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principal postures and motions of the head, and direction of the eyes, with their notation letters.
Page 105. In what manner should the motions of the body accompany those of the hands and arms? What forms the grand instrument of gesture? Where is the centre of motion of this compound instrument? Do these parts move together in the manner of an inflexible line? In gesticulating, does this complex instrument continue long in one direct line, or in any particular flexure?
Page 106. What is the stroke of the gesture? Should the stroke of the gesture always be made with the same degree of force? To what is the stroke of the gesture analogous? Are there any other points of analogy between the voice and gesture?
Page 107. Is it important that the stroke of the gesture should fall precisely on the accented syllable of the emphatic word? What kind of gesture is that which is called sawing the air? With what effect are all unmeaning motions of public speakers attended?
Page 103. What is meant by the terms principal gesture, and subordinate gesture? What are significant gestures?
Page 109. Are the majority of gestures significant? What do gestures, in general, denote ? Into how many classes are these various gestures divided? What are commencing gestures? What are discriminating gestures?
Page 110. What are auxiliary gestures? What are suspending gestures? What are emphatic gestures?
Page 111. Give illustrations of these several gestures.
Page 112. May these five classes of gestures be used in any part of discourse? Do modern orators ever perform the principal gesture with the left hand? Is not this practice at variance with the rules of Quintilian? How do you account for this difference between the customs of the ancient and modern orators? On what occasions may the left hand perform the principal gesture? Do the moderns violate another precept of Quintilian?
Page 113. Under what circumstances do the corresponding hand and foot naturally advance together? When may the contrary hand and foot advance together? In the transitions of gesture, should the hand and arm always be precipitated to the intended position by the shortest course? Describe some of these curves.
Page 114. For what purpose is this indirect line used? By what is the extent of the return, or depth of the sweep, determined? Does the preparation made by these curves suit every species of gesture? What kind of preparation is generally made for emphatic gestures?
Page 115. Illustrate it by examples.
Page 116. What is the connexion of gesture, and how is it shown? How is the connexion of gesture, in the vertical direction, noted ? Page 117. Illustrate the connexion of gesture in the vertical
direction by an example? To what does the transition of gesture relate, and what does it signify? May a gesture have a very different character and effect, according to the manner in which the hand arrives at its destined point? Why do painters generally choose to represent the suspending gestures? To what does the transition of gesture particularly relate?
Page 118. If the passage to be pronounced be of considerable length, why should the right hand perform the principal gesture throughout the whole of it? Under what circumstances may the right hand yield to the left the performance of the principal gesture?
Page 119. May not this balancing, or alternation of gesture, be carried to an affected extreme? How should the transition of gesture, from one hand to the other, be managed? What is the general rule, in regard to changing the position of the feet?
Page 120. What is the general rule for accompaniment of gesture, in calm and moderate speaking, when both hands do not perform the same gesture? What important accompaniments are to be attended to besides the motions of the subordinate gesture?
Page 121. Give an example of some of the stronger changes of the head, body, and lower limbs, which accompany certain principal gestures.
Page 122. Describe, in their natural order, the several motions which may be employed in expressing aversion. What is the close and termination of gesture, and in what manner should it be effected? Should a single word, or idea, be marked with more than one emphatic stroke?
Page 123. Is there any particular point of elevation at which emphatic gestures should terminate? Should gesture be limited, in its application, to any particular words and passages? For what parts of the oration will a judicious speaker reserve the force and ornament of gesture? By what should the frequency of gesture be determined?
Page 124. In what kind of sentences may a gesture be made on each word? Why should a sentence be slowly delivered, in which a gesture is made on almost every word? Does the emphatic gesture always fall on those words which are the principal, in a grammatical sense the nouns and verbs? Under what circumstances should gestures, which are noted alike, be varied?
Page 125. Should there be any cessation of gesture during the delivery of a discourse? What is gesture said to hold the place of? How, then, should it be managed? What are the principal qualities which constitute the perfection of gesture? How is magnificence of gesture effected?
Page 126. What are the opposite imperfections? From what does boldness of gesture arise? What is the opposite imperfection? Of what does energy of gesture consist? What are the opposite imperfections? Of what does variety of gesture consist?
is the opposite imperfection? What is simplicity of gesture? What is the opposite imperfection? What is grace of gesture?
Page 127. What is the opposite imperfection? What is propriety of gesture? What are the opposite imperfections? From what does precision of gesture arise? What are the opposite imperfections? What are the three general modes of public speaking? Does each require a different style of gesture? What does epic gesture demand?
Page 128. What does rhetorical gesture require? What does colloquial gesture require? Under what circumstances should the gestures of the public speaker be principally of that class which is called discriminating gestures? How should he perform them? From what does the charge, which is sometimes made against public speakers, of being theatrical in their gesture, probably arise?
Page 129. On what occasions should the public speaker use more graceful, more flowing, and more varied gesture? What should he guard against, and how should all his gestures be regulated? What are the most important significant gestures of the head and face? What are the most important significant gestures of the eyes? Page 130. What are the most important significant gestures of the arms? Name some of the most important significant gestures of the body. What are some of the most important significant gestures of the lower limbs ?
Page 131. What is Lord Kames's definition of grace? On what does the gracefulness of rhetorical action depend? Where is grace to be found? Can true grace and consummate eloquence be acquired by every one? In what does the grace of oratorical action consist? Why should action, to be graceful, be performed with facility? Why should it be performed with freedom?
Page 132. What are some of the situations in which it would be impossible for an orator to be truly graceful? Is the restraint arising from diffidence prejudicial to grace? How may it be corrected? What is indispensable for the maintenance of grace in rhetorical action? Do simplicity and truth of manner constitute grace? What effect have gestures, which are contrived for the mere display of the person, or for the exhibition of some foppery, as, for instance, a fine ring? What effect has affectation upon oratorical grace? What are some of the faults of manner?
Page 133. Why is the action of young children never deficient in grace? In what does the grace of action consist, according to Hogarth? Is his definition correct? From what does rhetorical action derive its grace?
HAVING treated of the principles of Reading and Speaking, it is now necessary, in order to render this Work an entire System of Elocution, to furnish the pupil with appropriate Exercises for the practical application of these principles.
The Exercises are divided into two Parts. Part I. consists of Exercises in Articulation, Pitch, Force, Time, and Gesture. Part II. consists of Exercises in Reading and Declamation.
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION, PITCH, FORCE, TIME, AND GESTURE.
Table of the Elements of the English Language.
This Exercise should be practised as follows: 1. Utter each element with the falling inflection, the vowels with explosive force.
2. Utter each vowel and subvowel, alternately, with the rising and falling inflection. 3. Utter the vowels with the falling inflection, alternately, in a high and low pitch. 4. Utter each vowel in the medium pitch of the natural voice, then in the falsetto, and lastly, in the lowest note of the natural voice. 5. Pronounce every word under the head Subvowels, as well as under the head Aspirates, in the following manner: make a full inspiration, and dwell for two or three seconds on the initial element; then utter the remainder of the word with a sudden and forcible expulsion of the breath.*
In this Exercise, every vowel is preceded by every subvowel, and by every aspirate.
å å å â | è ¿ | i î | ¿ ¿ ỏ | ù û ù | ou.
bà bả bà bả | bề bẻ | bỉ bỉ | bỏ bỏ bỏ | bủ bủ bủ | bou. dà dả dả dã | dẻ dẻ | di dỉ | dỏ dỏ dỗ | du dủ dủ | dou. gà gà gả gâ|gẻ gẻ | gì gỉ| gỗ gỗ gỗ [gủ gủ gủ gou. là là là lá | lẻ lẻ | li 1 | lỗ lỗ lỗ | lủ lủ lủ | lou. [ mẻ mẻ | mỉ mỉ | mỏ mỏ mỏ }
mà mả mà mả mů mů mů | mou. nả nả nả nả | nẻ nổ|nủ nủ nủ | nou. rả rả rả rấ | rẻ rẻ | rủ rỉ | rỏ rỏ rỏ | rủ rủ rủ | rou.
nẻ | ni nỉ | nỏ nỏ
THÀ THẢ THẢ THỦ | THỂ THỦ | THÌ THỈ | THỔ THỎ THỔ | THỦ THỦ THỦ | THAU.
và vả và vâ | vẻ vẻ | vì vỉ | vỏ vỏ vỏ | vũ và vủ | vou. wà wả wà wâ | wè wẻ | wì wỉ | wỏ wỏ wỏ | wủ wủ wủ | wou. yả ya yả y&|yẻ yê| yl y1|yô yỏ yb|yủ yủ yủ | you. żà żả żå żâ | żẻ żẻ | 21 21 | 2ỏ là lả lả tả | lẻ tẻ | 2i ảỉ | 20 20
žů žỏ | žou.
żỏ | żủ 2ỏ | tủ
tủ tủ | Łou.
få fù | fou.
hủ | hou.
få få få få | fè fè | fl fi | fỏ fỏ fỏ | fù
kỳ kẻ | kủ
kủ kủ | kou.
på på | pou.
sủ sủ | sou.
* As song and orb do not begin with a subvowel, they should be omitted in this exercise. And as it is impossible to dwell on the aspirate, h, the word hut may also be omitted.