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The 19th dynasty, of which Sesostris, or Rameses the Great, was the first monarch, commenced about 1394 and lasted 198 years, or thereabouts. The last king was Thuoris, who reigned when Paris brought Helen to Egypt, on his way from Sparta to Troy. The name resembles the "Thor," of Homer, Od. iv. 228. According to Manetho, the Exodus occurred under the third monarch of this dynasty, about 1260. The absurdity of his account is well exposed by Josephus.
The 20th dynasty, (or according to some, the 20th and 21st,) lasted about 215 years, terminating B. C. 981.
The 21st, (called by some the 22d,) commenced in 981; the first king was Shishonk, who reigned 21 years; his successor Osorthon, reigned 15 years; after an interval, Tacelloth reigned 13 years. The names of the other kings are unknown; the whole dynasty reigned 121 years. The 22d commenced in 760, and reigned 48 years. The 23d commenced in 712, and reigned 19 years. The 24th commenced in 693, and reigned 44 years. and according to some, the only king of the dynasty. The following dynasties are given at full length, with the year B. C. of each king's accession.
Bocchoris was the first,
27th Persian lasted 124 years. '
580 Nechao I.
518 Nechas II. (Pharaoh Necho.) 501 Psammi.
495 Uaphris. (Pharaoh Hophra) 470 Amosis.
Egypt was conquered by Ochus, B. C. 347.
29th Native lasted 33 years.
THE IRISH LANGUAGE NECESSARY TO THE IRISH CLERGY.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHRISTIAN EXAMINER.
Mr. EDITOR,-I feel myself impelled, by the strongest obligations of duty to my country, to address you on a subject which is of incalculable importance to its welfare, and the consideration of which, in its full extent, has been much too long delayed,— I mean the employing of the Irish language as a most popular, and, therefore, most efficient instrument towards promoting the scriptural edification of Ireland.
You are, perhaps, already aware, that the sacred scriptures are now amply provided in that tongue: besides a stereotyped pocket Bible, and also a New Testament in 12mo, there is an edition just completed of 500 Bibles in 8vo. ; and one in progress of 5000 copies of the New Testament, with marginal references. You are likewise aware, that the Irish Society has made much progress
in teaching the peasantry to read the word of God in Irish, and in disseminating it amongst them; but still very many copies remain to be purchased and distributed, and brought home to the poor man's cabin; still the Irish Society must have a great enlargement of its means, before it can effectually attain its object, while there are other important branches of this subject which have been either little attended to, or entirely neglected.
The employment of readers of the Bible in the Irish tongue among the people, or, what may be termed the ministry of the native poor among themselves, has hitherto but little engaged the attention of the Christian world. Most efficient institutions exist for the encouragement of this, in the Scripture Readers and other Societies, and nothing is wanting, on their part, but suitable agents. In order to supply these, pious young men, who understand the native language, should be instructed to learn it as a written tongue, should be imbued by their patrons and friends with a full sense of its value, as a spiritual weapon; and on being sent up, properly qualified, to the Society alluded to, they will be gladly employed.
The branch which has been entirely neglected, is the making use of this popular language, whether by ordained ministers, or other educated persons, in setting forth the doctrine of salvation, by the blood of the Atonement. Considering, therefore, the Irish Bible as ready for use, and the reading of it by, or to the pea santry, as in a state of progress, I shall beg leave to turn your more particular, although not exclusive attention, to this important division of the subject.
Alas for Ireland! I believe that there is not another region in the entire world, wherein that which is esteemed to be true religion, is kept from the hearing of the inhabitants by so strange a circumstance as this-that the individuals, whose duty it is to spread the knowledge of it, are almost universally ignorant of the language in which alone it can be understood by many, or will be received by more.
I heed not the objection that these people are Roman Catholics, and belong to another flock;-it has been often and fully obviated. I mind not the assertion, that, as Roman Catholics, they will refuse to hear the message of mercy when delivered by Protestants; it is refuted by the experience of the Irish Society, by that of the few members of the Established Church who can address them in their native tongue. I regard not the allegation, that a large portion of these can hear and understand the gospel in English, if they please, for, admitting this to be the fact, I would ask, in answer, do they please? Is Ireland an exception to the truth now generally admitted, that the gospel must be aggressive in its operations, must introduce itself, and not wait to be sought for by the carnal heart, at enmity with God? Rather is not that enmity assisted in this country, by the aid of three powerful animosities, to wit, prejudice against the Saxon intruder, against his religion, and against his language? some of which must be neutralized, or put aside, to give the truth (to make use of a plain expression,)
common fair play; and I know of no better way of doing this, than to engage this language against them. But, indeed, if it be true that half-a-million of the Irish do not understand the English tongue; if, at least, twice as many more understand it, but very imperfectly; and lastly, if, at least, one million more detest it, while they receive the Irish scriptures with avidity, the ground work of this allegation must totally fail.
The fact is, there is one opinion so worked into the Irishman's mind, that it may be termed a national prejudice, that the Irish language has been blessed, and cannot be made the vehicle of heresy. Hence, the popular reception of the holy Scriptures, in that tongue; and to this, under grace, must be attributed the success which has so remarkably accompanied their distribution and Does it require any very deep penetration into the recesses of the human heart, to discover the value of such a prejudice as this, in any attempt to direct or mould the mind of man in spiritual concerns. Accordingly, the experience of Mr. Roe, and of the veteran labourers in the Lord's vineyard, has drawn forth for these this declaration.-that they would rather, for the purposes of their ministry in Ireland, be acquainted with the Irish, than with the original languages of the sacred book; and it is recorded of Primate Usher, that he ordained a pious person, who was utterly ignorant of Latin, but who spoke fluently the native tongue, being satisfied that such an ordinary man was able to do more good than if he had Latin without any Irish at all."
I would, therefore, pass by all objections which might possibly be made, and respecting which sufficient has already appeared in print, and, among others, in your publication, to satisfy the scruples of candid enquirers; and I will call your particular attention to the practical consideration of this important subject, upon the highest principle of promoting the glory of God, directing it especially to three remarkable circumstances. The first of them has already been hinted at-I mean the craving appetite of the Irish peasant for the word of God in his native tongue. In the midst of the most violent opposition in one of its districts, the Irish Society actually doubled the number of its schools. To escape the dreadful consequences of anathema, the people resorted to means the most striking and interesting. Wherever the Irish Testament was introduced into a family, it was scarcely ever known to be surrendered, much less sold. The repeated resolutions of some of these peasants, transmitted to the committee of the Irish Society, are well known; finding the Irish, the Rhemish, and English Protestant versions of the Scriptures essentially to agree, they have begun to judge for themselves, and benefitting by the result, they declare "that since the Lord Jesus Christ has said "Search the Scriptures," no creature, or assemblage of creatures, has a right to say "search them not."
The second circumstance on which I would particularly remark, is the virulence and violence of the conflicting power, which would endeavour to stop this infant struggle for spiritual liberty in Ireland. The existence and circulation of the Sacred
Word in the Irish language does appear, from the very beginning, to have excited the particular jealousy of the prince of darkness; and just now as it is appearing in a multiplied form, and beginning to enlighten the most benighted parts of this laud, his powers have begun to be exerted with terrible re-action, and, therefore, at this time more than any other, there must be exercised a powerful spiritual energy on behalf of gospel liberty, and this irresistible instrument, the Irish language, be much more potently employed.
But, thirdly, what means are to be used? The scales are awfully suspended in almost equal balance-between the desire of the people in the one, the denial in the other,—what is to be thrown in, to make the former to preponderate? is it any thing connected with institutions now in operation? I fear, not of itself. I am assured that public opinion must act with power, and especially call upon the Church of Ireland, to rouse herself to some great exertion, perhaps in some such manner as I shall hereafter suggest. Before, however, I proceed to any specific proposal, I shall detail a few of the objects which I conceive it desirable should be accomplished, in order, chiefly, to assist in promoting the exercise of preaching in the Irish language.
Its acquisition, by young ministers, should be facilitated, 1st. By the establishment in our University, of a professorship of that tongue; either directly, or indirectly, (which I would prefer) through a necessity for it being created by an encreased desire among them to understand it. 2dly.By the publication of an English Irish Dictionary, a Grammar, and perhaps some elementary work on the Hamiltonian system. Its employment as an instrument of spiritual edification, should be more extensively encouraged; and this not only by the methods already alluded to, to wit, the strengthening the hands of the Irish Society; the aiding of the other institutions above-mentioned; and the assisting towards the accomplishment of the grand object of this paper, but also, by other means, of which I shall mention here but one, I meanthe establishing of an Irish chapel in Dublin, for exclusive ministry in the native tongue. This measure appears to me, to be most admirably calculated to obtain three great objects. 1st.The procuring for the use of hundreds of servants and artificers, travelling carmen and sailors, labourers on their passage to England at the time of harvest, and many others who understand and love their native language, a place where they can hear affectionately and popularly preached, the glad tidings of the Gospel : 2dly. the exhibiting a proof before the eyes of influential persons, of the power of that language, over the minds of the people, which will speak more than a thousand speeches, or volumes of reports, in favor of employing it as a suitable weapon for spiritual warfare in Ireland: and 3dly.-the provoking to emulation, Cork, Limerick, Kilkenny, Waterford, Galway, and other towns, where, beyond all question, Irish chapels should be established without delay.
It may indeed, perhaps, appear to many, that there are insurmountable, or at least discouraging difficulties, in the way of the several objects already proposed; but trust me, they are but very trifling, and utterly vanish in the light of advantages to the obtaining of which they lead. Funds cannot but be abundantly supplied-competent persons will spring up, according as a pressing demand for their service may be createdand in respect to measures, an English Irish Dictionary is ready in Manuscript; it is prepared by the author of the Irish English Dictionary already published, and the same demand will readily call it forth to light. Demand will also call forth the republication of a Grammar, which is likewise in existence, although not to be had in the shops; and it will accomplish also, if not the establishment of a professorship, at least the offering of competent teachers, to the public. I think there can be but little doubt, that all these results will naturally follow, if we do but in the first place, by one vigorous movement, set some main wheel in action.
Where then are we to commence-at the University? Alas, in despite of its early endowment with a liberal allowance to encourage the "natives" in learning the Irish language; in despite of the authority of such eminent men as those already named, and of a Burke and a Flood, who desired in an especial manner its cultivation; in despite of the politic example of Maynooth, the usual language of at least one-third of the population of Ireland, is absolutely rusticated, and generally considered within its precincts, not only to be barbarous, but more an intruder there, than dead and foreign languages. I trust that the University may assist us yet, but I cannot recommend to begin our operations with her. Shall we look to the Church of Ireland, and gather some hope from an establishment founded upon the Bible, which so frequently, so clearly, and so emphatically, enjoins the preaching of the Gospel in every tongue; an establishment built upon the articles which therefore declare, that "it is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the customs of the Primitive Church, to have public prayer in the Church, or to minister the Sacraments, in a tongue not understood by the people," and strengthened by canons which decree, that " every beneficiary or curate shall endeavour, that the confession of sins, and absolution, and all the second service, when the people all, or most are Irish, shall be used in English first, and after in Irish, if the ordinary of the place shall so think meet."-8th Can. Shall we, I say, appeal to an establishment thus constituted ? I confess, that after a long and anxious consideration of the subject, I would not only without hesitation answer-Yes-but further declare, that it is from the attention of its prelates being seriously turned to this subject, that I expect to meet with ultimate success. The adoption of one important measure, for the which its former convocations have prepared the way, and from which, without the least expenditure of money, or of exertion, and but little of time, I hope for that demand to be created, from