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missiles. In point of (act, ftr. V hi worth, mth« pin lighter than the 68-pounder, could destroy them by his steel-liaraenTM at a distance of 1500 to 2000 yards. tea Since the above was written'another experiment has been made mU. a TM ,^

?un, rifled on Mr. Whitworths hexagonal principle. This gun was ot nip ■ 20-pounder, at a distance of 000 yards, and the results seem to prow aide of a vessel like the 'Warrior' is no longer shell-proof. In these eipe 130-lb. solid shot, with a charge of 23 lbs. of powder, went rirht n*jRj 3 inch armour-plate and lodged in the teak backing behind. A shell oi weight, and a charge of 25 lbs. of powder, also penetrated the armour-p exploded, tearing the wood backing, and lodged on the opposite 91<1e- ^0

From these more recent experiments we mav infer that the victory ^ of the gun, and that it may be difficult, under'such fearful odds, *>.<*■»* of sufficient power to prevent their destruction by the entrance ol ■ae i ^ experiments are, however, in progress, and means may yet be adopted question of armour-ships vertwt shot and shell.

On the Importance of Economizing Fuel in Iron-plated Ships. Sif'E

Iron-plated ships, to be efficient, ought to be able to carry coals for !o^^n{Bi but in consequence of the weight of the armour, and the present mode oi jw gjj and using the steam, only coals enough for seven days can be cat wars, despatch in going to the seat of war, and high speed in m necessary; therefore in

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to bo imperfect, there has arisen internationally a necessity for it* adoption sal it shall be met or superseded by some other device; and the object of the aotks, by this paper, is to bring before the notice of the British Association for ii* Advancement of Science the question, which has been otherwise publicly agiiaed by him, whether the principle of " invulnerability," as based on "armour-planae." may not be superseded by the principle of "unsinkability," as based on principle of constructing ships with such a mass of uninflammable material o; « specific gravity less than that of water as shall support the hull and its entire feai and float, however perforated by shot laterally through the sides of the ship, s vertically through the deck and bottom of the vessel by the still more formkuhe effect of an improved mortar-practice pitching shells of great weight with so infallible precision at short range, or even still float in parts when severed by tk concussion of a hostile ram.

Though the vessel may thus be "unsinkable," it is not professed or anticipated br the author that war would be prosecuted without the sacrifice of blood: for thoaak the proposed construction of shipping would be well adapted for protecting uS» crews of ships from small anus, still the cannon or the mortar would take effect The chief point on which the principle of "unsinkable ships'' is put forward b; the author as claiming consideration is that, by the adoption of this principle, tki whole crew of a ship would not be simultaneously drowned through the effective application of a single shot, shell, or ram-stroke, as might be the case with armoured ships, seeing that the direct fire of artillery is still paramount, and the mortar practice above referred to has not yet been tried.

A further advantage consequent on adopting the principle of "unsinkability" would be that it does not necessitate the construction of ships of such large sixe si is required for carrying out the principle of " invulnerability" by arroour-platiiyr. Also by avoiding top-weight, by which armour-plated ships are so much encumbered, many difficulties in the prosecution of naval architecture are obviated. It is therefore conceived that this principle of "unsinkability " would be well adapted for gun-boats and mortar-vessels destined to act in cooperation with each other ia assailing larger vessels at close quarters, or doing service in shoal waters, such vessels receiving their stores from high-speed steamers of ordinary build acting as store and hospital and barrack ships, to be kept out of harm's wav. Also the principle of unsinkability would be well adapted for troop ships and the safe conveyance of valuable cargoes and treasure.

The details of construction of the "unsinkable ship," as respects the disposal of its unsinkable materials, will be dependent on the purpose for which the ship may be especially intended. For example, the whole mass of material on which the ship depends for its unsinkability may be in a solid mass, with the whole of its hold accommodation above the deep-draught water-level; or the vessel may have a hold below the level of the load water-line, provided that the required mass of buoyant material be otherwise disposed of, constituting the sides or ends and bottom*and decks of the vessel. Of course such a vessel with a hold below the load-line level may become water-logged, and, if a steamer, disabled; but still such a vessel would sail", and the crew would be alive to do pood service from her deck; at all events, her whole crew could not be simultaneously sent to the bottom, which is the great catastrophe intended to be obviated by the principle of unsinkable ships—a catastrophe to which armour-plated ships, though bulkheaded, will be liable if artillery or mortar practice become paramount.

The required brevity of this abstract does not admit of the details of calculation and of construction for the production of "unsinkable ships " of given capabilities being here entered upon; such an exposition, to bo complete, would be elaborate, and may engage tho future attention of the author.

On Coryton's Vertical- Wave-Line Ships, Self-Reefing Sails, and Guide-PropeUcr. By John Cobtton, of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. The object of the inventor has been to produce a form of vessel which shall combine the weatherly qualities of a clipper ship, with the advantages of increased speed ■when going free, and greater safety when scudding before a gale, riding at an

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