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necessarily violate the just principles of taxation; and, secondly, that "a Teste. income-tax does so to a greater extent than there is any necessity for. Tsfcsi » the principles of taxation those laid down as such by Adam Smith, and limsbv Ricardo and John Stuart Mill, the writer undertook to prove that the iris ijectionable income-tax must needs infringe three of Adam Smith's four r-rra Instead of being levied at the time and in the manner most convenient to the Exttributor, an income-tax is levied at the most inconvenient time and in the Sop: offensive manner. A man pays his customs or excise dues a little at a tisane , chooses his own time for paying,—never, of course, volunteering to pay, fu« when he has wherewithal to pay. But the income-tax comes upon him boti t-i at onco and just at the very time when he is beset with his half-yearly bill?, terming a pitiless percentage on his means of meeting them. It lays him, too. os tze rack, endeavours to extort a confession from him, and leaves him no alternative he to criminate or to perjure himself. Then, the income-tax is levied most unequal It is assessed, not, as Adam Smith says it should be, in proportion to a But"* ability, but in proportion to his honesty. An income-tax must often be, to a eenc extent, a matter of conscience. Those who have no conscience may partially eraai it by lying; and thus it acts as a bounty upon lying, and a tax upon truth. H« honest man bears the full burden; the dishonest goes comparatively free. Ha B a vice inherent in and inseparable from every income-tax whatsoever. There Eesc always be this to counterbalance any virtues it may possess. True, it has the mas: of raising a revenue more effectually than any other expedient, but at what cose does it do so? The mere pecuniary cost of its collection may perhaps be modeis? as compared with that of the customs or excise, but money is not the sole eJenaat of cost. The income-tax is collected at the expense of the national honestv. I: offers a powerful temptation to every commercial and every professional man'toirfl one deliberate falsehood^ to commit one gross act of fraud, every year, and ii » certain that a large majority of commercial and professional men yield to tie temptation; for, from the last returns, it appears that there ore, in Crreat Briub, only 6066 persons in trades or professions honest enough to confess that thev mite more than £500 and less than £600 a year; only 6020 who confess to more tins £1000 and less than £2000 a year; only 997 persons who confess to £5000 and las than £10,000. Since it cannot be supposed that people who cheat regularly once a year will cheat only once a year, or that, beginning with cheating government, they will end without cheating their customers, it is plain that the income-tax a undermining the national honesty, and consequently that commercial prosperity also of which national honesty is one of the bases. Although then an income-tax may possibly not take out of people's pockets a great deal more than is paid into the exchequer, it is calculated to keep oat a great deal that would otherwise hava entered.
Considering it to be thus apparent that every income-tax must necessarilv be it variance with just principles, Mr. Thornton proceeded to argue that a uniform income-tax violates them to a needless extent. It does so by superadding to the inequality and injustice inseparable from every income-tax on inequality ami injustice peculiar to itself. This is implied by its very name—a uniform income-tax, i. e. a tax levied at the same rate on all incomes. But, says Adam Smith, every one should pay taxes in proportion to his ability. His ability to do what? Obviously in proportion to his ability to pay taxes. But such ability by no means corresponds with income. To illustrate this point, Mr. Thornton supposed two persons, each with £1000 a year, but the one a bachelor, and the other a man with a family. Both have the same income, but their ability to bear taxation is very different; or, to use Ricardo's application of Adam Smith's principle, equal taxation requires from them very unequal sacrifices. Consequently, a tax assessed at the same rate on all incomes, without reference to the varying" amount of claims on those incomes, is not assessed "in proportion to the respective abilities of the several contributors." Moreover the income-tax is the only tax at present in use amongst us which does affect incomes without regard to other claims upon them. A prudent family man, by living in a cheaper situation, by keeping only female servants, by walking on foot or riding only in cabs or omnibuses, by eschewing cigars, and drinking beer or spirits instead of wine, may always manage
MECHANICAL SCIENCE. Addreuo/WlUJXU Faieiuibn, Esq., LL.D., ^■S-Pres'den'°/^^, Evuby succeeding year presents to our notice some new feat"TM " ^ to reoc* or some new application of science to the useful arts. Last yea ^ tkii faI several new discoveries in chemical as well as mechanical scie . ^ -a fa is fruitful of machinery and the industrial developments, as e. TOUrtime courts of the International Exhibition. It is not my intention to "t/- ^rfthe with a historv of these Exhibitions, but I may be permitted to noii ^ „ most interesting objects, and some of the ingenious contrivance- ^ called upon to witness, and which do honour to the age in wnicn w .^^g I venture on a description of these objects, I must, however, era whilst I enHao*""— *
is their smooth and noiseless motion, their compact form, and the facility which they can he applied as helps or assistants to those of larger dimension— They are, moreover, executed with a degree of finish and accuracy of ship which cannot easily be surpassed.
In the agricultural department the same observations apply to this de of engine, where it is extensively used on a smaller scale. They are equally' made, and the country at large are chiefly indebted to our agricultural enginee*-^ for many ingenious contrivances, and for their successful application, not ••xols*— sively to the farm, but to many other useful purposes in the economy of: life.
From the motive power employed in our manufactories and its adaptation agriculture let us glance at the beautiful execution, compact form, and colas dimensions of our marine engines, and we shall find, in combination, simplicity form, concentration of power, and precision of action never before equalled in thi= or any other country. In this department of construction we are without rivals, and it is a source of pride that this country, as the first maritime nation in the i
should stand preeminently first as the leader of naval propulsion.
In locomotive as in marine constructions we are not behind, if we are not in. advance of other nations, although it must be admitted that several splendid specimens of engines from France and Germany are exhibited by some of the best makers of those countries. There is, however, this distinction between the Continental locomotives and those of home manufacture, and that is, in this country there is greater simplicity and design, greater compactness of form, and clearer conceptions in working out the details of the parts. These operations, when carefully executed to standard gauges, render each part of an engine a facsimile of its fellow; and hence follows the perfection of a system where every part is a repetition of a whole series of parts, and, in so far as accuracy is concerned, it is a great improvement on the old system of construction.
The other parts of the Exhibition are well entitled to a careful inspection. In minerals and raw material the collections are numerous and valuable to an extent never before witnessed in any Exhibition; and the articles, fuel and ores, will be found highly instructive. The machinery for pumping, winding, and crushing is upon a scale sufficiently large and comprehensive to engage the attention of the mechanic and miner, and it is only to be regretted that in every case competent persons are not in attendance fully prepared to explain and initiate the inexperienced student in the principles of the workings, and the cases of instruments so neatly classified and spread before him for instruction.
In the machinery department, although there is nothing that strikes the observer at first sight as new, yet there arc many useful improvements calculated to economize labour and facilitate the operations of spinning and weaving; and in toolmaking there never was at any former period so many hands and heads at work as on the occasion pending the opening of the Exhibition. Some of the tools, such as the turning-, boring-, planing-, and slotting-machines, are of a very high order; and the tool-machinery for the manufacture of fire-arms, shells, rockets, &c, is of that character as to render the whole operations, however minute, perfectly automaton or self-acting, with an accuracy of repetition that leaves the article, when finished, identical with every other article from the same machine. Such, in fact, is the perfection of the tool-system as it now exists, that in almost everv case we mav calculate on a degree of exactitude that admits of no deviation beyond a thousandth part of an inch.
Amongst the many interesting mechanical objects exhibited in the two annexes may be noticed as original, the spool-machine, for the winding of sewing-thread on bobbins, the machine for making paper bags (invented by a pupil of my own), the saw-riband machine, and others of great merit as regards ingenuity of contrivance and adaptation of design. In manufactures, in design, and in constructive art, there is everything that could be desired in the shape of competitive skill; and, without viewing the success of the Great Exhibition of this year in a pecuniary point of view, we may safely attribute its great success to the interesting and instructive character of the objects submitted to public inspection.
Irrespective of the Exhibition, with its invaluable and highly finished specimens,