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been mentioned in the course of his The conversation of Dr. Darwin biographical sketch. He has left a ahounded with very unequal sallies poem entitled “ The Shrine of of wit; when he found himself Nature;” which is now in the engaged with a powerful antagopress, and will shortly be published. nist in argument, he had some
Next to Medicine, Mechanics times recourse to ridicule, a wea. and almost every branch of Natu- pon which he did not always hanral History engaged his attention. dle with dexterity, for he was afHe not only pursued those studies fected with an impediment in his with great ardor and diligence speech which rendered his enunhimself, but also embraced every ciation scarcely intelligible. opportunity of cultivating and en There are reasons for suspecting couraging them amongst his nume- that Dr. Darwin was not a believe rous connections and acquaintance, er in Divine Revelation; but Very soon after he settled at Dere belief is a matter of necessity, not by, he instituted and established a 'choice. The religion of a man is a philosophioal society and library, private affair between himself and both of which were in a flourishing his Maker: we have nothing to do condition at the time of his decease. with it. A few days before his The society, of which he was pre- death, a gentleman to whom we sident, consists of members who are indebted for the materials of reside in different parts of Notting- a considerable portion of these hamshire, Derbyshire, and Leices- memoirs, endeavoured to discover tershire. He also took pleasure in whether he entertained a belief and encouraging works in natural his- expectation of a future state of tory.
existence, the Doctor was observed But though the learning, taste, to speak with a considerable degree and genius of Dr. Darwin were of sedateness on the subject, and eminently displayed in these pur- remarked, that it was natural to suits, yet there was one great end, extend our wishes and viewsbeyond to the attainment of which all his the prsesent scene, and that it was talents and views were earnestly right to pursue such measures as and uniformly directed. He did are likely to secure our happiness not hesitate openly and repeatedly in another world; “ but,” let us to declare in public company, that not hear any thing about hell." the acquisition of wealth was the In the foregoing sketch, the in• leading object of all his literary tention has been merely to state a undertakings! He once said to a few plain facts: the excellencies friend : “ I have gained 9001. by of Dr. Darwin have been noticed, my Botanic Garden, and 9001. by and his errors exposed with equal the first volume of Zoonomia: and openness : biographers, like juryif I can every other year produce men, should deliver a verdict aca work which will yield this sum, cording to the evidence, uninfluenI shall do very well.” He added; ced by « fear, favour, or affection." « Money, and not fame, is the object which I have in view in all my publications."
But Dr. Darwin was by no BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF MR. means insensible to the value of
ADDINGTON. reputation. During the last years of his life, the love of fame was MR. Addington is the son of a a passion which had great power physician of some eminence, who over his mind; and the incense of died about eleven years since, after praise was so very pleasant having practised with equal celehim, that flattery was found to be brity and success. That gentlethe most successful means of gain- man, during the whole of his life, ing his notice and favour. appears to have been a great philoVOL. I....NO. VI.
tician, and to have studied with equal PICTURE OF ST. DOMINGO. attention the constitution of a patient and the constitution of the state.
Havre-de-Grace, (F.) OctoDuring the latter part of lord
ber 3, 1803. Chatham's life, the doctor lived in great intimacy with that noble- Dear Friend, man: and such was the confidence subsisting between them, that when At the last time I had the plea. a negotiation was opened with the sure of addressing you, under date late earl of Bute, respecting his re- of June, ultimo, the horrors of St. turn to power, he acted as the ple- Domingo, and the dangers that surnipotentiary of the ex-minister. rounded me in my escape from that
It may be naturally supposed that unfortunate colony was fresh in my this of course led to an intimacy mind: but at this present period those between the families, and we accord- poignant sensations are in some ingly find that the young Pitts and measure blunted by the lapse of in. the young Addingtons, early in life, tervening time, and possessing feelcultivated a friendship with each ings more harmonized, I will now other, which received a fresh in- proceed to fulfil my promise mencrease when Mr. Wm. Pitt became tioned in my last. I mean that of a member of the society of Lincoln's giving you the details of the astoInn, and Mr. Henry Addington en- nishing and unforeseen revolution tered his name as a student, and eat that there took place. commons at the same hall.
You are well aware that I left The present premier possesses France in May, 1802, and arrived great influence, in consequence of at the Cape in the beginning of July the excellence of his character, and following. A few months before the high respect he had acquired that time, Le Clerc had landed his during
the time he acted as speak- army for the purpose of reclaiming er. His majesty may be said to the blacks to the obedience of the evince a personal attachment to him, French government. Toussaint had and, if report be true, he has pre- just been seized and sent over to sented him with, and furnished for France; the chiefs, his followers, him, a house in Richmond Park, in had already made a voluntary suborder to be near him at all times. mission : so that this political stroke
In private life Mr. A. is particu- on the part of the commander in larly amiable. He is a sincere friend, chief, promised to the inhabitants of an affectionate brother,a kind father, the island a return of peace and and a tender husband. Possessing plenty, and to the trade of France, an ample income, and being but lit- security and gain. Had this genetle devoted to expense, he cannot be ral not been diffident of his own supposed to be instigated by the talents and abilities, being placed in sordid wish of creating a fortune a country that opened to him an enfor himself; and, as his connections tirely new scene, and vested with are all in affluent circumstances, he powers of such momentous weight has no poor relations to provide for he would not have failed in effecting out of the public purse. On the this grand object: but unhappily for other hand it remains to be proved, himself....unhappily for the comwhether his abilities entitle him tó merce of France, he suffered him. rank as a first rate statesman; and self to be surrounded by some of the a few years....perhaps a few months inhabitants of the place, and the ....will determine, whether the new chiefs of the army, whom he believminister be destined to confer glory ed were better acquainted with the or disgrace on the empire; to sub- local circumstances and advantages vert or to restore the liberties of his to be gained, he communciated to country!
them his plans, and opened before
them the means by which he pro But what was the debut of this posed to effect the entire re-esta, general when vested with the chief blishment of order in St. Domingo. command ? What were his first These people, insincere in the cause steps ? He altered the plans of his which they appeared to wish to serve, predecessor; who had in view to once made acquainted with the ge- open the campaign as soon as the neral's projects, employed every arrival of the troops, promised him means secretly to undermine his by the French republic, placed it measures; so that the edifices he in his power ; he cantoned in deerected on one side, were sapped tachments the forces that were al and thrown down on the other. Le ready in the colony at the death of Clerc, possessing a mind strong, Le Clerc, and pursued the same though softened by sensibility, was measure with the reinforcement of not long before he perceived him- 18000 men, that afterwards arrived: self the dupe of this class of men; and if he made any sorties to attack he saw his schemes thwarted and the insurgents, they were partial overturned, the evidence of which and always inferior in numbers, as so forcibly preyed on his spirits, as one is to twenty. By a conduct like soon to terminate his existence.
this, in a climate, burning and obYou are already informed of the noxious to the European constituhorrors that calumny has belched tion; he would have absorbed imout against him, I shall therefore pass mense treasures and destroyed an them over in silence, immediately army of one hundred thousand men, to proceed to that period, when had they been at his disposal, withRochambeau, the hope of the colo- out gaining an inch of ground from nials, or rather some of them, seized the insurgents.* on the chief command of the island, Business requiring my presence now vacated by the premature death at Port-au-Prince, I had an opporof the above general.
tunity of taking a near view of the The partizans of Rochambeau bent of Rochambeau's intentions. who were in the mysteries of his the month of November, and the iniquities, not knowing whether two succeeding ones, were destined their friends in France would suc to witness scenes the most horrid ; ceed with the government, to esta scenes that bear the deepest tinge blish him in the chief command of of barbarous atrocity. Seven or the army of St. Domingo, proceeded eight hundred blacks, and men of to address petitions, in which they colour were seized upon in the pictured this general to the first streets, in the public places, in the consul, as the only person capable very houses, and for the moment of saving the colony from the state confined within the walls of a prison. of annihilation with which it was Thence they were hurried on board threatened.
the national vessels lying in the harThe multitude always blind and bour, from whence they were plungeasily deluded, forgetting what Ro- ed into eternity. chambeau had done at Martinique; These horrid scenes were repeatforgetful of what he had even done ed at Leogane, at Petit-Guave, and at St. Domingo, under Santhonax, signed the petition, which was for
• It is well known that St. Domingo warded by express to the first con
has cost France fifty-two thousand sul; who had already, on the solici. tations of the chiefs, the faction lions of livres tournois, nearly thirty
men, and one hundred and fifty mil. agitating at St. Domingo, had pre- millions of dollars; an expenditure pared in France; anticipated the sufficient to have effected the conquest wishes of the colonials, by confer- of all the Antilles, but which has only ring on Rochambeau, the chief com served to arm and strengthen those it mand.
was intended to subdue.
in the whole circuit of Jeremic; at and the commandant at Petit-Trou, that time commanded by D'Arbois, which closed his suite. The schoothe friend and protege of Rocham- ner Adelaide, followed him there. beau: but before I proceed further From the moment she was moored in these details, I must place before on the Fonds Blancs, in the outyou the only military expedition I ward harbour, covered by the guns saw, headed by this general.....it is of a small neighbouring fort, the as follows:
orders for arrests were issued. He sailed out of Port-au-Prince Immediately twenty men of colour with one thousand men, almost all amongst whom was the above menregular troops, and proceeded to tioned commander and four men, Jacquemel, at that time blockaded belonging to Petit-Trou; several by the insurgents; he raised the blacks, and one white from Nantes, siege, threw in one hundred and whose name I well remember was twenty men, and marched direct to Billiard, were all carried on board Petit-Guavé, from whence it was the Adelaide for the purpose of besupposed he would have proceeded ing sunk in a watery grave; but the to the south by land, where his army captain of the vessel not taking the would have destroyed the seeds of precaution to draw off to some disinsurrection that began to appear, tance from the shore, caused the and by the impression it would have town to participate in a scene, the made on the black tillers of the horror of which stands unequal. ground, hindered a renewal of the led. same : On the contrary, he left At the still and solemn hour of eighty men at Petit-Guavo, partook midniglit, when even the slumberof a ball and entertainment, he ing guard totters at his post, did the caused to be prepared, and then captain, or rather the executioner, embarked for Jeremie, where he begin to fulfil his duty, by executing arrived the day following, and con- the orders of the atrocious D'Arbois. ferred with D'Arbois, whom he or- The poor wretches on board, huddered to scatter in t.e different dled and then tied together, at the points of the coast, the remain- sight of the lingering and dreadful ing part of the detachment that ac- fate that awaited them, struggled companied him.
with their assassins, and all at once D'Arbois and his commander of calling forth the most dreadful yells, Jeremie, and whose name will al- roused the peaceful citizens by the ways be held in execration ; this noise, who entirely unacquainted commander, I say, to whose charge with the cause, passed the remainRochambeau had been pleased to ing part of the night under arms, in add the towns of Baradiers, Petit- horror and dismay. On the suc. Trou, and L'Anseveau; appeared ceeding day, being informed of what in these places to perform what he had taken place on board the Ade. called his circuit of inspection, that laide, as they met, they looked at is to deal out desolation and death; , each other in silent horror; one saw to carry on his plan of butchery: in painted on their furrowed countelike manner as he had done in the nances the presages of the fate they other parts annexed to his com- themselves had to expect. mand. But it was at L'Anseveau Notwithstanding, the same scene that I was myself a witness of the was repeated on board the schooner most premeditated barbarity. He ....but that the town might not exarrived there, as well as I remem- perience the same alarm, she stood ber, in Nivose, ultimo, accompanied out to sea a small distance, consignby twenty men of the legion Polo- ed her load to the waves, and on the naise, eight men of the artillery succeeding day returned to her forcorps, one field piece, and twenty mer anchoring place. nationaldragoons of Jeremie,besides These proceedings, that the most several aid-de-camps, four soldiers, hardened mind cannot but contem
plate with horror, and which lasted derable number. Immediately the several days, cast the pangs of des- gay d'Arbois orders forty of the pair into the hearts of the people of national guards to proceed to meet colour in the different quarters, and them, but the insurgents were als dreading the same fate, they fled in ready in motion and facing them, bodies to the insurgents, and aug- killed some and forced the remaine mented the number.
der to retreat. The routed handNevertheless, the ferocious D'Ar- ful returns to l'Anseveau, spreads bois was not satisfied; he was anxi- the alarm, and d’Arbois, informed ous to provoke a general insurrec- of what passed, hurries the remaindtion in the south of the island. With er of the national guard then in the this view he crossed the mountains town to oppose their approach to with some of his satellites, and ar- the city; but himseif, foreseeing the rived at Aux-Cayes where he re- event, mounts on horseback and ceived information of three or four rides off to Petit-Trou, situated four hundred men of colour that then leagues in the opposite direction, as crowded the prisons. He forth with he said, to dine with the curate. solicited the black commander of Scarcely had the dragoons prothat place, La Plume, to suffer him ceeded a league on their way, when to dispatch out of the way these they are met by the insurgents, poor wretches. La Plume, naturally whose number was now considerhumane, and possessing a soul timid ably augmented; they were attackand unprepared for such guilt, abso- ed, routed, and dispersed; some lutely refused. What did D'Arbois regained the town, a general alarm then do? He quieted the fears of the was sounded, and scarcely had the black chief, by telling him to take remaining inhabitants time to reno part in the affair, to leave it en- treat to, and rally at a small redoubt, tirely to him, he would answer for unprepared for resistance, when the the whole.
insurgents, anxious to push their In two days he emptied the pri- victory, rushed into the town....the sons of Aux-Cayes, and then return- artillery corps fired a few guns; the ed triumphant to l’Ansevau; whose infantry joined by the inhabitants, inhabitants the preceding eve had opposed feebly with their musquebeen sensibly struck at the sight of try, all was confusion; no leader to the bodies of the poor wretches, animate, rally and command, numwho, a few nights before, amidst all bers overpowered them, and in a the horrors of howling depair, had short time they were cut to pieces been consigned to the waves, and by the swords of the blacks. that by their cries had made them D'Arbois, on receiving the news, pass a great part of the night under brought him by one of the nine whé
The billows now washed escaped from this massacre, mounts these unfortunate victims to the his horse, accompanied by his sateshore, floating with their eyes, as it lites, and proceeds in haste to Jerewere, turned towards heaven, they mie, saying, they had a design on seemed to demand vengeance on the his person. author of their untimely death: A This unfortunate affair which alvengeance that called for the red- most cost the whole of the white dened blasts of an avenging hand on population of the place, was a signal the head of him who so deliberately for a general insurrection in the provoked it. Conceive then what south side of the island; it seemed must have been the welcome this to promise success to the blacks, wretch met with here!
who successively took possession of Soon after his alighting, he re- the diffierent places belonging to ceives news that the insurgents are that quarter. encamped on the plantation called I was myself amongst the very Bourignau, four leagues distant from small number of those who escaped the town, and amounting to a consi- from l'Ansevau, and returned to