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time. Hence the rhythm of speech, like its melody, is more or less irregular.
The time of a note, or syllable, is called quantity. The time of a rest is also called quantity; because rests, as well as notes, are a constituent of rhythm. Hence the characters used for the expression of quantity, are either of sound or silence. The former are called notes; the latter, rests. These characters, and their relative lengths, are as follows:
2 Minim Rest.......
= 1 Crotchet Rest.....
Hence, a semibreve is equal to two minims; equal to four crotchets; equal to eight quavers, &c.
A dot following a note, or rest, increases its length one-half-in other words, increases its length in the ratio of 2 to 3. Thus, a dotted semibreve (.) is equal to a semibreve and a minim (P), or to three minims (P); a dotted minim (P), to a minim and a crotchet (P), or to three crotchets (PPP); and
= 4 Semibreve Rest......
There are two general modes of time common and triple. In common time each measure is divisible by 2; in triple time each measure is divisible by 3.
There are several varieties of each of these modes of time. When a piece is in common time, and each measure contains two quavers, or their equivalent, the
figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains two crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains four crotchets, a capital C, or the figures are prefixed. When a piece is in triple time, and each measure contains three quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains three crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains six quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music. The upper figure, in each of these cases, shows how many notes of a certain description there are in each measure; and the lower figure, how many of these notes are equal in value to a semibreve.
Common Time; two Quavers in a Measure.
Oft has it been my
A proud, conceited,
IL SISSIESSISES IS
Common Time; two Crotchets in a Measure. 2♪♪ JIJI-Irad | d. ♪ l♪ J IJ.
the knell of
Triple time; three Quavers in a Measure.
3 ♪ │♪ F♪♪♪♪E 155
in a shower.
rose had been wash'd, just wash'd
MOVEMENT is the velocity with which a sentence is read or sung, or a strain of instrumental music is played. The rate of movement should be such as the senti
ment demands. Solemn discourse requires a slow movement; simple narrative, a medium rate of utterance; animated description, as well as all language expressive of any sudden passion, as joy, anger, &c., a movement more or less rapid, according to the intensity of emotion. In the science of music, various terms • have been employed to denote the rate of movement, the principal of which are the following:
ADAGIO,... very slow; the slowest time.
Larghetto,... slow, but not so slow as largo.
Andantino, a little quicker than andante.
Allegretto,... rather quick, but not so quick as allegro.
Adagio, andante and allegro, are the three chief divisions of time; the other terms mark the intermediate degrees.
In addition to the foregoing terms, which mark the movement, there are others, which indicate the style of performance. Some of these are as follows:
Affetuoso,.. affectionate a soft and delicate style of performance.
Sometimes these terms are used in connexion with those which express the rate of movement, thus:
Allegro con spirito, quick with spirit — in a quick and spirited
The rate of movement is not definitely marked by the terms Adagio, Largo, Larghetto, &c. ; it may, however, be designated with precision by means of the
METRONOME OF MAELZEL.
This instrument has a graduated pendulum, to which is attached a sliding weight. The higher this weight
is moved upon the pendulum, the slower are its vibrations; and the contrary. When the weight corresponds to the number 50, the vibrations of the pendulum are the slowest; when it corresponds to 160, they are the quickest. All the numbers on the instrument have reference to a minute of time. Thus, when the weight is placed at 50, fifty beats, or ticks, occur in a minte; when at 60, sixty beats in a minute; when at 100, one hundred beats in a minute, &c. The engraving in the margin represents the instrument in action.
In reading, as a general rule, the time should be marked on the metronome by whole measures - in other words, each measure should correspond to one tick of the instrument.
In music, it is most convenient to mark the time on the metronome in adagios, by quavers; in andantes, by crotchets; in allegros, by minims; and in prestos, by whole measures.
EXAMPLES OF THE SEVERAL MOVEMENTS.
In the following Examples, the words which indicate the movement and the corresponding numbers on the metronome, are both employed.
Adagio. Metronome 60 -two beats in a measure.
J. J. ♪ Fl J. 7 ♪ ♪ ♪. 7♪ ♪ 1 J. O when shall day dawn on the night of the
SSC SSSIS PIS
thou that rollest a
Larghetto. Metronome 66
one beat in a measure.
Andante. Metronome 76- one beat in a measure.
៖ ន ី រ ♪♪♪|
Andantino. Metronome 100-one beat in a measure.
round as the
tree of deepest root is
still to quit the
Allegretto. Metronome 112 -one beat in a measure.
*NOTE.The figure 3 over the three quavers which compose the first measure, signifies that they are to be pronounced in the time of two.
Animato. Metronome 100-one beat in a measure.
Allegro con spirito. Metronome 104 -one beat in a measure.
3 ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪♪♪♪ ♪ And darkness and doubt are now flying a way.
The muses' fondest wreaths are thine.