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Geneva, and over Mount Cenis to attending to the “res angusta domi,". Turin, Modena, Bologna, Florence, and there is such a pleasure, or, perRome, Padua, Venice, Verona, Man- haps, such a malevolence, in a comtua, Milan, Geneva, Lausanne, munity of misery, that we would Berne and the other principal cities fain flatter ourselves that the neof Switzerland; from which country cessity of a similar attention to such she returns to France, and travels low cares exists in other classes than through Marseilles, Toulon, Avig our own, and that information of non, Montpellier, Bourdeaux, again the expense of living in the differ-. south to Bayonne, thence to Paris ent cities of the continent would be by way of Orleans. It is obvious far from decreasing the value of any that a rout so very extensive, and work of travels, whether in pomincluding so many cities and objects pous quarto or in more humble of importance to every class of cights. readers, cannot fail to make Mrs. We fully acknowledge the great Colston's Travels of general interest. utility as well as amusement that
Descriptive Travels from France to must be derived from Mrs. Colston's Italy, and from Italy to Switzer works, but a critic, like a schoolland, and thence to France, are to master, never conceives his dignity be found in various volumes, but well maintained, unless he exhibits we know not that any one work of his acumen in detecting errors, and travels, published since the peace, in reproving faults. We must, therecombines the advantage of con fore, suggest that some passages of taining a full and detailed description these volumes exbibit a masculine of these three separate routs. Our coarseness, and that they are not fair traveller seems to have been altogether free from vulgarisms, or stimulated by what many might be always in a tone consistent with the inclined to call female curiosity, but elegance of feminine manners in the what our gallantry would designate higher circles. We must observe by the better name of a thirst for also, that we disapprove of Mrs. knowledge. She appears to have Colston's propensity to contrast difbeen indefatigable in her researches, ferent: religions. Living in Floand she has given us descriptions of rence, she tells us, that the religion every object in her route which was of the people (those who were courworthy of the smallest notice, so teous and kind to her included) that her volumes will be a great ac “appears to Protestants more adaptquisition to future tourists, as well ed to children than to persons of as a fund of information and of maturer age. I cannot help conamusement to stay-at-home travell. trasting the dignifying, ennobling ers. There is one species of infor influence of our faith, with the mation which these volumes, as puerilities of theirs." Now it is well as every other Tour that has hardly candid or equitable in any fallen within our knowledge, totally comparison to balance the "dignifyneglects. We mean the value of ing and ennobling" parts of any money at different places, informa thing against the “puerilities" of tion on which point would be ex another; but we object to this throwtremely useful to the vast numbers ing of stones against our neighbours, who are obliged to resort to the especially when we have no safecontinent, from motives that would guard against the lex talionis, and induce them to direct their course to no unerring standard to ascertain where moderate comforts could be whether our own house be built on acquired at the most moderate cost a rock or on a sand bank. It is From the very general neglect of this surely both mischievous and conspecies of information observable in trary to the mild spirit of Christianity travels, we imagine that travellers to be marshalling creeds in hostile must be a more wealthy class of in. array, or to be putting them at all in dividuals than critics, aud mere contact, and at a time when infiliterary gentlemen ; but for our delity is making such rapid advances parts, dignified and important as amongst those educated classes, we hold our functions, we cannot which must eventually influence the but acknowledge the necessity of rest of the community; it would be
prudent to arrest the torrent by uni on her journey with so much preting all denominations of Christians cipitancy that she has no opportuin one social and family compact, nity of giving us any representation the maxim of which might be as to of the manners, habits, and customs dogmas of faith, that “ his can't of the different ranks of Swiss sobe wrong whose life is in the right.” ciety, of the condition of the poorer Mrs. Colston is sadly disposed to classes, of their sentiments and a contrary tone of feeling, and we opinions, and of the degree of infind her in page 68, vol. 1., compar formation circulated amongst them ing the church service of the Ca- by their rulers. But Mrs. Colston tholics to a country dance, and in could not pass through Yverdun numerous other places sneering at without mentioning M. Pestalozzi them, ridiculing them, or at least and his academy; and she gives a speaking of them with disrespect. pretty intelligible account of the Our traveller is not always very
outline of M. Pestalozzi's great princlear in her ideas on subjects of art. ciples of communicating knowledge, For instance, speaking of the church and makes some comparison between of the Hospital des Invalides at bis plan and that of M. Fellenberg; Paris, she tells us that the architec but she unfortunately terminates her ture is " grand and rich in the
pages on the subject, by expressing highest degree," and a few lines the vulgar apprehension that society after talks of the “simple grandeur" may be injured by the diffusion of of the building. Now simplicity knowledge amongst the lower orders and grandeur, or grandeur and rich of mankind. It would be hardly ness, in architecture are consistent, fair in us to reprove a lady for an but we can form no idea of a build erroneous opinion on a subject so ing at once grand, simple and rich. far removed from the range of female But the lady tells us that this build studies, but we must suggest to Mrs. ing is “grand and rich in the high- Colston, that, without her entering est degree notwithstanding the mix. into systems and theories, if she had ture of orders contained in it, the only reflected a little upon history, or first tier of columns being doric, on the passing scene of life, she must the second corinthian, and the third have come to the conclusion, that composite.” Now this multiplica. knowledge and not ignorance is the tion of columns is a mere copy from bond of civil society, and that, in all the Romans, being a constituent of barbarous or semi-barbarous states, grandeur; the word “notwithstand. revolutions and civil commotions of ing" in the above sentence, is to us every description are of frequent ocunintelligible, and, moreover, the currence, whilst in states where triple tier of columns and gilded knowledge is extensively diffused roof of the building she is speaking amongst the people the order of of are in a most rich and florid society is seldom disturbed, or, if style, and cannot form what she disturbed, it is soon restored, and afterwards calls “the simple gran. the disturbance is unaccompanied deur” of the building. We have a by any excess of atrocity. The very fair description of Havre-de- lower people of America were better Grace and of Rouen, but her de- informed than the lower orders of scriptions of some of the cities in the society in Europe ; and, in their reNorth of Italy are not sufficiently volution against Great Britain, they detailed. Florence she describes preserved the general principles of fully, and her chapters on Rome property and of civil subordination and its vicinity will be found in to the newly constituted authorities, structive and amusing, and we can
In France the revolution was most pass the same praise on her pages, sanguinary, because the people had descriptive of Venice and Milan. been purposely kept in a state of With her descriptions of Switzerland brutal ignorance by the priesthood. we are satisfied, as far as they re It seems to us little less than impiety present the towns and the appear. to assert that God has made his creaance of the country, with the mode tures, so that society can be secure of travelling; but we feel rather only by sacrificing one-half of manvexed, occasionally, that she hurries kind at the shrine of ignorance. A
century ago, statesmen would have reader may be confident to find, colthought the degree of knowledge, lected under every such name, all now opossessed by the middle and that can be useful for him to know lower orders, incompatible with the on the snbjects. Persons going to subordination of society; and yet Paris, for instance,might save themwe find society to be now more free selves the trouble of wading through from turbulence and danger than it the numerous descriptions given by was then. The knowledge that Mrs. travellers of that capital, as they Colston would now keep from per. would find the substance of all they sons below her would, a century could wish to learn, or that could be ago, on the same principle, have necessary to guide their search after been kept from the rank to which it amusement or knowledge in that is her lot to belong. Messrs. Pesta city, collected within as small a lozzi, Bell, and Lancaster, are great compass in the present volumes as benefactors of their fellow-creatures, is consistent with accuracy. Some and every intelligent and truly pious of the poetic effusions in these voperson must be anxious to extend lumes are far from indifferent, but the blessings of knowledge and edu. Mrs. Colston uses the word sonnet cation to the poor, with a view of in the sense of a small poem, almoralizing them, and rescuing them though custom has attached it solely from the animal vices which are the to the poem of fourteen lines; but offspring of ignorance. We appre. even her sonnets of fourteen lines hend that our fair traveller on some are not legitimate in their versifica. subjects is not in the habit of think. tion. In the legitimate sonnet, the ing for herself, but takes her notions fifth line ought to rhyme with the at second-hand from those who have first and fourth, and the sixth line gone before her in the journey of ought to answer to the seeond and life; she is, therefore, a proof of the third ; this arrangement of the first great benefit likely to accrue from eight lines of the sonnet Mrs. Col. M. Pestalozzi's system, the object ston entirely neglects, and her diviof which is to teach the mind to think sion is into three quatrains, and a originally and profoundly, and not termination by a couplet, an ar. to make it merely a receptacle of rangement monotonous, and in every data without the habit, and almost respect inferior to the established without the power of reflection. distribution of the fourteen lines of
Having stated our objections to the sonnet. The work is accom what we think erroneous in these panied by a separate folio of fifty volumes, it is but justice that we lithographic prints, of which the should bear testimony to their merits, subjects comprise some remarkable and allow Mrs. Colston her full meed fine views, and are in general well of praise, for her diligence and judg- chosen and as well executed. We ment in collecting such a vast fund are great advocates for the intellec, of information as the reader will find tual employment of ladies, and we in her journal. The plan of her have great pleasure in assuring work renders it almost impossible Mrs. Colston, that her Journal bears to present any thing new upon many the stainpof higher merit than seveof its divisions; for instance, what ral of the Tours and Travels that can possibly be said upon the build. have been given to the public by ings of Rome, or upon the amuse the other sex, since the continent ments of Paris that is not to be found was thrown open to English tra, in preceding travels ? but the great vellers. utility of these volumes is that the
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE,
FORBIGN AND DOMESTIC.
posed to the air, gave signs of life There is a plant in the Tenessy State, although it died in a few minutes. The which, it is said, renders the flesh and cavity was barely large enough to hold milk of cows poisonous. All who drink the body, and was at its nearest point of this milk soon feel the usual effects at least six inches from the surface. of poison, vomiting, fever, confused
SOUTH AMERICA. vision, &c. and die in six or seven days. M. Gomez, assisted by some Chinese Dogs and cats that eat of the flesh of gardeners, cultivates the tea-plant in those cows become very ill. The same Brazil with great success. also grows in the Ohio State, and pro The last gazettes from Columbia duces the same effects.
afford evidence, that the Republic is The following novel and singular active in improving its laws and instiferry-boat has been established at tutions, and the government appears Troy, on the Hudson river, 166 miles zealous in promoting the education of from its mouth, the river being 900 the people. There are two Lancasterian feet broad. A boat is entirely covered Schools in the capital, which supply by a platform or ftoor, on which is tutors for the provincial schools as placed a massive horizontal wheel, oc they are successively established. The cupying the whole breadth of the boat, scholars are instructed in reading, Tbis wheel, by a peculiar 'contriv writing, arithmetic, the elements of ance, is turned by the hoofs of two geography and of short-hand, with the horses, and it communicates its action rights and duties of citizenship. The by means of teeth to two vertical last meetings have afforded proofs of wheels attached to the sides of the the great improvements made in these vessel, in a manner similar to those of a seminaries, which are supported by the steam-boat.
revenue of the suppressed monasteries. It appears by the report made to the The zeal of the government in diffusing Director of Education, by Mr. Gideon knowledge amongst the lower orders Hawley, Superintendant of the Second has been caught by many individuals ; ary Schools of the province of New and society is mak rapid progress York, that, in 1819, the forty-seveni since the establishmeot of general committees, managing 555 districts, liberty. According to an official report had under their care 5,763 primary in 1822, in the preceding nine months, schools, on which the State of New there had been sailing under the ReYork, out of the fund voted for public publican flag, two corvettes, six brigs, instruction, has bestowed 117,151 dol twelve galeots, and two cutters; and lars, for the year 1819. These 5,763 these bad increased in the succeeding schools educate 271,877 children. The months. The amelioration of the blacks total number of children from five to has been equally an object of public fifteen years of age in the 555 districts solicitude. A Mr. Camilo Manrique being 302,703.
has lately liberated nine of his slaves, There are at New York fifty churches and a Mr. Fernandez Soto treats all of different sects, all living in a perfect his slaves as free labourers, giving state of harmony; of these churches them regular wages. Such men as seven are Catholics, five Reformed these deserve to be celebrated, and a Churches, one German Reformed Cal. society mast rapidly advance where its vinist, ode German Lutheran, seven elements are composed of such enlightPresbyterians, one Reformed Presby- ened individuals. terian, three Associated Reformed At Rio de Janeiro the press is now Presbyterian, two Seceders, six Bap- free, and there are actually twelve gatists, one Gallic Welch, one Ebenezer, zettes already published. seven Methodist, one Moravian, one Joseph Bonaparte has founded in the of Universalists, one of St. Peter's, one United States a city called La Ville Cathedral of St. Patrick, one ancient de Joseph. There are already 3,000 and one modern Assembly of Friends, inhabitants, mostly French. one Synagogue, and one of African Baptists; in all fifty.
Several of the merchants and store. Some workmen at Lockport, near keepers, of Calcutta, have, since 1820, Niagara, have found in a small cavity lighted their premises by hydrogen of a rock, a toad, which, on being ex gas.
Eur. Mag. June, 1823.
In the sitting of 22nd April, 1822, Lancasterian Schools are forming, and the Asiatic Society of Calcutta received there is a school of anatomy and suran application to print a grammar of gery under the care of a Mr. Andrew the Pali language, an ancient dialect Stewart. At Port-au-Prince there is an used in the Country of Boudba, and academy for teaching every branch of which is now known at Ceylon, and in medicine, jurisprudence, and of literaJudia, beyond the Ganges, as the
ture, with astronomy, &c.This establishLatin is in Europe. Lieut. Low trans ment is under the direction of Dr. mitted an Essay upon the Thai or Fournier Pescay, a learned physician, Siamese language, containing several well known in France as one of the valuable affinities between that lan contributors to the Dictionary of the guage and the Manderine language of medical sciences., China. In the sitting of the 29th Au.
RUSSIA: gust was read, an Essay of Major Har M. Martinof, the able translator of riot upon the Zingari or Gipseys, ac. several ancient and modern works, has companied by a vocabulary, in which just issued a prospectus of a prose the language of that people is com translation of the following works :pared with the Hiudi, the Persian, and The Iliad, the first canto to be accomthe Sanscrit. This Essay contains panied by a literal translation ; the traseveral curious details relative to the gedies of Sophocles; and the hymns of tribes of these people scattered over Callimachus, with philological remarks Asia; the author is of opinion that they on the Fables of Æsop. M. Martinof did not appear in Europe until about is the first who has attempted to transthe year 1400.
fuse the beauties of the Greek classics Ceylon.- Extract of a letter dated into the Russian language, and bis uuthe 25th August, 1822. “ Mr. Rask, dertaking, even in this point of view, the celebrated Danish traveller, whose merits encouragement. arrival in this country has been an.
PRUSSIA. nounced, having in his last voyage According to the Literary Gazette of been shipwrecked upon thesouth side of Jena, the current coin of Prussia is this Island, repaired to Colombo, and debased by one-quarter of alloy, whilst employed the time, that he saw he the standards of England, Portugal, should be obliged to pass there, in and Italy admit of only one-twelfth of printing in Danish a short Disserta- alloy; and the silver coin of France tion upon the reading of Cingalese and has only one-tenth. By official docuPati, a Dissertation that could be ments it appears, that in Prussia, since printed no where but at Colombo, it 1764, there have been coined seventy being the only city in which can be millions of crowns, and the total found the characters of the two lan- coinage in that period has been equal guages. This work at the same time is in value to 134 millions of crowns. A to afford a specimen of the ludo-Latin general system or equalization of coins orthography, which Mr. Rask has in- for all Germany has been recommended, vented for the companion of the Indian and it is calculated that the total cirlanguages, with those of Europe, and culation is 900 millions of florios; the which has given such general satisfac- whole might be recoined in three years, tion at Ceylon, that new types have at an expense of seven and a half milalready been founded, (Roman letters lions of Florins. By the means of the accented) and it is purposed to intro. invention of Ulihorn, an ingenious duce in the schools this new method peasant of Oldenburgh, the mint at of writing, which is much more simple Dusseldorf daily coins 24,000 drams of than that of the Cingalese lavguage. silver. Ulihorn invented bis machine HAITI.
supposing that the principle must have The latest newspapers (the Tele. been known in England; his invengraph and the Propagator) arrived from tion has been adopted in the low Haiti contain the public speeches pro countries. nounced by the civil and military Professor Wadreck died at Berlin aathorities, in commemoration of the on the 2d of March. He conceived the twentieth anniversary of their liberties, first design of his charitable institution These discourses are well composed, during a severe winter, where he had and chiefly dwell upon recommending found seventeen families in a miserable a union amongst the citizens, and the barn, and several others living in stapractice of the moral virtues, and of bles. Not being able to relieve the sentiments of gratitude towards the whole of them he took charge of the chil. Deity. The ceremony was closed by dren, and in the first instance brougbt singing the Te deum. At the CapeTown, them up in private houses. Soon after