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for half the year, at least from all the blossoms and imperfect pods, April to September inclusive, in this month and September are genthe northern hemisphere.

erally the harvest months in CaroIn the beginning of April, the lina and Georgia, for cotton. land is broken up as usual by the I need hardly mention that the plough, and divided into two rows, cotton-blossom is succeeded, like about five feet asunder. These that of the pea and bean, by a pod rows are slight trenches, which, or seed-vessel, divided into differwhen the plant has appeared some- ent cells, which contain seeds bed. time above the ground, are raised ded in a fine silky wool. Nothing into ridges by the plough.

remains after the pod is completely There are two modes of planting ripened and burst, but to separate the seed, one is to drop a certain this wool (the seed adhering to it) number of seeds into holes, made from the pod, and afterwards to eight or ten inches from each other, separate the wool from the seed. and this, though most laborious, The first is done by the hand, the saves much subsequent trouble, and pod being left in the field. Sixty occasions much less waste of the pounds of seed-cotton can be pluck. seed than the other mode, which ed in a day by one hand. The seconsists in dropping the seed unin- cond process has sometimes been terruptedly along the trench. The effected in the same way, but masuperfluous growth that is thus pro- chinery of some kind is so easily duced, is thinned by the hand. The adapted to the purpose, that the less promising shoots are plucked mere hand no longer performs it, out, and by successive pickings, the where the crop is considerable. crop is so far thinned, as to leave The produce of an acre varies intervals of ten or twelve inches very much according to the soil and between the stalks. These inter. the season. The largest crop of vals may be enlarged according to which I have ever heard, in Georthe Luxuriance of the plant, and gia or Carolina, has been three may be extended, in the richest hundred and fifty pounds of clean soils and finést seasons, to two, cotton per acre. The smallest prothree, and four feet. One bushel duce, when there is any crop at all, of seed in the latter mode of plant. on ordinary lands, does not fali ing, is required to an acre. short of sixty pounds per acre.

The hoe is constantly employed From one to two hundred pounds to subdue the weeds, and no part must be considered as the middling of the field can be neglected with produce, and from two to three impunity longer than a fortnight. hundred as an excellent harvest. Little hills are formed round the Machines for cleaning the cotton selected plants, to strengthen the from the seed, are cailed gins. stalk, and avert the rain. In Sep- The simplest of these is cailed a tember, when all the pods are foot gin, being kept in motion by formed which can be expected, the the foot acting on a treadle, in the remaining blossoms are cut off, that manner of a lathe, or spinningthe sun and air may exert their in- wheel. They consist of two small fluence the better on what remains. rollers, which more in opposite

In two months after planting, the ways, the circumference of each blossoms make their appearance, being so near each other as to adinit and continue to succeed each other the wool, but exclude the seed. till arrested by the frost. In warm- Each of these is managed by one er climates that curs, the last of slave, who sets the rollers in mothese blossoms is not matured into tion, while he feeds them with cota pod till November or December, ton, and by this means will produce but as frost generally commences about twenty-five pounds a day. throughout the states as early as A number of these machines is October, and as the cold destroys sometimes subjected to a common

FOLIO

power, by means of intermediate wheel-work. These are called

For the Literary Magazine. barrel gins, and are moved by oxen or water. By this machinery, from

ANECDOTES, FROM MY PORT ten to thirty foot-gins are set in motion at once, each being fed by

PHILIP DE VITRE was a weala slave, and the work performed is in proportion to the number of thy citizen of Amiens, in the four,

teenth century.

Many strange these. The most complete and power

stories were current about him, ful of these machines are called but the most remarkable are these: saw-gins: their apparatus being He confined himself to one pint of adapted to disengage the seed more cold water, and half a pound of effectually, while at the same time hard rye buiscuit, baked with the it nearly supplies itself

. One per- bran, per day, from the thirtyson will suffice for a gin of this

kind, seventh to the ninety-ninth year of which cleans eight hundred pounds his age. He divided this into two a day.

equal portions, eating one at twelve

o'clock at night, and the other at No machinery hitherto invented twelve at noon. He limited his will entirely free the cotton from sleep to six hours on an hard board, all impurities. It must therefore walked in the open air in his garden undergo a new and careful picking, two hours daily, and bestowed the before it is put into bags. Cotton, rest of his time on solitary study. which, when loose, occupies an In his dress, he was equally rigoenormous space in proportion to its rous, but no particulars respecting weight, is so violently compressed that or his studies or employments, by means of screws into these bags, are recorded. One cannot but be as to be almost as impenetrable as desirous of knowing more of such a board, at the same time, such is

a man, and of discovering the inthe specific levity of cotton, that a influence of such regimen and diet cubic foot of it thus compressed, on his body and mind. His great shall not weigh more than twelve age is a proof that this influence or fifteen pounds.

was salutary, and the very late peThe mode of cultivation, and riod of his life, at which he comthe manufacture of cotton in China menced ascetic is likewise a proof and India, are very little known to the same purpose, 'This old beyond the limits of these countries. gentleman might have been quite It is natural to be supposed that as remarkable as Ludovico Canaour arts in both these respects, ro, and his fame as extensive, had might be very much improved by he devoted one studious day, out a knowledge of the Indian and the of eighteen thousand, to put his Chinese arts : for any information history on paper. We are equally on these interesting heads, it is in the dark as to the object of his vain to look into ancient or modern studies, and all the benefit which travellers. By some fatality or by so long a life thus spent, might other, the few who have traversed have accrued to posterity, some China, have fixed their eyes scarce cross accident or perverse whim, ly on a single object which deserved denied to us. Some ignorant heir to be examined or described. may have huddled all his papers

As to the advantages of cotton- into a chest, and that chest into a planting, these are extremely va- garret, where the moth and cockriable. The tide of commerce is aroach have long converted the coninfluenced by the tide of war, and tents to their own use. as the planter's profit depends upon prices that are always fuctuating, In the year 1777, one Thomas the profit of one year affords no Coccles of Yarmouth was rcbbed criterion of that of the next. X. of a large sum of money. He ad.

vertised his loss, and threatened and dispirited. As soon as he en. the unknown robbers, that, if they tered the Boar-head inn, the landdid not return the money by a cer- lord inquired his name. He was. tain day, he would apply to Abram in debt, and was actually making Cavenaugh the cunning man. The his way to the nearest seaport, to greater part of the money was re- escape from England. This inturned before the day appointed, quiry awakened liis suspicion, and with an excuse, that the remainder though his real name was Cacklehad been spent. Witchcraft, we thistle, he told them it was Thistlesee, can produce some advantages. thwaite. One tooked upon the By the way, has the pretensions of rest, and exclaimed, “a near that class of persons who profess chance indeed !" They then exhito tell fortunes and discover stolen bited a copy of a will made by an goods, even been examined by in- inhabitant of the town, leaving ten telligent observers?

thousand pounds, his whole proA magistrate of Yarmouth, hav- perty, to that person, bearing, from ing his attention excited by the his birth, the same name with himforegoing incident, paid a visit to self, who should first arrive at the Abraham the conjurer, who pro. Boar-head inn. The testators duced a letter inclosing a bank note name was Cacklethistle, and this of ten pounds. The letter signi- will was made in pursuance of an fied that the bill was sent to him as hasty vow made by the testator, on hush money, should Coccles, dis- some act of disobedience in his only satitfied with a partial reimburse- relation. It is needless to add that ment, still apply to hun. “ Your the traveller immediately estabraverance," said the postcript, lished his claim, and got the legacy. “ knows every thing, and so your A will of this kind, appears, at worship knows that I gave the rest first sight, very absurd; but, in a to Pig Singleton, and she's run'd reasonable point of view, nine out away to Lunnun with a sailor." of ten of the wills, both of the

The magistrate recognized, in living and of the dead, are equally this scrawl, the hand of a discarded absurd. As men scrape together footman of his own, who was forth- money without any view to the with arrested, confessed the fact, public good, so when they can enand was transported for fourteen joy it no longer, they dispose of it years. As honesty, the proverb as chance, anger or caprice sugsays, is the best policy, every gest. In European countries, rogue must be a fool : but everywhere family is of so much imporrogue is a fool in a less refined sense tance, there is no stronger claim to of the word. He almost univerposthumous beneficence, than si. sally wants skill enough to effect militude of name. his own purpose, and discretion enough to keep his own secret. As the vulgarin general, and especially the dishonest part of them, are ex MEMOIRS OF CARWIN THE tremely ignorant and credulous,

LOQUIST. might not the magistrate make a good use of an engine like this? (Continued from page 259.) Constables and conjurers would make useful officers of justice, and My visits gradually became more the latter would, perhaps, be much frequent. Meanwhile my wants the most useful of the two.

increased, and the necessity of

some change in my condition be. In the year 1733, a traveller ar came daily more urgent. This inrived, late at night, at a large vil- cited my reflections on the scheme lage in the north of England, (say which I had formed. The time the chronicles of the times) tired and place suitable to my design,

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were not selected without much were contradictory and unintelligi. anxious inquiry and frequent wa. ble. verings of purpose. These being If I were fully convinced that this at length fixed, the interval to benefit was not my due and yet reelapse, before the carrying of my ceived it, he should hold me in condesign into effect, was not without tempt. The rectitude of my prinperturbation and suspense. These ciples and conduct would be the could not be concealed from my measure of his approbation, and no new friend and at length prompted benefit should he ever bestow which him to inquire into the cause. the receiver was not entitled to

It was not possible to commu- claim, and which it would not be nicate the whole truth ; but the criminal in him to refuse. warmth of his manner inspired These principles were not new me with some degree of ingenuous- from the mouth of Ludloe, but they ness. I did not hide from him my had, hitherto, been regarded as the former hopes and my present des« fruits of a venturous speculation in titute condition. He listened to my my mind. I had never traced them tale with no expressions of sympa- into their practical consequences, thy, and when I had finished, ab- and if his conduct on this occasion ruptly inquired whether I had any had not squared wth his maxims, objection to a voyage to Europe? I should not have imputed to him I answered in the negative. He inconsistency. I did not ponder on then said that he was preparing to these reasonings at this time: obdepart in a fortnight and advised jects of immediate importance enme to make up my mind to accom- grossed my thoughts. pany him.

One obstacle to this measure was This unexpected proposal gave removed. When my voyage was me pleasure and surprize, but the performed how should I subsit in want of money occurred to me as my new abode ? I concealed not my an insuperable objection. On this perplexity and he commented on it being mentioned, Oho! said he, in his usual manner. How did I carelessly, that objection is easily mean to subsist, he asked, in my removed, I will bear all expenses of own country? The means of living your passage myself.

would be, at least, as much within The extraordinary beneficence my reach there as here. As to the of this act as well as the air of un- pressure of immediate and absolute cautiousness attending it, made me want, he believed I should be exdoubt the sincerity of his offer, and posed to little hazard. With tawhen new declarations removed lents such as mine, I must be this doubt, I could not forbear ex. hunted by a destiny peculiarly mapressing at once my sense of his lignant, if I could not provide mygenerosity and of my own unwor- self with necessaries wherever my thiness.

lot were cast. He replied that generosity had He would make allowances, howbeen expunged from his catalogue ever, for my diffidence and self-disas having no meaning or a vicious trust, and would obviate my fears one. It was the scope of his exer- by expressing his own intentions tions to be just. This was the sum with regard to me. I must be apof human duty, and he that fell short, prized, however, of his true meanran beside, or outstripped justice ing. He laboured to shun all hurtwas a criminal. What he gave me ful and vitious things, and therefore was my due or not my due. If it carefully abstained from making or were my due, I might reasonably confiding in promises. It was just demand it from him and it was to assist me in this voyage, and it wicked to withhold it. Merit on would probably be equally just to one side or gratitude on the other, continue to me similar assistance VOL. I....NO. v.

3

when it was finished. That indeed and independent, and that he had was a subject, in a great degree, two sisters whose situation resemwithin my own cognizance. His bled his own. aid would be proportioned to my Though, in conversation, he apwants and to my merits, and I had peared to be governed by the ut. only to take care that my claims most candour; no light was let in were just, for them to be admitted. upon the former transactions of his

This scheme could not but appear life. The purpose of his visit to to me eligible. I thirsted after an America I could merely guess to be acquaintance with new scenes; my the gratification of curiosity. present situation could not bechang My future pursuits must be suped for a worse ; I trusted to the posed chiefly to occupy my attenconstancy of Ludloe's friendship ; tion. On this head I was destitute to this at least it was better to trust of all stedfast views. Without prothan to the success of my imposture fession or habits of industry or souron Dorothy, which was adopted ces of permanent revenuc, the world! merely as a desperate expedient: appeared to me an ocean on which finally I determined to embark with my bark was set afloat, without him.

compass or sail. The world into In the course of this voyage my which I was about to enter, was unmind was busily employed. There tried and unknown, and though I were no other passengers beside · could consent to profit by the guide ourselves, so that my own condi- ance I was unwilling to rely on the tion and the character of Ludloe, support of others. continually presented themselves to This topic being nearest my 'my reflections. It will be supposed heart, I frequently introduced into that I was not a vague or indifferent conversation with my friend; but observer.

on this subject he always allowed There were no vicissitudes in the himself to be led by me, while on deportment or ,lapses in the dis- all others, he was zealous to point course of my friend. His feelings the way. To every scheme that I appeared to preserve an unchange- proposed he was sure to cause obable tenor, and his thoughts and jections. All the liberal professions words always to flow with the same were censured, as perverting the rapidity. His slumber was profound understanding, by giving scope to and his wakeful hours serene. He the sordid motive of gain, or emwas regular and temperate in all buing the mind with erroneous his exercises and gratifications. principles. Skill was slowly obHence were derived his clear per- tained, and success, though integriceptions and exuberant health, ty and independence must be given

This treatment of me, like all for it, dubious and instable. The his other mental and corporal ope- mechanical trades were equally olirations, was modelled by one in- noxious; they were vitious by conflexible standard. Certain scruples tributing to the spurious gratificaand delicacies were incident to my tions of the rich and multiplying the situation. Of the existence of these objects of luxury; they were dehe seemed to be unconscious, and struction to the intellect and vigour yet nothing escaped him inconsist of the artizan; they enervated his ent with a state of absolute equa- frame and brutalized his mind. lity.

When I pointed out to him the I was naturally inquisitive as to necessity of some species of labour, his fortune and the collateral cir- he tacitly aclmitted that necessity, cumstances of his condition. My but refused to direct me in the notions of politeness hindered nie choice of a pursuit, which though from making direct inquiries. By not free from defect should yet. indirect means I could gather now have the fewest inconveniences. thing but that his state was opulent He dwelt on the fewness of our ac

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