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pieces, cannons, and other deadly instruments of war; which, when they came to York, were all, no doubt by the merit of some great saint, suddenly transformed into prayers and tears: and, being divided into regiments and brigades, were the only arms that mischiefed us in all those battles and encounters."*

"He tells us that what he wants in the hands of power, he has in the wings of faith and prayer; but they who made no reckoning of those wings while they had that power in their hands, may easily mistake the wings of faith for the wings of presumption, and so fall headlong."f

"Of secular honours added to the dignity of prelates, since the subject of that question is now removed, we need not spend time: but this perhaps will never be unseasonable to bear in mind out of Chrysostom, that when ministers came to have lands, houses, farms, coaches, horses, and the like lumber, then religion brought forth riches in the church, and the daughter devoured the mother."!

Upon the king's complaint of the denying him the attendance of his chaplains, he remarks, "A chaplain is a thing so diminutive and inconsiderable, that how he should come here among matters of so great concernment, to take such room up in the discourses of a prince, if it be not wondered, is to be smiled at. Certainly by me, so mean an argument shall not be written; but I shall huddle him as he does prayers. The Scripture owns no such order— no such function in the church; and the church not owning them, they are left, for aught I know, to such a further examining as the sons of Sceva, the Jew, met with. Bishops or presbyters we know, and deacons we know, but what are chaplains? In state, perhaps, they may be listed among the upper servingmen of some great household, and be admitted to some such place, as may style them the sewers, or the yeomen-ushers of devotion, where the master is too resty or too rich to say his own prayers, or to bless his own table. The fervency of one man in prayer cannot supererogate for the coldness of another; neither can his spiritual defects in that duty be made out, to the acceptance of God, by another man's abilities. Let him endeavour to have more light in himself, and not to walk by another man's lamp, but to get oil into his own."

* Eikon, chap, x., 162. + Eikon, chap, x., 164. J Eikon, chap, xxvii., 271.

"I believe that God is no more moved with a prayer elaborately penned, thau men truly charitable are moved with the penned speech of a beggar. Finally, oh ye ministers, ye pluralists, whose lips preserve not knowledge, but the way ever open to your bellies, read here what work he makes among your wares, your gallipots, your balms and cordials, in print; and not only your sweet sippets in widows' houses, but the huge goblets wherewith he charges you to have devoured houses and all; the 'houses of your brethren, your king, and your God.' Cry him up for a saint in your pulpits, while he cries you down for atheists into hell."

But we must break off from these questions, from a book so worthy of the author, and the people whom he defended. It is straightforward in the highest degree, a masterpiece of controversial logic; the cogency is irresistible: the book is, as previously intimated, invaluable as history, whether Charles were the author or not. The pleas of the image of a king were in his mouth before his death, and have been in the mouths of all his adherents and apologists ever since; but as Milton unveils his characters before he deals those destructive blows, he stands before us as the man he was. There is no insult, no mockery, there is no exultation over fallen greatness; there is not a time which does not display the author's love of justice, and love of truth, and love of country, love of piety: while the image of the king from the words uttered by him, and from his repeated actions, is the image of baseness and hypocrisy, duplicity and despotism; while over the image Milton pours his resistless tide of eloquent exposition; withering every subterfuge, demolishing every argument, rectifying the false statements of the martyr. As we read the alternate pleas of Charles and the dignified replies of the poet—the martyr sinks to the driveller—the Latin secretary rises to the king.

CHAPTER XL

SIILTON AND SALMASIUS.

It will be known to most of our readers that Salmasius, a great northern critic, high in favour at the court of Christiana, Queen of Sweden, took upon himself to attaek the people of England for their presumption in fighting with and killing their king. Milton, in his

reply to this attack, prophesies that "the very next age will bury his name in oblivion, unless this defence of the king may perhaps be beholden to the answers I give to it, for being looked into now and then;" and thus indeed has it fallen out; no one would know any thing of Salmasius, but that his name is thus associated with Milton. There was little politeness lost between these disputants; the insults offered by Salmasius to the republic were disgraceful, and his abuse of Milton himself is most virulent. He speaks of Englishmen as those who "toss the heads of kings about as so many tennis balls; who play with crowns as if they were bowls; and who look upon sceptres as if they were crooks." He reproaches Milton as being but a puny piece of man, an homunculus, a dwarf, deprived of the human figure, a bloodless being, composed of nothing but skin and bone, a contemptible pedagogue fit only to flog boys. Subsequently, finding that Milton was of a very handsome person, he accused him of being guilty of unnatural crimes, and glories that he has lost hia health and his eyes in answering the "'defence of the king." He malignantly sympathises with him that he has lost that beauty which made him so great a favourite in Italy. His

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