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after a cohabitation of a number of years, declared to have been null and void ab initio. But Henry's conscience, or perhaps his prudence, revolted against this proposal of the Pope;* and he preferred the simpler course of bringing his suit for nullity of marriage in the English ecclesiastical court; and, when Catherine appealed from the decision there given in his favour to the court of Rome, of denying the authority of any foreign bishop to interfere in an English cause. This was the immediate cause of the overthrow of the Pope's supremacy in England. The dernier resort in ecclesiastical causes (matrimonial testamentary, and the like) was restored to the English chancery, where it was originally lodged; and appeals to Rome were again interdicted. This, however, was the extent of Henry's reformation. In point of doctrine, as Mr. Kyle remarks, "he lived and died a Romanist;" and he persecuted with the utmost severity those who embraced the creed of the Reformers.

To be continued.


Father Butler-The Loughdearg Pilgrim, being Sketches of Irish Manners. William Curry, Jun. and Co. Dublin, 1829.

Both the tales that are contained in this neat little volume, appeared original

ly in our Magazine, and attracted no little attention. As lively and interesting sketches of Irish manners, and exhibitions that can be verified of the degrading influence of the prevailing superstitions,

* One word more with Dr. Lingard. He insinuates a doubt of the Pope having made the offer above mentioned to Henry; in fact he would lead his readers to suppose that it was never made. "If we may believe," he says, 66 Gregorio Cassali, the Imperialists had suggested this expedient to Clement, who communicated it to that minister. To communicate an expedient is a strange way of expressing the making of an offer." Cassali's words are these: "Lately, the Pope, secretly, as a thing of which he thought highly, PROPOSED to me a condition of this sort; that he might grant to your Majesty to have two wives."-Despatch of the 18th Sept. 1530, Herbert, (p. 302.) There is nothing here about the Imperialists, who, according to Lingard, suggested this proposal to Clement. Cassali speaks of it as the Pope's own favourite project. But are we to believe Cassali?-why not? Nothing can be more improbable than that a minister, conducting a negociation at a foreign court, should in a confidential despatch to his master, affirm that a proposal was made to him by the party with whom he was negociating, which he was not made. For ought that he knew to the contrary, the offer might have been accepted by Henry; and if it were, in what a situation would he be placed? If it were a falsehood, the motive for writing it is inevitable; the danger of being detected in it must have been very great; and the consequence of being detected would be fatal. Private letters to kings are not the most likely places for finding deliberate falsehoods; and that Dr. Lingard well knows. Accordingly he gives no intimation to his readers, that it was in a private confidential letter, that this important fact was stated. On the other hand, when he wishes to give credit for one of the calumnies, which are heaped together by Pole in the scurrilous invective which he published against the king, he has the effrontry to call it "his private letter to Henry !" chap. iii. note 4. Dr. Lingard, we believe, is a Jesuit. If so, he of course estimates the criminality of a falsehood, provided only it be on the right side, by the danger of its being detected. As the tissue of misrepresentations which the Doctor calls a history of England, has been pushed into a considerable degree of circulation by the emissaries of the Society to which he belongs, we have thought it only our duty to make the enquiries respecting it, which are contained in this and the preceding note. They are not solitary instances of delinquency. We give them as fair specimens of Dr. Lingard's honesty, as an historian.

we can recommend them highly to our readers. Popery to be known, must be seen in a Roman Catholic country. We could not say less than this for our interesting friend and correspondent; and we believe the opinion of the public is sufficiently formed to render it unnecessary to say more.

Stories from Church History, from the Introduction of Christianity to the Sixteenth Century. By the Author of "Early Recollections." R. B. Seely, and W. Burnside, &c. 1828.

We have perused this volume with much satisfaction, and can say that its execution is highly creditable both to the taste and piety of its author. The style is clear and lively, the selection judicious, and the spirit which pervades it truly scriptural. Though purporting to be only a series of stories from Ecclesiastical history, it exhibsts an interesting and connected view of the progress of Christian principle and doctrine, and appeals by many well-timed reflections to the mind of the reader, applying, as he proceeds, the benefit of each successive example to his own state and circumstances.

It is, however, in a more especial manner, a wholesome monitor, and a pleasing guide for youth, to whom it is so well adapted, that we think no person who is entrusted with the task of training the young mind should be with out it.

With scarcely an exception of consequence, it bears a close resemblance to Mr. M'Gregor's True Stories from Irish History-and indeed we think both

books desiderata in a proper system of education.

Pathological Observations, Part II, on continued Fever, Tic Doloreux, Measles, &c. By William Stoker, M. D. Honorary Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physi cians in Ireland, &c. &c. and Senior Physician to the Fever Hospital, Cork-st. &c. Medical works, however able and useful, do not usually come within our scope, nor indeed do we feel any sort of competence to give an opinion to their merits or demerits; and therefore, though from general character we know that the Author of the above work is an able, experienced, and successful practitioner, and has come before the public more than once to give the results of his experience, it is not because we thus believe the work to be valuable, that we now notice it, but because its pages contain some interesting statements and tables, which, as senior Physician of the Cork-street Hospital, he has been enabled to give, of the comparative and concurrent encrease of vice, poverty, and disease in this metropolis. The matter is curious and deeply interesting, and we wish that Dr. Stoker, or some other experienced and well-thinking individual, would give a treatise on this express subject. That there has existed, and still exists, in this city, a gradual growth of a profligate, degraded, and Lazaroni population, and that unrestrained vicious propensities have encreased poverty, and susceptibility of disease, there is every reason to believe. We remember having read a valuable Sermon, published by Dr. Walsh (the entertaining author of Travels in Turkey) on this subject,




To the Editor of the Christian Examiner.

SIR-As you seem to be industrious in collecting from your country correspondents such intelligence as may throw a light on the state of Ireland, I think, in reciprocal justice, you are bound to afford to your country readers some information with respect to what passes in the metropolis. And as I know nothing more likely to be acceptable to the good country folk with whom you have to do, than an account of the religious meet

ings which took place last week in Dublin, I here proffer you a sort of loose and sketchy coup d'œil of what struck and interested me on this occasion. I am aware, Sir, that some things I may say, opinions I may express, or characters I may animadvert upon, may not suit, ad unguem, your sober publication. But I desire to observe, that I am an incorrigible outlyer-that I have an unlucky propensity for springing beyond bounds-and that, therefore, if you take me you must do so "for better, for


It is now, Sir, ten years since I first

attended at these anniversaries; and, in sooth, when I look back and compare the feelings which influenced me the first time I mingled in such assemblies, with those which now engage my mind, I almost wonder how the same individual and the same understanding could be actuated by such opposite sentiments and purposes. The first time I ever entered the Rotunda, except for the purpose of a masquerade or charity ball, was, as I say, ten years ago, when a friend, whom I thought highly of, though a bit of a Swaddler, actually forced on me a ticket, and a promise that I would make use of it. I really went reluctantly. I fluttered about the door, as a linnet about a trap-cage, before I could bring myself to go in; and when I did enter, it was with the smothered spirit of a scoffer I felt myself stealing as a spy into the Paradise of Enthusiasts. Sir, I confess I was as a limed bird on that occasion. 1 was taken. No one ever experienced such a revulsion of sentiment. Goldsmith describes the effects of the ministrations of his Village Curate, "Those who came to scoff, remained to pray," So I remained, and have continued to pray for the success of such meetings, and the societies they represent, and to supplicate not only for my own country, but for the wide world, that all, in God's own time and way, may be imbued with that missionary spirit, and that desire for the spiritual good of souls, which it is the object of those meetings to promote.

Established now, as these societies and meetings have been, for near a quarter of a century-when we look back at what has been done in this comparatively short space of time, towards the breaking down of prejudices, smoothing away asperities, and filling up those gloomy dykes that moated in waveless stagnation around the fortress of uncharitableness; when we have seen the repulsiveness of sectarianism annihilated, and these societies generating a new and hitherto unheard-of electric attraction between good and God-fearing men of every church, I am almost tempted to believe that the millenarian expectation is about to be realised; and I, in fondness of fancy, see the Aurora blush of the coming day tinting the eastern skywhen the lion shall lie down with the lamb, and peace reign on earth, and good-will towards men. But, Sir, I desire to say somewhat in particular concerning the meetings that are just past. I have above said, that ten years have elapsed since I first witnessed one of

them. Now, ten years in the middle of a man's life, extracted, I may say, from that clear and refined portion that is uncontaminated by the upper froth of youth, or the lower dregs of old age, is a serious and important interval. This unredeemable portion of human life leaves, at any rate at its close, some important effects; ten years have a very cooling quality on the blood-there ensues a slow, but perceptive blunting of the edge of feeling; and so good easy people are apt to wonder why it is that what heretofore made their minds chambers of imagery should at present make such faint impression, or sensation; and they fondly accuse the scene presented to them as changed-men, seasons, and all things seem colder, less gay, and less delightful, when in fact the great change is in themselves.

I think it can be thus explained, why you will hear some speak of those meetings as becoming less interesting, and to them less profitable-creatures of excitement, they do not consider that the laudanum drops of exhilaration, if not constantly increased, not only cease to excite, but contribute to depress; and thus he or she, whose eye in life's morning is brightened up with fervid admiration, may, as the day advances, yawn away, and count the minutes under a similar dose of excitement.

This, Sir, I thank goodness, has not heen my case; 'tis true that I may be a little less alive to the externals of oratory, a little more expert in distinguishing the natural from the artificial speaker; may give a more decided preference to facts and arguments over declamation, however splendid; but I do not find my interest at all diminished, and I think I enjoyed myself at the Rotunda last week as much, if not more than ever.

Mr. Editor, I believe I need not tell you or your readers, that I am an egotist, I confess myself given to garrulous gossip; and, such being the case, I must tell you how my mind sets itself to work when I now ascend a platform. I begin to study heads-I send my eye forth on a circumnavigation of the microcosm of the religious, which lies before me, like a Mercator's projection; and I stop here and there, making recognitions, greeting hundreds of faces that year after year I have observed almost in the same positions. By the way, Sir, without desiring to be satirical, I would observe, that ladies' bounets, as now fashioned, in my poor judgment, are monstrous machines, extravagant in size, and trumpery orna

ments, and I often pity a poor dame, when I see her passing down Sackville-street, and facing a south-wester, endeavouring to tack about her poor head, with such a mainsail a-back, that she can neither reef nor lower; and though indeed I do not desire to arraign the professing Christian, as possessed of bad taste, or bad feeling, who would come to a religious assembly under such garish and questionable colours, which are surely more befitting a Bazaar, where more things are exposed for sale than toys and baby-linen-(by the-by, Mr. Examiner, would a little paper, which I intend to draw up, entitled, A Day at a Bazaar, be admitted into your Journal?)-yet indeed, I do assure you, ladies, that your Quaker sisters, who appeared amongst you in numbers on the Bible Society day, with their neat, compact, quiet, proportionable head-dresses, formed a very striking contrast-my eye reposed on them, as it would on a bank of lilies of the valley, after a gaze on beds of poppies, peonies, and African marigolds. Do, my dear madam, lay aside your castle of Otranto bead-gear, fitted up as it were by some hearse-upholsterer, when you next come to one of our meetings, or even to a Sunday School or Charity Sermon. Pardon I crave for this episode. I think I said I was abroad on a speculative visit to all my accustomed faces,-faces, 'tis true, whose possessors I had never opened lips to, but with whose every lineament I am as well acquainted as with king William on horseback. And here I would stop, and in fancy greet this or that well-known visage, and say, "my dear, I am sure you are as good and kind as ever; there is the same expansive benevolence developing on your artless face; and sure I am that the peace of true religion is shed abroad on your heart; but then these crows claws about your eyes these deepening wrinkles, that I remember once were dimples; indeed I hope they are striking the warning, that you have no abiding city here."

Just at

this moment, a cold blast, sweeping down on my unbutted head, caused me to clap my hand on my cranium, when my fingers came in contact with a bald spot, which has increased, and is increasing there. This time-tonsure, as I may say, told me that I was also a withering thing, passing off into the sear and yellow leaf of life. God give me grace to profit by the consideration. Thus I went on, calling at every known face; and I also had somewhat to do with such as I did not know. There's one, for instance,



who I am sure has come for the first time; she has the air of a recruit. stake my organs of locality and individuality on the cast, that yonder tall, comely, fat, fair, and not-far-from-forty, has come to a religious meeting for the first time; see how she stands up and manages her eye-glass; how she talks and asks questions, just as if in a play-house; see how she is covered all over with chains, watches, cameos, and curiosities; why she has as much party-coloured silken decoration on her bonnet, as would help one of our old Lord Mayors to ride the fringes in splendour. I suppose, as happened to myself, she has got a ticket, as people say, by chance, but really by good Providence; and now I will watch her, and shall expect, that when the cause of Sunday Schools or Missions is advocated-when Mr. Ellis, or other good man gets up and tells us from his own experience of the South Sea Isles, India, Africa, and all those places full of the habitations of cruelty-I am sure when she hears of widows burning on their suttees, infants cast into the Ganges, and helpless parents left to perish by their offspring-no doubt but she will tear down from her neck (and it is a fair one too, and needs not the foreign aid of such ornament) that gold chain, and all its rich appendages to be devoted, along with her awakened heart, to the cause and furtherance of missions. Oh, will it not be a glorious thing, thinks I to myself, should this popingjay, heretofore alive to pleasure, but dead to God, be taken up and taught for the first time, and learn here the first leaf in the book of a Christian's remembrancer, the lesson of self-denial.

But I would tire you, Sir, with all my imaginings and creative characteristics. But one thing I could not help remarking, as I roamed over the headpaved area-the surprising encrease of spectacles worn, especially amongst the ladies. Now, Sir, to me, a scrutinizer of character by profession, it is most vexatious to have the screen of a detestable green lens introduced between me and a black or blue eye, beaming with the intelligence of its own liquid lustre. Bah, I say, in despight, that a base optician should have thus incognito'd, and e no speculation in such orbs. I tell you what, Mr. Editor, that I would greatly prefer the old discarded distinction of blue stockings, to this new method of announcing taste and knowledge. But to withdraw from the audience to the work about to begin on the

platform; and here, as I know you have seldom space to spare, I shall confine myself to the day of the Meeting of the Bible Society. And, concerning it, I may safely assert, that never since this great Society commenced its anniversaries, has there been a fuller or more interesting meeting; and pray observe, that you see on this day persons who do not come to other religious assemblies, as I have said before, Quakers, or, as I should rather say, members of the Society of Friends, for indeed I do not (above all people) desire to give them offence. And here I would ask u question, and wish some of the Society of Friends, who I know read your Magazine, would give me an answer; why is it that they, wealthy as they are, and forward at promoting Mendicity Institutions, &c. that tend principally to the temporal benefit of man,-why is it that they are not forward, in proportion to their means and influence, in bringing the ancient people of God to the true Messiah? Why not give the helping hand to draw up to Christ the degraded Hotten. tot, the New Zealand Cannibal, or the Braminical murderer of wives, children, and parents? But let this pass. Moreover, I observe at a Bible Society Meeting there are more men; the gaud of bonnets is not so glaring; I see acute and business-like understandings latent under many a broad forehead, and amply protuberated craniums assembled here this day, to give their countenance and suffrage to this great instrument of usefulness; and to hear their good opinion justified, by honest and interesting details of how God's Word is winning a free course, and is more and more magnified.

His Grace the Archbishop of Tuam took the Chair, I am not very desirous to speak about Bishops; my praise or blame cannot reach to the high places of their honour at any rate I have no place for blame here. If I could blot, I dare not. I should be more ingenious in evil than I ever was, or expect to be, if I attempted to be censorious here. No man can perform the duties of Chairman in a more dignified and steady manner than his Grace of Tuam.

It was observable, that many who, on former occasions appear on the platform as able advocates of the Society, were this day absent and silent; so much the better, it is wise and well to open the field for new champions. But the three secretaries were at their post. Mr. C-, read the report-I believe it was

drawn up by him, for it bore the stamp of his perspicuity and vigour. Mr, I-n, one of the most beloved of all the preachers of Evangelical truth in the vicinity of Dublin, on this occasion, in a very touching address, resigned his post as Secretary; the cause assigned for thus withdrawing from a situation, honoured and honourable, gave encreased cause of regret, his evidently weak state of health: bis desire to devote all that remains of himself to the work of his ministry, gave us all reason to think better of the man; and many a silent prayer, I am sure, was offered to Him who can strengthen the feeble knees-that he would uphold with his power, and strengthen with his might in the inner man, this rare specimen of a wise, and yet ardent, a prudent and consistently devoted preacher of the Gospel of the grace of God. Here was also, and he spoke too, W. B. M——, the oldest and most popular Secretary of the institution, its father as I may so say. It gave me in. finite pleasure to see this beloved man rise on this day with all a father's pride, partiality and devotedness, to bear again his splendid testimony to the cause he so much loves. I think one of the Irish kings was called Con of the hundred battles-I think this prince of preachers ought to be called-M-s of the thousand speeches in favour of the Bible Society. There was a man some years ago, who wrote a little book which he called Sketches of the Rotunda. He was rather a rogue-he has been out of odour ever since with many-for the knave contrived a mixture, which, though its first flavor was sweet on the palate, yet it left a sort of secondary taste which retains its bitterness unto this day. Poor fellow, I believe he was an unfledged author, and quite unpractised in writing; and if report says true, he left life with ashes heaped on his head. But at any rate, James White (that I think was the sketcher's name,) describes our friend W. B. M. as sometimes soaring up the skies like an eagle or angel, and then condescendingly dropping down upon this dirty earth of ours, to ride a little Kerry colt, through high ways and bye ways and featherbed lanes. In other words, our friend is decribed as dealing in the humourous as well as sublime-and passing with quick transition from grave to gay. He could paint as a Raphael or a Wilkiecould treat you with claret of the highest bouquet, and close the very same banquet with Poteen of real Irish flavour. Now, this sketch, though perhaps overdrawn,

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