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especially on the subject of religion, belong, for the most part, to that class who start but few new questions, and are chiefly remarkable for their skill in throwing a new light, or a new attractiveness around commonly received truths. Mr. Brownson's book will suffer, so far as its circulation is concerned, from the real novelty of some of the speculations contained therein; and still more, as we suspect, from the title-page, and from, the novel application throughout the body of the work of a few terms, such as spiritualism, materialism, and atonement, which have the effect to give to the whole discussion a strange and foreign air. In this, we think, the author has erred, in common with other able writers among us, not in the originality and freedom of his speculations, for that could not be helped, but in a willingness to seem very original and free, though at the hazard of losing the sympathies of the public; or, at any rate, in the adoption of a manner which can only serve to make his originality and freedom unnecessarily startling and offensive. We are aware, however, that his own account of the matter, as given in the Preface, is so discriminating and unpretending, that it must do not a little to disarm the prejudice of which we have spoken.
"It must not," he says, "be inferred from my calling this little work New Views, that I profess to bring forward a new religion, or to have discovered a new Christianity. The religion of the Bible I believe to be given by the inspiration of God, and the Christianity of Christ satisfies my understanding and my heart. However widely I may dissent from the Christianity of the Church, with that of Christ I am content to stand or fall, and I ask no higher glory than to live and die in it and for it.
"I believe my views are somewhat original, but I am far from considering them the only or even the most important views which may be taken of the subjects on which I treat. Those subjects have a variety of aspects, and all their aspects are true and valuable. He who presents any one of them does a service to Humanity; and he who presents one of them has no occasion to fall out with him who presents another, nor to claim superiority over him.
"Although I consider the views contained in the following pages original, I believe the conclusions, to which I come at last, will be found very much in accordance with those generally adopted by the denomination of Christians, with whom it has been for some years my happiness to be associated. That denomination, however, must not be held responsible for any of the opinions I have advanced. I am not the organ of a sect. I do not speak by authority, nor under tutelage. I speak for myself and from my own convictions. And in this way, better than I could in any other, do I prove my sympathy with the body of which I am a member, and establish my right to be called a Unitarian.”
According to Mr. Brownson, two systems have been disputing from the first the empire of the world, - Spiritualism and Materi
alism; meaning thereby two social rather than two philosophical systems, sometimes denominated spiritual and temporal, heavenly and worldly, holy and profane, &c. Christianity was given to bring about a reconciliation or atonement between these two systems, but has failed thus far of accomplishing its object, not so much through misconceptions as through partial conceptions of what is required. The Catholic Church strove to realize spiritualism at the expense of materialism; that is, to give an exclusive prominence and dominion to that class of ideas which are denoted by the terms, God, the priesthood, faith, heaven, eternity. Protestantism, on the other hand, when true to itself, is in its tendency essentially materialistic; that is, transfers the preponderance to that class of ideas which are denoted by the terms, man, the state, reason, the earth, and time. Now the mission of the present, according to Mr. Brownson, is to put away these partial views, and so to exalt and purify the ideas denoted by both classes of terms as to destroy all antagonism between them, and thus to realize the true Christian doctrine of atonement as the foundation of union and progress.
These, as well as we can give them in a few words, seem to be the "New Views of Christianity, Society, and the Church," which this book is intended to set forth. We were in hopes of being able to give a fit examination of the merits of the work in our present number, but failing herein, this slight notice must suffice, until a better is prepared. One thing, however, we will say, in justice to the author. Those even who are most convinced of the unsoundness or fancifulness of his general doctrine, will be as ready as any to acknowledge the ability, eloquence, and earnest feeling expended in its exposition and defence.
We give Mr. Brownson's closing remarks.
"I do not misread the age. I have not looked upon the world only out from the window of my closet; I have mingled in its busy scenes; I have rejoiced and wept with it; I have hoped and feared, and believed and doubted with it, and I am but what it has made me. I cannot misread it. It craves union. The heart of man is crying out for the heart of man. One and the same spirit is abroad, uttering the same voice in all languages. From all parts of the world voice answers to voice, and man responds to man. There is a universal language already Men are beginning to understand one another, and their mutual understanding will beget mutual sympathy, and mutual sympathy will bind them together and to God.
"And for progress too the whole world is struggling. Old institutions are examined, old opinions criticized, even the old Church is laid bare to its very foundations, and its holy vestments and sacred symbols are exposed to the gaze of the multitude; new systems are proclaimed, new institutions elaborated, new ideas are sent abroad, new experiments are made, and the whole world seems intent on the means by which it may accomplish its destiny. The individual is struggling to become a VOL. XXII. 3D s. VOL. IV. NO. I. 17
greater and a better being. Everywhere there are men laboring to perfect governments and laws. The poor man is admitted to be human, and millions of voices are demanding that he be treated as a brother. All eyes and hearts are turned to education. The cultivation of the child's moral and spiritual nature becomes the worship of God. The priest rises to the educator, and the school-room is the temple in which he is to minister. There is progress; there will be progress. Humanity must go forward. Encouraging is the future. He, who takes his position on the "high table land" of Humanity, and beholds with a prophet's gaze his brothers, so long separated, coming together, and arm in arm marching onward and upward towards the Perfect, towards God, may hear celestial voices chanting a sweeter strain than that which announced to Judea's shepherds the birth of the Redeemer, and, his heart full and overflowing, he may exclaim with old Simeon, 'Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation."— pp. 114 - 116.
Memoir of WILLIAM CAREY, D. D., late Missionary to Bengal; Professor of Oriental Languages in the College of Fort William, Calcutta. By EUSTACE CAREY. With an Introductory Essay, by FRANCIS WAYLAND, D. D., President of Brown University. Boston: Gould, Kendall, & Lincoln. 1836. 12mo. pp. xxii. and 422. It cannot generally be said in praise of American editors of English works, that they add any thing to those works by their additions, or improve them by their improvements; but the value of this edition of the Memoir of Dr. Carey is decidedly increased by President Wayland's Introductory Essay. It is, indeed, the spirit and moral of the volume which it precedes. For facts and details, the reader goes of course to the Memoir, but the philosophy of Carey's life and labors is condensed in the Essay, and so condensed there, that it really introduces, not supersedes the Memoir, and sharpens the reader's curiosity to peruse it, instead of taking off its edge. The Memoir itself is printed, as was just and right, unaltered from the English edition. It consists chiefly of extracts from Dr. Carey's own journals and letters, which his biographer has connected into a narrative by occasional remarks and statements, prevailingly interesting and judicious.
Dr. Carey was a most remarkable man. Without the advantages of high birth, of fortune, of bright genius, of any but a common education, without influential friends, and in spite of influential opposers, he arrived at the honor of being the first to introduce Christianity into the British possessions in India. He was the son of a village schoolmaster, and was born in Paulerspury, England, August 17th, 1761. He was apprenticed to a shoemaker at Hackleton, became a shoemaker himself, acquired his first knowledge of Hebrew on his shoemaker's bench, and, while a shoemaker, began preaching to a small congregation of dissenters. He was miserably
poor, had a sick and nervous wife, and a fast-coming family of children. This indigent, burdened, preaching shoemaker conceived the design of making known the Gospel to British India, to a vast and rich country, the selfish merchant-princes of which needed it as much as the natives, and were as strongly set against it. To British India no British vessel would take him. He sailed in a Danish ship, and on declaring his purpose, some time after his arrival, was obliged to quit the British possessions, and live in a territory which was held by the Danish government. By means of his indomitable perseverance, blessed by Divine Providence, he at last succeeded. Prejudice and self-interest were overcome, and favor was conciliated. He acquired the languages of the natives; translated the Bible into those languages; was made Professor of Oriental Literature in the College of Fort William; gave a religious impetus to his countrymen, which resulted in the establishment of bishoprics, churches, schools, and other means of improvement in India; gained, by way of recreation merely, a knowledge of botany which ranked him among the first natural historians of the day; and, after disbursing large sums which were confided to him in the prosecution of his labors, died, owing no man, honestly and honorably poor. We know not, how some may be affected at the view of such a man, but to us, a whole row of common kings and potentates looks very mean by the side of him.
The example of Dr. Carey is an especially useful one to those who feel that they have not what is called genius; as it may show them that they can accomplish important objects without genius. "In Dr. Carey's mind," says his biographer, "there is nothing of the marvellous to describe. There was no great and original transcendency of intellect; no enthusiasm and impetuosity of feeling; there was nothing in his mental character to dazzle, or even to surprise. Whatever of usefulness, and of consequent reputation he attained to, it was the result of an unreserved and patient devotion of a plain intelligence, and a single heart, to some great, yet well-defined, and withal practicable objects." Eustace," said he once to his nephew, the author of the present Memoir, "if, after my removal, any one should think it worth his while to write my life, I will give you a criterion by which you may judge of its correctness. If he give me credit for being a plodder, he will describe me justly. Any thing beyond this will be too much. I can plod. I can persevere in any definite pursuit. To this I owe every thing."
As Dr. Carey was a Calvinistic Baptist, he was, as a matter almost of course, not at all too friendly to liberal views of Christianity, or to those who entertained them. But every man of a truly liberal mind will overlook this, and not suffer it to diminish
the gratification which he will receive from reading the Memoir of one who was an ornament to his race. He died at Serampore, June 9th, 1834.
The Complete Poetical Works of WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: together with a Description of the Country of the Lakes in the North of England, now first published with his Works. Edited by HENRY REED, Professor of English Literature in the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: James Kay, Jun. & Brother. Boston: James Munroe & Co. 1837. Royal 8vo. pp. xxiv. and 551.
In the compass of a short notice it will not be expected that we should attempt any thing like an estimate of the merits of such a poet as Wordsworth, or a criticism on his works. The time has gone by when a page or two of lordly sarcasm, as ignorant as it was arrogant, or a page or two of hesitating praise, mingled and stiffened with a requisite portion of censure, was deemed proper treatment of a bard, whom the whole reasonable world now ranks among the greatest. We therefore feel that there is no immediate call upon us for a paragraph of defence and eulogy. Our present purpose is simply and heartily to recommend Professor Reed's edition of Wordsworth, as one which does justice to the poet, and is calculated to satisfy the not easily satisfied wishes of the many who love and revere him. It is, what it professes to be, a complete edition of his poetical works, such as might be sought for in vain in his own country, and contains also his prefaces and essays, his beautiful description of the Lakes, and his Essay upon Epitaphs. The editor has performed his part in a most judicious manner, and in the true spirit of one "who claims to have brought to the task an affectionate solicitude for every verse in the volume." He has given us the pure text, and has interspersed, with the poet's own notes, a few, and but very few others, which consist "almost entirely of illustrative passages from the writings of those with whom Mr. Wordsworth would most willingly find his name associated." The poems which were lately published under the title of "Yarrow Revisited, and other Poems," are placed in their appropriate divisions, as the poet himself would have arranged them. The publishers may challenge for themselves a full portion of praise, for having sent forth a book which confers credit on the American press. Since we received it, we have read a considerable portion of its contents, and, accustomed as we are to proofsheets, and familiar as we are with the author, we have not yet detected a typographical error. The page is clean and bright, and the type is as clear and large as eyes can wish. We have seldom seen a book which has given us so much pleasure.