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death, between him and St Bernard, was owing. Nor ought it to be forgotten, that to Peter the Venerable western Christendom was indebted for its first accurate acquaintance with the Koran. Travelling in Spain, he

. was convinced how important it was that the Church should be thoroughly acquainted with that system with which it was in hostile contact, and at a great cost he caused a translation of the Koran into Latin to be made. That he should have done this, is alone sufficient to mark him as no common man. He has also himself written a refutation of Mahometanism. He died in 1156.

The poems which bear his name are not considerable in bulk, nor can they be esteemed of any very high order of merit. Yet apart from their interest as productions of one who played so important a part in the history of his age, these lines which immediately follow, and another hymn occupying a later place in this volume, possess a sufficient worth of their own to justify their insertion.


C'ELUM gaude, terra plaude


Nemo mutus sit in laude :
Auctor rerum creaturam
Miseratus perituram,

IX. Bibliotheca Cluniacensis, Paris, 1614, p. 1349.




Præbet dextram libertatis
Jam ab hoste captivatis.
Cælum terræ fundit rorem,
Terra gignit Salvatorem.
Chorus cantat angelorum,
Cum sit infans Rex eorum.
Venter ille virginalis,
Dei cella specialis,

Fecundatur Spiritu.
Et ut virga parit florem,
Sic et Virgo Redemptorem,

Carnis tectum habitu.
Matris alitur intactæ
Puer-Deus sacro lacte,

Res stupenda sæculis !
Escâ vivit alienâ
Per quem cuncta manent plena ;


miraculis ! Pastu carnis enutritur Vitam carni qui largitur : Matris habet gremium, Quem et Patris solium : Virgo natum consolatur, Et ut Deum veneratur.




A ,

LANUS de Insulis, or of Lille, in Flanders, called

Doctor Universalis from the extent of his acquirements, was born in the first half of the twelfth century, and died at the beginning of the next. His life is as perplexed a skein for the biographer to disentangle as can well be imagined, abundantly justifying the axiom of Bacon : Citius emergit veritas ex errore quam ex confusione—the main perplexity arising here from the difficulty of determining whether he and Alanus, also de Insulis, the friend of St Bernard and bishop of Auxerre, be one and the same person. The Biographie Universelle corrected this as an error, although a generally received one; Oudinus, it is true, having already shewn the way (De Script. Eccles. vol. ii. p. 1389—1404); but Guericke and Neander again identify the two. The question, however, does not belong to this volume. The Doctor Universalis is undoubtedly the poet, and it is only with the poet we are here concerned.

The only collected edition of his works was published by Charles de Visch, Antwerp, 1654; a volume so rare that only in the Imperial Library at Paris was I able to get sight of it, and to obtain a perfect copy of a very beautiful Ode, inserted later in this volume. His Parables were a favourite book before the revival of learning; but the work of his which enjoyed the highest reputation was a long moral poem, entitled AntiClaudianus, it does not very clearly appear why. (See Leyser, p. 1017, who gives copious extracts from it.) I know not whether it will bear out the praises which have been bestowed upon it and on its author. One says of him (Leyser, p. 1020: Inter ævi sui poetas facile familiam duxit; and Oudinus (vol. ii. p. 1405), characterizes the poem as singulari festivitate, lepore, et elegantiâ conscriptum ; see also Rambach, Anthol. Christl. Gesänge, vol. i. p. 329. Certainly, in the following lines, the description of a natural Paradise, Ovidian both in their merits and defects, we must recognize the poet's hand.

Est locus ex nostro secretus climate, tractu
Longo, nostrorum ridens fermenta locorum :
Iste potest solus quidquid loca cætera possunt.
Quod minus in reliquis, melius suppletur in uno;
In quo pubescens tenerâ lanugine florum,
Sideribus stellata suis, succensa rosarum
Murice*, terra novum contendit pingere cælum.
Non ibi nascentis exspirat gratia floris,
Nascendo moriens; nec enim rosa, mane puella,
Vespere languet anus, sed vultu semper eodem
Gaudens interni juvenescit munere veris.
Hunc florem non urit hyems, non decoquit æstas,
Non ibi bacchantis Boreæ furit ira, nec illic
Fulminat aura noti, nec spicula grandinis instant.
Ambit silva locum, muri mentita figuram:
Non florum prædatur opes, foliique capillum
Tondet hyems, teneram florum depasta juventam.
Sirenes nemorum, citharistä veris, in illum
Convenere locum, mellitaque carmina sparsim

* Elsewhere he has this couplet:

Ver, quasi fullo novus, reparando pallia pratis

Horum succendit muricis igne togas.

Commentantur aves, dum gutturis organa pulsant.
In medio lacrymatur humus, fletuque beato
Producens lacrymas, fontem sudore perenni
Parturit, et dulces potus singultat aquarum.
Exuit ingemitas (?) facies argenteus amnis ;
Ad puri remeans elementi jura, nitore

Fulgurat in proprio, peregrinâ fæce solutus. The following lines form part, or, as Oudinus asserts, the whole, of the genuine epitaph of Alanus. The last of them is striking enough:

Alanum brevis hora brevi tumulo sepelivit,
Qui duo, qui septem, qui totum scibile scivit ;
Scire suum moriens dare vel retinere nequivit.



IC est qui, carnis intrans ergastula nostræ,

Se pænæ vinxit, vinctos ut solveret; æger
Factus, ut ægrotos sanaret; pauper, ut ipsis
Pauperibus conferret opem ; defunctus, ut ipsâ
Vitâ donaret defunctos: exsulis omen
Passus, ut exilio miseros subduceret exul.
Sic livore perit livor, sic vulnere vulnus,
Sic morbus damnat morbum, mors morte fugatur :
Sic moritur vivens, ut vivat mortuus ; hæres

Exulat, ut servos hæredes reddat; egenus
Fit dives, pauperque potens, ut ditet egenos.
Sic liber servit, ut servos liberet ; imum
Summa petunt, ut sic ascendant infima summum ;


X. Alani Opera, ed. C. de Visch, Antwerp, 1654, p. 377.

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