napoleon's pared to this. But Napoleon left conquest of Egypt, with the spirithis conquests in the hands of those less and imbecile manners of Saint who were but little able to preserve Louis in similar circumstances. St. them. Kleber had a sort of Nostal. Louis landed at Damietta on Jane 6, gia, or as the French called it, le 1250, and entered the town on the malalie du pays, and, so ardent was same day, where he loitered until 6th his desire to return to France, that of December; on that day he began he signed the convention of El his march up the right bank of the Arisch with the Grand Vizier, but Nile, and arrived on 17th opposite Colonel Latour Maubourg arriving Mausourah, where he loitered away on March ), 1800, before Cairo had two months more. On Feb. 1251, he been surrendered, defeated the Grand passed the Nile and fought a battle, Vizier, and reconquered Egypt. and was eventually defeated, and “ In March 1801,” says Napoleon, became an object of contempt and “ the English landed an army of ridicule, although he was canon“ 18,000 men, without horses for ized by the Pope. Napoleon ob“ the artillery or cavalry, this army serves, that “if St. Louis, on the “ must have been destroyed ; but “8 June 1250, had mancurved Kleber had been assassinated. “ as the French mancurved in 1798, "and, by an overwhelming fatality, " be would have arrived at “ this brave army had been consign

“ Mausourahi June 12, at “ed to the command of a man, who, “ Cairo on June 26, and he would

although competent enough for “ have conquered Lower Egypt “ many other purposes, was detesta “ within a month after his arrival." “ble as a military commander.” Following this account, we have a In six months the French, to the very admirable reply or refutation number of 24,000 men, were landed by Napoleon to a letter, which on the coast of Provence by their Kleber wrote to the Directory to invictors; and, we may add, to de duce them to abandon the plan of vastate Europe, instead of being colonizing Egypt. Considering left to civilize Africa and Asia. how actively the guillotine was plied The Emperor tells us, that “ the at that period, we are still astonish“ army of Egypt, on its arrival in ed that any commanding officer

Malta, in 1798, was 32,000 strong, should have ventured to send home “ it received there a reinforment of a dispatch and returns so replete “ 2,000 men, but left a garrison of with 'falsehoods and absurdities. “ 4,000, and arrived at Alexandria However, Kleber was not doomed to

30,000 strong. It received 3,000 gratify his longing for his native men from the wreck of the squad. land he fell by the hand of a vul

on

gar assassin, whose blow thus, in division, consisting of men of coall human probability, altered the lour, was confided to General Ri. fate of mankind throughout Asia gaud, the most ferocious hatred exand Africa for ages. The contemp- isting between the two classes of tible description of the Turkish mili- people. " A horrible civil war soon tary may be gathered from the fact, is broke out between these two parthat in one battle the French lost “ ties; the Directory seemed to look 100 men, whilst the Grand Vizier on this contest with pleasure, lost 15,000.

" thinking the rights of the mother Succeeding to this interesting country secured by its duration. chapter upon Egypt, we have 75 “ This war was raging at its utmost pages upon the concordat of 1801, height in the beginning of 1800.” the abduction of the Pope, upon So much for humanity.

But we state prisons, and

upon

several are told, that “ the first question other subjects, all of which is so “ which Napoleon had to consider, highly important that we regret on coming to the head of affairs, that the limits of our magazine will was, whether it would be for the not allow us to enter upon the topics “ interest of the mother country, to, at any length. Respecting the in foment und encourage this civil divisibility of the church Na

war, or to put an end to it.” Na. si consented to the suppression of latter alternative; but whether this

sixty diocessis which were almost decision was in deference to huma“ as old as Christianity, and con nity, he himself answers, for he - summated the sale of the property tells us, that he decided to put an “ of the clergy to the amount of end to their civil war, because a ~ 400 millions, (francs) without any fallacious policy, calculated to keep “ indemnity.” In short, it appears up intestine war, was unworthy of that a vast number of the principles the greatness and generosity of the of the Pope and of the Vatican were nation; and that, if this civil war any thing and every thing as inter- continued, the inhabitants would est suited. We must do Napoleon lose all industrious babits, and the the justice to say, that his treatment colony be deprived of what little of the captive Pope was munificent remained of its ancient prosperity. and generous in the extreme, and So completely is man a mere tool in forms a bright reverse of the treatment the views of your politicians. Again, himself experienced when in the pow we are told, that “the triumph of er of his enemies. In these pages the

“ the blacks would have been signaEmperor satisfactorily relieves him “ lized by a total massacre and deself from much of the obloquy that “struction of the men of colour :" has been cast upon him for his con what follows? any shrinking of the duct throughout bis disputes with heart at the thoughts of such a the successor of St. Peter; and we scene?-no;—the sequitar is, “an have but to read pages 191 and 192, irreparable loss (of sugar and to see how equitable and merciful taxes) to the mother country.” were his regulations upon imprison- Napoleon, however, disarmed the ment, when compared to those of mulattoes, and appointed Toussaint the legitimate governments.

commander in chief of Saint DoThe next chapter is upon the Re- mingo, who acknowledged the suvolution of Saint Domingo, and of premacy of the mother country, and the expedition of the French to that is made his monthly report to the island after the peace of Amiens. ministers of Marine;" but happy We are here told that the General

we to say, that he did much of division, Toussaint Louverture, more than " make his monthly rehad treated the French republican port to the ministers of Marine," authorities with great disrespect, for he tranquillized the island, and and had intrigued with the English. in 1800 and 1801, commerce and inIn consequence of this, Toussaint dustry resumed their reign. was “ abridged of half his train ;" But it was evident that Toussaint he was confined to the command of intended to throw off the yoke the blacks in the northern division of France on the first favourable of the island, whilst the southern opportunity; and Napoleon, there

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fore, debated; whether he should enough to arrest, and to transport allow Toussaint his supreme com to France, Toussaint, whom he had mand of the island, upon the black detected in forming plans of insurfarmers paying a rent to the former rection. At length the yellow fever creole proprietors, and upon the sweptoff Le Clerc and the greater part island trading exclusively with of his forces, and the black chiefs, France; or whether he should re- taking advantage of the authority conquer the island and restore the he had left in their hands, succeedold frightful system of creole pro- ed in overcoming the feeble remnant prietorship of land slaves. The of his army. And very fortunate to first project had been adopted, when humanity has been this result, for, news arrived that Toussaint had instead of the island being under himself declared a constitution for the wretched system of creole gothe island, without condescending vernment designed for it, the blacks even to consult the mother country. have by their better adaptation to From this moment Napoleon re the climate been able to make imsolved to conquer St. Domingo. provements, which far outstrip any Now, we must be allowed to ob- thing that we have effected in the serve, that in these proceedings neighbouring colonies. Toussaint had acted only upon those The next chapter relates to the principles of free action, by which election of Bernadotte to the throne the French themselves had been go- of Sweden. It appears that this verned in their revolutionary strug- honour was destined for the Vicegle; and we are at a loss to con. roy, but he refused to change his ceive, upon what principle the con- religion, and the choice fell upon duct of "Tonssaint could “ create a Bernadotte. The public opinion, sentiment of disgust in Napoleon," that Bernadotte's elevation had been who had in Europe broken all the contrary to the wishes of the Emtrammels of ancient proprietorship peror, appears to be completely similar to those of the mother coun erroneous, for the Emperor states try, which Toussaint was now so that his election was negociated justifiably resisting. Napoleon tells with Count de Wrede, the Swedish us, that ** Toussaint had resolved Ambassador, and that he (Napoto perish or to obtain an indepen- leon) bestowed a sum of money upon dence." Surely such a resolve ought Bernadotte to enable him to make to have inspired the first Consul of his debut in Sweden with eclát. a republic with any sentiment than Napoleon's opinion of Bernadotte's that' of disgust. However the ex- military talents is very humble, and pedition against St. Domingo sailed it appears that he had often overunder Le Clerc, whom the Emperor looked his indiscretions on account describes to have been " an officer of his wife, who had been an object of the first merit, equally skilful in of the Emperor's early admiration. the labours of the cabinet and in the The work concludes with the manæuvers of the field of battle;" Emperor's observations upon the and it is known that, in less than whole materiel and composition of three months, he subdued every op an army, upon artillery, orders of position of the blacks, except the battle, offensive and defensive war, unconquerable spirit to be free, and and upon many of his greatest batthe consequent determination to rise tles, with a comparison of his march on their oppressors on the first op over the Alps in 1800 with that of portunity. He disarmed the blacks, Hannibal in 218 A. C. Napoleon, except 6,000 men commanded by amongst other faults which he finds equal numbers of black, white, and with our military system, justly remulatto officers“; and he endeavour- probates our recruiting solely for ed to conciliate the negroes . by money, the cruelty of our discipline, abolishing slavery and establishing and the sale of officers' commissions. equitable laws relative to labour. We conceive his observations upon But Le Clerc violated Napoleon's military details ought to be read principal instructions; he conceived by every professional person. He an antipathy against the mulattos, disapproves of the use of defensive he put his whole trust in the black armour, and gives reasons for preofficers, and although he had spirit ferring the bivouac to tents : of the

cossacks he says, “every thing of the fair traveller, or that he might about these troops are despicable, be able to follow the same track, except the cossack himself, who is and to see the same objects through a man of fine person, powerful, the same medium, and to experience adroit, subtle, a good horseman, the same gladsome sensations. and indefatigable;" of the mam These observations have been eli. lukes he says, “two Mamalukes kept cited from us by a perusal of Mrs. “ three Frenchmen at bay, but 100 Colston's two volumes of travels, in “ French did not fear 100 Mamalukes, which we have an immense variety “ 300 were more than a match for of descriptions of all the important “ an equal number, and 1,000 would and interesting objects in the exten. " beat 1,500, so powerful is the in sive line of her journey, so that the

fluence of tactics, order and evo work is not only amusing, but it is “ lutions." He tells us that “ the of a nature to be highly useful to “ howitzer is a very useful piece for those, who, for pleasure or for busi"setting a village on fire ;" the vil- ness, may be destined to travel the lagers, we imagine, would have a same road. It is the practice, we very different idea of utility in such believe, of most travellers, to make a case. Napoleon attributes the notes of whatever they may see on loss of the battles of Trebbia and their travels; and after their return Cannæ to the Romans having had to compose their volumes from such three lines of battle, and to Han data, assisted, perhaps, by the works nibal having had but one. Modern of preceding travellers, and by Generals, it appears, have much other books of research. Hence more arduous duties to perform most travels fail to interest the feelthan those of Greece and Rome had, ings; they bear the impress of facts, and their fields of battle are more but except on great occasions, such, extensive, and their evolutions more for instance, as the sight of the Alps, complex, than those of the ancients. or the entrance into a great city,

We must confess that we have the relation of such facts are unacderived great satisfaction from the companied by any kindred sensa. perusal of this volume; and, if it tions, and the volumes, therefore, contains less of conversational dis fail to interest, and have an effect cussion upon general subjects of very little superior to that which curiosity than the other volumes we might experience on the perusal from St. Helena, it makes ample of an enlarged and copious gazet: amends by its more important mat teer. It appears, however, that ter upon subjects of bistory and Mrs. Cołston has written her various science.

descriptions on the spot, and whilst

the sensations which the objects ex. Journal of a Tour in France, Swit cited were vivid in her mind, and

zerland, and Italy, during the years hence her volumes acquire an in1819, 1820, and 1821, illustrated terest, a sort of individuality which by fifty Lithographic Prints. By carries the reader through them with Marianne Colston, 2 vols. 8vo. increased satisfaction, and impresses pp. 736. London, 1823.

their contents on his mind with

much accuracy and perinanency. Unless travels are devoted to Mrs. Colston left England at the points of history, to statistical in worst season of the year for travellquiries, or to science or art, we ing, but at the very best for escaping would much rather that they should the rudeness of our English chabe written by ladies than by gentle racter, and for exchanging the endmen. The fairer sex have a lighter less fog, the rain and snow of our buoyancy of spirits, they see every latitude, for the mild temperature thing through a gayer medium, and and blue 'skies of Southern climes. their pencil sketches what they see She left Southampton on the 2nd of with such a felicitous lightness, that November, 1819, and travelled the reader fancies 'the scene to be to Paris viâ Havre de Grace and present; and, when he awakes to Rouen. From Paris she proceeds, reality, it is only to wish that he through Fontainbleau, to Dijon, bad been the compagnon de voyage and over the Jura Mountains to

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