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this quadrangle again, and turning to the left, we pass along another broad road, with a massive wall on either side. The wall on the left incloses the actual burialground. A gateway in this wall, very handsomely overlaid with gilt and bronze plates, which are elaborately worked with figures of birds and flowers, admits us to a courtyard surrounded with rows of tall stone lanterns. Through this courtyard we pass into a second, which is similarly filled, and beyond this again we enter the enclosure where are the mortuary chapels. These chapels are of wood, but are very richly lacquered, gilded, and panelled, both outside and inside; the doors being covered with carvings of peacocks and other birds of gorgeous plumage, painted in the natural hues.

Part of these chapels are divided off by screens, which our guides refuse to draw aside; but as they conduct us along a verandah running round the back of this portion, one of our party is curious enough to draw aside for a few inches a side screen. The guides, on discovering the trick, are apparently much dismayed, nor is the curious one rewarded for his temerity by seeing anything beyond an apparent repetition of the sacred ornaments of the other part of the chapel. Behind these chapels are the actual tombs, each in an enclosure of stone screen-work: they are six in number; one is of bronze, the others of stone. The whole is surrounded by fine old trees; everything is in perfect order, and as quiet as if the place were miles from a great city such as Yedo, instead of being, as it is, within the limits of one of its more populous quarters.

It is said that now that the Shoguns have fallen from their high estate, this truly royal cemetery of theirs will be allowed to fall to decay. One can well imagine that the feelings of the Mikado towards the

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last of the Shoguns, whom he has succeeded in expelling from all his possessions, and has driven to live incognito in a remote Japanese town, are none of the most friendly; but one may hope that the maxim ‘De mortuis nil nisi bonum' will hold good even in this case, and that this Westminster Abbey of Yedo will be preserved in all its beautiful order and integrity.

A mile to the north of Shiba is the hill Atango-Yama, up which we ascend by a steep flight of some eighty or ninety steps. Arrived at their summit, we find ourselves on the flat top of the hill, which is partly filled up with tea-sheds and a small temple. From here we have a fine view over the city, and can well appreciate its immense extent. To the south and east, at a distance of two miles or thereabouts, spread out the waters of the Bay of Yedo; between us and their blue expanse, and away to the north-east for six or eight miles, lie the denser quarters of the Imperial City; more to the north are the long walks and large quadrangles of the Yashkis (the Daimios' residences), in the Soto-Shiro, the quarter which lies outside the Castle Enclosure. Beyond these, again, is the O-Shiro itself, the moated quarter containing the Imperial Castle and the Yashkis of about twenty of the highest Daimios.

The view of the city thus obtained is as pleasing as that of almost any city of as large a size could well be. Though it is, for the most part, flat, and shows, of course, a great surface of roofs, there is a clean and smokeless look over the whole of it, and the uniformity of the scene is much relieved by the appearance here and there of the high-peaked, gabled roof of a temple ; by the white walls of the Yashkis, with broad and level roads running among them; and, above all, by the clumps of fine trees, and the bright patches of garden or rice land, which dot the more sparsely-populated quarters.



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Descending from Atango-Yama, we may go, still northwards, towards the 'Shiros,' which together occupy a fifth of the whole area of Yedo. The Soto-Shiro is surrounded by a broad moat, which is crossed by a great number of bridges; and it is further defended by a strong wall and gateways on the inner side of the moat. This moat is said to have a circumference of ten miles; its sides are built up with solid masonry, and it seems to have an average breadth of about thirty yards. The Soto-Shiro is chiefly occupied by Yashkis; it contains also a number of temples, and its north-eastern end forms the most important mercantile quarter of the city, being traversed by the Tocaido, which is here called the O-tori, or Great Street.

We enter the portion occupied by the Yashkis. These Yashkis have very little to recommend them in their outward appearance except their size. As we pass down one of the broad roads, sometimes 100 ft. in breadth, that separate them from each other, we see nothing on either side but straight white walls, built, up to four or five feet from the ground, of solid stone, above that height, of wood and plaster. Along them run two rows of small square windows, grated and barred, and admitting light to the rooms of the retainers who occupy this part of the premi

About midway between any two of the road corners a massive gateway pierces these outer buildings, and gives access to the quadrangles within, where the buildings occupied by the Daimio and his family are placed. The doors of the gateways are of wood, heavily and strongly built, adorned with metal bosses and plates, and surmounted each with the owner's crest. The roads running between these Yashkis generally look deserted and quiet, and the faces of a few retainers looking out through the grated windows are often the only human objects visible. Occasionally, however, we may meet a noble



baron riding, perhaps, a jet black pony, dressed in olivegreen silk, and followed by a dozen sworded retainers on foot, or by his young son and heir, mounted on a spirited young pony, whose trappings are all crimson and gold. The inside of a Yashki is described by those few foreigners who have ever seen one as very plain and unornamented, and differing little from the house of an ordinary Japanese merchant.

The O-Shiro is separated from the Soto-Shiro by an inner moat of between three and four miles in circumference, and between thirty and forty yards in width. This moat is in some parts remarkably picturesque, especially where a green sward slopes down to it from the foot of the wall of the Imperial Castle and Grounds : on this slope grow some fine pine and fir-trees, and on the moat may often be seen flocks of water-fowl. Non-official foreigners are not allowed to penetrate within this second moat, and besides it is said that there is little in the Imperial Castle which has not its fac-simile in the Yashkis of the SotoShiro.1 A ride round the moat, however, well repays the time or trouble involved, for it affords some fine views of Yedo and the surrounding country.

From the O-Shiro we may go north-eastwards, through the Mercantile Quarter of the Soto-Shiro, past the bridge, known as the 'Niphon Bass '—from which all distances along the Tocaido, or along its northern continuation, the Oskio-caido, are measured—and so on to the celebrated temple and grounds of Asaksa (or Asakusa, as it is

1 In speaking of the O-Shiro as the Imperial 'Castle,' we must banish from our minds any ideas of a lofty castellated building, such as European castles suggest to us. These Yedo castles are of inconsiderable elevation, seldom more than two storeys in height. The towers which stand at the corners of the walls overlooking the moats have a flimsy appearance, as far as their material goes; and the solid stonework is confined to the sides of the moats and the basements of the “ Yashkis.'

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sometimes spelt and pronounced). This is an interesting ride, for it takes us through the busiest part of the city.

To take in half of what is going on in these streets, or to see half of what is to be seen in the shops on either side, one ought to go on foot, and that leisurely, and more than once. Just as we leave the Yashki quarter, we come upon a small open space at the side of the road, occupied by two or three light wooden sheds, wherein are one or two of the characteristic sights of the country. In one shed is a group of four musicians, who are attempting by both vocal and instrumental strains to soothe the rugged breasts' of forty or fifty listening Yedoese: in the neighbouring shed is a crowd collected round a professional story-teller, who is evidently a man of a humorous turn of mind, for he is raising constant laughs from his audience, while he himself relaxes his features no farther than to give a sardonic smile at his own witticisms.

Riding on through the 0-tori, the busy Strand' of Yedo, we have to go some three miles before reaching Asaksa. The original attraction at Asaksa was undoubtedly its sacred and much-visited temple of Kwan-non. To approach this temple we pass through one of the orthodox Sinto archways, which in this instance is painted a brilliant vermilion colour, and walk up an avenue of shops extending for about 150 yards. At the end of the avenue is the temple, raised on a basement, which we mount by a broad flight of steps.

The temple is of wood, and evidently old and much frequented : indeed, directly we enter we find ourselves in a throng of natives, who have come apparently rather to see and to be seen' than to worship. The temple is hung with coloured paper lamps of immense size, and decorated also with a number of pictures, representing, it is said, various famous deified heroes and heroines, though they


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