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The proceedings in both Houses of nimous vote, continued the Irish pe n. Parliament since our last number went sion of the late Lord St. Viucent to his 10 press are worthy of notice, rather dephew and successor. for the free complexion of the debates In the House of Commons, the subthan for any positive legislative enact- jects discussed have been by far more ments which those debates have led to. numerous and important. Lord Nugent In the House of Lords, the most im- brought before the House a bill for the portant subject that has been discussed relief of the Catholics of England. He was that of placing the Catholics of proposed first, granting the Elective England upon an equality with those Franchise to Catholics. Second, allowof Ireland. Lord King observed, that ing them to hold Commissions of the
the Church Establishment of Ireland Peace; and thirdly, to repeal the test insulted the people by its ascendency, act in toto. Mr. Peel opposed these and impoverished them by its extor two last propositions, and they were tion." In Ireland, his Lordship de. finally abandoned by Lord Nogent, a clared, that there was a proud and bill being passed for granting the haughty aristocracy of religion, who Elective Franchise to all Catholics in would goveru, not by the priociples of England. peace, but by the sword; it was a pro The government having proposed the fanation to give it the name of a church, renewal of the Irish Insurrection Act, it would profane that sacred and vene Sir Henry Parnell said, that the world rable name, by applying it to a pursuit, would be astonished whenever it was wbicli in Ireland was a mere trade, a made acquainted with the real state of trade in which the idlest apprentice Ireland, and the real'administration of made the greatest fortune, and by the government in that country for the last most scandalous and oppressive means. thirty years. At present, the dispatches The venerable Bishop of Norwich, in of the Lord Lieutenant evinced, that, an enlightened speech, supported the out of the thirty-two counties there were principle of concession to the Catholics, twenty-two in what was called a state aud the bill was further defended by of disturbance, and which meant a the Marquis of Lansdown, by Lord state more demoralized than that of Holland and others, and opposed by many barbarous hordes of savages. the Lord Chancellor, by Lord Redes. From 1796 to 1822, the Insurrection dale, and by the Bishop of St. David's. Act had been the only remedy applied Lord Liverpool did not oppose the bill, to this evil, and the Iosurrection Act but voted for its postponement, and had been in force for sixteen years; in finally the house divided 73 to 80, the that period, and from 1792 to 1822, the bill being lost by the small majority of 7. oppressive act, called the Arms Act,
Lord Grosvenor and other noblemen had been in force no less than twentyanimadverted'in very strong language six years. In forty-six years; twenty upon the indecision of character, counties in Ireland had doubled their and the procrastination and delay in population, and the people born within the conduct of the Lord Chancellor, that period had witnessed nothing but who defended his proceedings at oppression, and bad been bred to resist some length, but the arrears of that oppression by violence, and to Appeal Causes before the House of expect from government only the vinLords from Scotland have accumulated dictive measures of Insurrection Acts to such an alarming degree, that the and Arms bills, so that at this moment, ministers have passed a bill, forming a the whole population of those connties Committee of Lords to decide such have the most rooted abhorrence of appeals. This Committee is to sit five their government. He concluded by days in the week, the attendance of the moving for a Committee of twenty-one Lords is to be compulsory, under a members to inquire into the extent and penalty of 501., and the Crown is to objects of the late disturbancein Ireland. nominate a chairman or president of Mr.Goulburn objected to the Committec the Committee, other than the Lord because it would hold out bopes to IreChancellor, such president, if a com land which it would be impossible to moner, to have no vote, but solely to gratify at this late period of the Sespossess the privilege of giving his sion, and the proposal of a Committee opinion.
was therefore lost, the division being The House of Lords have, by an una 88 to 39. On the succeeding night Eur. Mag July, 1823.
to this debate Mr. Hume moved for limiting the range of religious discusthe abolition of the office of Lord Lieu- sion, and of persecution on account of tepant of Ireland, on the ground that impugning the truth of Christianity. such office was a mere focus of party Mr. Ricardo followed on the same side, passions and intrigues; the business of and gave a speech of great power of government being entirely performed reasoning, in which be displayed great by the Irish Secretary. He was sup- depth of knowledge, with the most ported by Mr. Ricardo, Sir Henry luminous views of social and political Parnell, Mr. Abercromby, and other justice. Mr. Peel made a short speech members of high character, and op- in opposition to the receiving of the posed by Sir John Newport and by petition, and Mr. Wilberforce argued the government.
for supporting revelation by the arm of Mr. Brougham presented a petition the civil power; and at length Mr. to the House from the Catholics of Hume withdrew his resolutions, deIreland, complaining of the unequal clining to press the House to a division, administration of the laws in that coun because the Session was too far adtry. Mr. Brougham instanced many vanced to allow of his bringing in any cases of the perversion of the laws, bill upon the subject. which proved a system of perverting Dr. Phillimore brought in a bill, justice to the purposes of party, and relieving Catbolics from the neces referred to an observation of Lord Re sity of solemnizing their marriages by desdale, “ that there existed in that Protestant clergy. ill-fated country (Ireland) two sorts of A new bill was brought into the law, one for the rich and another for House, for regulating the administration the poor." Mr. Goulburn opposed the of justice in New South Wales. One of motion, on the grounds that the recep- its principal features was the entrusttion of the petition would be tanta- ing of the governor of the province mount to the government's confessing with the arbitrary power of selecting the cbarges which the petitioners jurymen. Sir James Mackintosh opbrought against the executive govern- posed this clause with great zeal. He ment in Ireland.
stated the colony to be in a most flour. The House of Commons passed a bill, ishing condition, that there were 7,556 establishing the equitable principle of persons who had either received the choosing juries in Scotland by ballot, pardon of government, or who had exbut we regret to say, that the bill was piated their offences by undergoing the lost in the House of Lords.
sentence of the law. These 7,556 perOn the 1st of July Mr. Hume pre sons had 5,859 children, and possessed sented a petition to the House, signed 29,000 acres of cultivated, and 212,000 by 2,047 persons, amongst whom 98 acres of uncultivated land, with 3,600 were ministers; the petitioners testified houses, and a capital in trade of 150,0001. their thorough belief in Christianity, sterling. Sir James reprobated the exbut reprobated the supporting of Chris- posing even these people, much more tianity by persecution, or by penal The numerous free settlers of the colony, Jaws of any sort, but argued upon the to such an arbitrary law, as that of the propriety of leaving all religious sub- governor's packing juries at bis indijects open to the most free discussion. vidual discretion; and the Secretary This petition was so ably drawn up, its of State consented to modify the bill, language so elegant, and its reasoning applying its principles only to those so conclusive, that it excited an ex in the colony, who were still under the traordivary sensation in the House. sentence of the law, Mr. Hume supported the petition with The Chancellor of the Exchequer on much ability. He argued that the the 3rd of July, entered upon the fipanwhole principle and spirit of Christi. cial state of the country. He stated anity were directly hostile to that sys that he had at the beginning of the Ses tem of persecution and of legal penalties sion announced that he should require for freedom of discussion to which the 16,000,0001., but that his estimate had followers of Christianity always had been exceeded by about 300,0001., and resorted, and were still so willing other unexpected expenses would into resort, with a view of maintaining crease the sun to 16,970,0001. There what they conceived to be religious had been an increase in the receipt of truth. He referred to Tillotson, Taylor, Customs during the year of 139,0001., Lowth, Warburton, Lardner, Chilling- but a decrease in the Excise of 896,000), worth, Watson, Locke, Newton, and other part of which had been occasioned by great divines and philosophers, who the repeal of Excise Duties. The rehad given their decided reprobation of venue of the year fell short of that of
last year by 153,000, but that even that unhappy country; but, as we with this deficit, the revenue of the have before observed, the recurrence present year would exceed the expen to the never failing resort of the Insurditure by 409,0001. The total of taxes rection Act has, if we except the reduced within the last two years was Tithe commutation Bill, been the only, 6,935,000.
attention which ininisters have paid to, His Majesty prorogued the House by Ireland, although that island is now in Commission on the 19th (July). The a more disorganized state than she has speech delivered by the Commissioners been in since the rebellion of 1798. is not of a nature to invite much of Our Court of Chancery, is known to be comment, or of animadversion. The in a state which amounts to an absolute King expresses his confidence that denial of justice, except to the affluent, the provisions made during the session and even to the affluent is justice defor the internal government of Ireland, nied except at a ruinous expense, and will tend to remove some of the evils with a procrastination equally disas, that have so long amicted that part of trous; and yet the attempt, which has the kiogdom. The only provisions that been made to institute an inquiry into have been made for this object are the that court, has been resisted on the part oft repeated Insurrection Act, and the of government; and a similar resist. Tithe commutation Bill : we trust that ançe bas been made to an attempt to this last measure may tend to remove establish a fair and equitable mode of some of the evils alluded to in the empaupelling juries. If, from our dospeech : but, with respect to the other mestic affairs, we cast our view to measure, the losurrection Act, it has foreign politics, we must observe that been so often tried with no other effect the Sovereigns of Europe have comthan that of temporarily suppressing, menced a war which we have denoun. but really increasing the spirit which ced as iniquitous in its principle, imit is meant to subdue: that we must politic in its object, and impracticable confess that we apprehend much of in its execution : we have with great severity and suffering from its being zeal and sincerity exerted ourselves to carried into effect, but no permanent the utmost to prevent this war, and yet good whatever.
it has been commenced and persevered Considering the active spirit of in in, in spite of all our efforts; a lamentelligence wbich now pervades almost table proof of our possessing but little every class of the com nity, we
weight even in those courts the sovemust confess we are of opinion, that reigns of which owe their power to the the last Session of Parliament has profuse sacrifice of British blood and hardly been in tone with the liberality British treasure. The last Parliament of the age, nor has it effected any may, therefore, be said to have effected change in any branch of our polity, com nothing of positive good for the counmensurate with the knowledge now pos try; but we must, pot forget that the sessed by the country at large, relative sound moral principles, the luminous to the principles of national institu views of honourable foreign policy, tions in general, or relative to the con and the enlarged sentiments of freedition of the institutions of this country dom that have distinguished many of in particular. Our criminal code has the speeches of the members, must been acknowledged by administration have wrought a powerful, though not to be faulty in the extreme, and even in all instances. an immediately pera pledge had been given that during ceptible effect, even upon the most de the late session a committee should generate of our countrymen. It is the have been granted to inquire into the diffusion of such speeches throughout subject; and yet the session has passed the kingdom,, that gradually improves without any such result. With respect the moral sense of the country, and to our commercial policy, the Chancel enables the people to reform their old lor of the Exchequer and the President institutions, and to establish the utmost of the Board of Trade, with several possible degree of freedom, without other members of the cabinet, are de the danger of anarchy and licencious
cidedly disciples of the school of the ness. It is in this point of view that economists; and yet nothing more has the speeches of a Ricardo, of a Mackbeen even attempted, than a few par- intosh, or of a Russell, are invaluable tial and insignificant measures to liber to their country, and he who estimates ate insulated branches of trade froin their speeches merely by their effect restrictions. With respect to Ireland, upon motions before the House, can be the session commenced with great ex but a superficial thinker, and very pectations of government's pursuing little acquainted with the nature of some decided measures in favour of society.
The attention of Europe is so ear. have occupied Seville, overrun all Annestly directed to the affairs of Spain, dalusia, and have now blockaded Cadiz that all other objects of foreign policy by sea and land. Such is the lamentappear to sink into insignificance. In able summary of the news of the last our number for the last month, we month, and, having recorded it, it only noticed the occupation of the Spanish remains for us to descant upon the capital by the Duke d’Angouleme, causes of these disasters, and to specuand we expressed our anxiety to learn late upon their probable result. The the moral effect which this occupation rapid advance of the French from of the capital by the enemy would Madrid in the direction of Cadiz, and have upon the sentiments and passions their audacity in attempting with so of the Spanish people. If this event small a force this operation, which have not, like the capture of Madrid Napoleon had found it difficult to eseby Napoleon in 1808, roused the peo. cute with five times the Duke d'Anple to the enthusiasm of patriotic re. gouleme's strength, rendered it evident sistance, it is a consolation to reflect that there must have been a secret unthat it has not depressed their spirits derstanding between the Duke d'Anby fear, or induced them even to gouleme and the Spanish officers. think of bowing the neck to a despot. Morillo had the command of the patriism imposed by a foreign force. The otic forces in Gallicia, a province of Regency of Spanish nobles, established the utmost consequence from the mounin Madrid by the Duke d'Angouleme, tainous face of the country, from its have formally received Ambassadors position upon the Aanks of the Doke from the courts of Paris, Berlin, and d'Angouleme's army, and from its lying St. Petersburgh; they have been in in the direction traversed by the French defatigable in appealing to the early convoys and detachments. This officer prejudices and ignorant predilections had commanded the Royalist army in of the people, they have used the pow. Columbia, where he had carried on the erful engines of the press and of the war against the patriots with unrelent. priesthood to aid their purpose, and, ing cruelty, and almost upon the prinfinally, they bave been enabled to buy ciples of extermination. In this comover pobles and generals with French mand he had shewn himself as impervigold; and yet, although supported by ous to the sacred flame of liberty, as the victorious army of the Duke d'An. he was to all feelings of justice and gouleme, that Regency has roused no mercy. On his return to old Spain, popular feeling in their favour. We be again distinguished himself by bis do not hear of the army of the Faith degenerate adherence to the corruption being increased in numbers, we hear and slavish principles of the old reof no royal regiments raised to fight gime; and, in one instance, was nearly the battles of Ferdinand, we do not falling a sacrifice to popular indiguahear of the defection of any of the pa. tion. But he swore fealty to the new triotic corps, nor are we told of any Constitution, and, accepting the military districts or cities evincing any public command of Gallicia, took the usual feeling in favour of the “ absolute oaths of office. In this command, howKing.” On the other hand we regret ever, he lost many five opportunities to say, that the Constitutional govern of cutting off French detachments, and ment appear to have shewn but little
of intercepting supplies; and, on one energy in their administration of affairs,
occasion, of capturing a large sum of although, considering the justice of money that was on its way to Seville. their principles, and the power of in. These facts were kuown to the Contellect they have evinced in supporting stitutional government, and Quiroga, those principles, it is but fair to argue and others of Morillo's officers, rethat ibeir want of practical energy peatedly pointed out bis suspicious must have arisen from their destitution conduct; and yet he was continued of pecuniary supplies, and froin the in his command, until at length be distressing circumstances in which openly espoused the side of the invathey have been placed. The French ders of his country. Surely the Bourhave been allowed to traverse, unmo bon government professing to found all lested, from Madrid to Cadiz, passing their claims 10 sovereignty, and to without opposition through mountain- guide all their conduct, upon the sancous tracks, where a small force could tion of religion, ought not to achieve have checked their progress, if not success by bribing men to betray their have compelled their surrender. They country and to violate their oaths. But