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these new laws. It has not been done in haste, or done by people who did not know what they were about: the gentlemen who went about to ask all these questions, had no reason for doing it, but because they thought it best for us all. It does them no good to oppress the poor, or injure any body; after going about a great deal, and taking much trouble to hear every thing they could, they thought it best to act in this way, and the King and Parliament have thought so too, and have agreed to it, and I dare say they are right.
Sarah. And who are we to go to? Is there not any body who can order relief?
Lucy. Why, yes; there is to be a vestry, that is, you know, a certain number of rate-payers, who meet together, and who are to be called Guardians. The overseers will be entirely under the direction of the guardians, and will have no power of their own; but these guardians, again, will only act according to the Rules and Orders they receive from the gentlemen in London, who are appointed by the King and Parliament to manage all parish matters. I think it all very right.
Sarah. Ah, it is very well for you to say they are right; you who are well off, and never want any thing from the parish. But look at me, and my large family, with an idle husband, who loves the beer-shop better than his work. It is hard on me and my children to go to the workhouse.
Lucy. It is hard to go to the workhouse indeed, if we can keep out; but you must not be angry with me, if I say, that I think it harder still for the parish to have to pay your husband for being idle and drunken.
Sarah. What do you mean? They do not pay him for being idle and drunken. They give us the parish money to put bread in our mouths when he is out of work.
Lucy. Listen to me, Mrs. Martin, and I will tell you what I mean. Your husband is a good clever workman, and if he were steady and industrious, he would earn a good living for his family, and might lay by something too. He is sometimes at work for high wages, and could get employment all the year round, if he would take a little pains: but he gets drunk perhaps, or dis
obliges his master, and loses his place, and takes no pains to get another. Then he runs to the overseer, and must have parish work, or parish money without it. If he was not idle and fond of drink, he would want nothing from the parish, so I think it is very clear they are just paying him for his ill conduct. Do not you think he would do better if he had not the parish to run to? Sarah. Perhaps he would years ago, but he is too old to learn now.
Lucy. I am not so sure of that; it is never too late to mend; and I should not wonder if you were to find that when he can neither get money or work from the parish, except in the workhouse, he will think it better, and pleasanter too, to stir himself and save a little, and live like a respectable man. But you were speaking of my family being well off, and not wanting any thing from the parish: we are able to live on without their help; but you must remember why this is; my husband's wages have never been high, but he is a steady, careful man; we have a large family as well as you, but they have been brought up to be industrious and saving.
Sarah. However, with all this, your husband has had steady wages, and whatever difference there may be in our ways of going on, I must say again, you are far better off than we.
Lucy. We should not be a bit better off than you if you had lived like us, for I have had some pull-backs, one or two bad illnesses; I believe, if you could put all the money you have ever had together, that is, high wages every now and then, and parish money the rest of your time, and if I could do the same,-I say, if we could both do this, you would find you had taken quite as much money as we have in the last twenty years.
Sarah. Well, I cannot believe that; when I see you all so well clothed, and the house so comfortable; able to pay your rent, and never wanting help.
Lucy. It is quite true though, I fancy; and what is more, I am very sure if you had both done your best all this time, you might have been much better off than we. The very reason that we have done better than you is, that we never counted on parish help at all. When first
we married, we determined that if God would help us to support ourselves, we never would eat other people's bread, or take it for our children; and by His help we have kept our resolution. We have never reckoned on parish help, and so we have done without it, as others might do, if they would, and as they will, I think, when they find there is no parish money to run to. As I told you before, my husband's wages have never been high, and though we never took parish money ourselves, we have been all the worse for those who have had it.
Sarah. How so? if you can do without it yourselves, it cannot make any difference to you what others get. It does not come out of your pocket.
Lucy. Why, yes, it does in some sort, though we do not pay to the rates, and I will tell you how: my husband deserves better wages than he gets, and his master says so, but he says the rates are so high he cannot afford to give him more, and we know if he would turn off my husband, he could get a parish man for less, so we are obliged to be satisfied, and thankful too, that he is kept in constant work for less than his work is worth. Now, this would not be, you know, if so many men were not on the parish; so the industrious man who supports himself has his wages lowered for the sake of those who will not exert themselves as he does. I think this is quite as hard upon us, as taking away the parish money is upon you. When the parish is not obliged to keep every body who does not choose to keep himself, then those that are industrious and careful will be better off.
(To be continued.)
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN ENGLISH HISTORY. (In our last Number, p. 274.)
Answer 1. After the death of King William the Third, Queen Anne reigned in England.
A. 2. Queen Anne was the daughter of James II.
A. 3. The son of King James was not allowed to be king, because he was a Roman Catholic.
A. 4. Attempts were made by the Roman Catholics, and the friends of King James, to place his son on the throne.
ANSWERS TO HISTORICAL QUESTIONS.
A. 5. The son of King James was usually called the Pretender; he is sometimes called the old Pretender, to distinguish him from his son, the young Pretender, who afterwards, in the year forty-five, (1745,) made great efforts to regain the throne.
A. 6. Queen Anne was much engaged in war, during the greater part of her reign.
A. 7. The Duke of Marlborough was her principal general.
A. 8. The Duke fought many great battles; but his name is more particularly connected with the battle of Blenheim. The Duke was rewarded by a grant of the manor of Woodstock, near Oxford, a splendid mansion was built for him in Woodstock Park, and the name of Blenheim was given to it, in honour of the great victory: it is entailed on the Marlborough family, and is inhabited by the present Duke.
A. 9. Benbow was a great admiral in Queen Anne's days. He fought most bravely in a great action near the West Indies, where his leg was shot off: his officers treated him very ill, and gave him no proper support during the battle. This brave admiral died of his wounds.
A. 10. Gibraltar lies at the south point of Spain. It was taken by Sir George Rooke, in the year 1704; and has continued in the possession of the English ever since.
A. 11. An union of the Crowns of England and Scotland took place when James VI. of Scotland became also King of England, and was our James I.; but still the kingdoms continued separate. In the reign of Queen Anne, an union of the two kingdoms was made, so that the business of both is now done by one Parliament, the peers and members for Scotland now sitting in our houses of Parliament. This union took place in the year 1706, more than a hundred years after the union of the
A. 12. An act passed in Queen Anne's reign for building fifty new churches. A few of them only were built. A. 13. The Queen's health and spirits had been, for some time, sinking, and she died in the year 1714.
A. 14. Prince George of Denmark was Queen Anne's husband.
A. 15. The Queen had had many children, but they all died before her.
A. 16. The supporters of the family of king James were called Jacobites.
QUESTIONS FOR THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND.
(To be answered in our next.)
Question 1. Who reigned in England after Queen Anne?
Q. 2. From what country did King George I. come? Q. 3. How was he connected with the royal family of England?
Q. 4. Why was he made King of England, and why was not the son of James II. to be king?
Q. 5. Were any attempts made, during his reign, to restore the Pretender?
Q. 6. Who were the principal persons concerned in this attempt; and who raised an army in Scotland in favour of the Pretender?
Q. 7. Who commanded the English army in defence of King George?
Q. 8. In what year was this attempt made?
Q. 9. Were any of the rebels executed?
Q. 10. In what year did King George I. die?
"IT has been said that many of the enclosures of wastes have failed, as unprofitable speculations. Why have they failed as sources of profit? From want of a due understanding of the nature of the soil, and of the means necessary to reclaim it. It is amongst the large allotments, only, in these enclosures, where failure can be instanced. The cottage allotments, varying from half an acre, to an acre and a half, have been generally successful; witness, amongst multitudes of other examples, Knaresborough Forest, and the wastes of Christchurch. Waste lands occur in all places; but besides these, there is abundance of land already in cultivation, which by being divided into small allotments would pay a vastly increased rent, and by spade husbandry produce threefold its present returns. The cottagers in Lincolnshire, and Rutlandshire hold their little tenements, not of the