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ments the results of the tempest they had roused. Fortunately, the energy of government gave to rising revolution the harmless character of crushed insurrection, saved to after years the inquiry for the Catilines of the young republic, and left to us the happy privilege of receiving the coin impressed with the mark of patriotism at its stamped value, without testing its deficiency of weight, or assaying the metal to determine the mixture of alloy."

As the Courts of Common Pleas, in which we have seen so many actions had been entered in the two preceding years, were to the people the immediate instruments of their distresses, the spirit of rebellion first manifested itself in overt acts, in attempting to suspend the operations of these tribunals. The first attempt was made in Worcester, at the commencement of the September session of 1786. On Monday night of the first week in the month, a body of eighty armed men, under Captain Wheeler of Hubbardston, entered the town, and took possession of the Court-house. Early the next morning their numbers were augmented to nearly one hundred, and as many more collected without fire-arms. At the usual hour, the Judges, with the Justices of the Sessions and the members of the bar, attended by the clerk and sheriff, moved towards the Court-house. There the following scene took place between Chief Justice Artemas Ward, who had also been a general in the revolution, and the insurgents, which we will give in the words of the author, and with it close our brief allusion to Shays's rebellion.

"On the verge of the crowd thronging the hill, a sentinel was pacing on his round, who challenged the procession as it approached his post. General Ward sternly ordered the soldier, formerly a subaltern of his own particular regiment, to recover his levelled musket. The man, awed by the voice he had been accustomed to obey, instantly complied, and presented his piece, in military salute, to his old commander. The Court, having received the honors of war from him who was planted to oppose their advance, went on. The multitude, receding to the right and left, made way in sullen silence, till the judicial officers reached the court-house. On the steps was stationed a file of men with fixed bayonets; on the front, stood Captain Wheeler, with his drawn sword. The crier was directed to open the doors, and permitted to throw them back, displaying a party of infantry with their guns levelled, as if ready to fire. Judge Ward then advanced, and the bayonets were turned against his breast. He demanded repeatedly, who commanded the people there; by what

authority, and for what purpose, they had met in hostile array. Wheeler at length replied: after disclaiming the rank of leader, he stated, that they had come to relieve the distresses of the country, by preventing the sittings of Courts until they could obtain redress of grievances. The Chief Justice answered, that he would satisfy them their complaints were without just foundation. He was told by Captain Smith of Barre, that any communication he had to make must be reduced to writing. Judge Ward indignantly refused to do this; he said he did not value their bayonets; they might plunge them to his heart; but while that heart beat he would do his duty; when opposed to it, his life was of little consequence; if they would take away their bayonets, and give him some position where he could be heard by his fellow-citizens, and not by the leaders alone who had deceived and deluded them, he would speak, but not otherwise.' The insurgent officers, fearful of the effect of his determined manner on the minds of their followers, interrupted. They did not come there, they said, to listen to long speeches, but to resist oppression; they had the power to compel submission; and they demanded an adjournment without day. Judge Ward peremptorily refused to answer any proposition, unless it was accompanied by the name of him by whom it was made. They then desired him to fall back; the drum was beat and the guard ordered to charge. The soldiers advanced, until the points of their bayonets pressed hard upon the breast of the Chief Justice, who stood as immovable as a statue, without stirring a limb, or yielding an inch, although the steel in the hands of desperate men penetrated his dress. Struck with admiration by his intrepidity, and shrinking from the sacrifice of life, the guns were removed, and Judge Ward, ascending the steps, addressed the assembly."

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"He spoke nearly two hours, not without frequent interruption. But admonition and argument were unavailing; the insurgents declared they would maintain their ground until satisfaction was obtained. Judge Ward, addressing himself to Wheeler, advised him to suffer the troops to disperse; they were waging war, which was treason, and its end would be,' he added after a momentary pause, 'the gallows.' The judges then retired, unmolested, through armed files." —pp. 135, 136.

The remaining portions of the volume, including the ecclesiastical, biographical, and statistical history of the town, like those we have already examined, attest the ability, faithfulness, and industry of the historian; and, if less general in their interest, are equally valuable as parts of the history of an

enterprizing, intelligent, and self-governed people, and will richly repay an attentive perusal. The biographical sketches, in particular, are very full and complete, and show that Worcester has contributed her full share of the men, whose lives have blessed and honored their country, and whose names already hold a distinguished place in her annals.

L. B.


A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee. Translated from the Latin of WILLIAM GESENIUS, Doct. and Prof. of Theology in the University of Halle, Wittemberg. By EDWARD ROBINSON, D. D., late Prof. Extraord. of Sac. Lit. in the Theol. Sem. at Andover. Boston; Crocker & Brewster. New York; Leavitt, Lord, & Co. 1836. 8vo. pp. viii. and 1092.-It is matter of just surprise, that while there have long been in use tolerable Lexicons of the Greek and Latin tongues, a good, copious, and methodical Hebrew Lexicon continued to be a desideratum until the appearance of the works of Dr. Gesenius. The study of the Hebrew, though doubtless less difficult than that of the Greek, the Latin, or the German, has its many peculiar discouragements,. apart from the want of a good Lexicon in the mother tongue. Still this latter difficulty has been powerful to prevent students from cultivating it extensively and with profit, in this country and England, even if it has not deterred many from making a beginning. This last difficulty is now entirely removed; for the work above named combines all which can reasonably be demanded of a dictionary. Those unfortunates, who, like ourselves, attempted the "dreadful Hebrew" with only Pike's Lexicon, and Buxtorf's, will fully realize the blessing of the present work.

Dr. Gesenius is well known, both in this country and in Europe, as the first Hebrew scholar of the age. His example, his lectures, and his publications have created an enthusiasm which marks a new era in the annals of Hebrew literature. At the age of twenty-four, he published a Hebrew and German Lexicon, with the title of Hebräisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch des Alten Testaments, (2 vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 1810, 12,) which has since been translated into English by Christopher Leo. A second work, for the use of Schools, appeared a few years later, under the title of Neues Hebräisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch, &c, (1 vol. 8vo. 1815,) well known amongst us by the translation of J. W. Gibbs. It VOL. XXII. 3D S. VOL. IV. NO. II.

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had reached three editions in 1828, each being an improvement upon its predecessor, and nearly ten thousand copies of it have been circulated. Gesenius has likewise commenced a more extensive work, with the title Thesaurus philologicus criticus Lingua Hebraea et Chaldaea Vet. Test., which he promises to complete during the present year.

The work which Dr. Robinson has here translated was begun in 1827. At first, the author intended merely to clothe his German Manual in a Latin dress, for the convenience of such as were not familiar with the language in which it was originally written. But about this time a new impulse was given to his studies, by the profound researches of his contemporaries in oriental literature, and comparative philology, (a science, we regret to add, almost peculiar to Germany,) which induced him to change the character of his Latin manual. Accordingly, it became a new and independent work, but with the addition of new material, and distinguished by his more extended views of the Hebrew, in connexion with other languages. It bears this title; Lexicon Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum in V. T. Libros: Leips. 1833. This work is everywhere distinguished by a profound and accurate research, not only into the meaning of each word in the Hebrew language, but, as auxiliary thereto, in the various cognate dialects. He uniformly endeavors to point out the primary meaning of each word, and then to deduce from it the various metaphorical significations it is made to bear, as well as the different senses in which it appears. He does not appear to mistake the sense of a term for its legitimate signification, as some lexicographers have done, thus inflicting a great book upon the public, and burdening the learner by an huge mass of heterogeneous materials, of no use but to perplex and mislead.

The corresponding words in various tongues are pointed out when the similarity is obvious. Thus, not only the oriental languages are laid under contribution, but French, German, Danish, Russian, Greek, Latin, and English, furnish their quota to aid in illustrating some obscure passage in the Sacred volume.

The prepositions and particles are fully explained, their various significations and senses pointed out, so that in this respect the work is singularly complete. The word by, e. g., with its various senses, occupies no less than ten columns, or five entire pages. The same remark applies generally to the explanation of idioms, and phrases of the language. Authorities are given for the meaning of words, passages of the Scripture referred to, and many difficult texts cleared up. As an example of this latter, we might cite the word. In this article he gives the various meanings, as usual referring to passages which justify them, and explains

several" vexed texts," e. g. Job ii, 9; where he makes Job's wife say, "Bless God and die," regarding it still as the speech of an impious woman, who wished to say, You may bless God as much as you will, still all your piety will do you no good, for you must die !

We regret to say that entire confidence cannot be placed in the accuracy of the present translation. It seems to have been made in too great haste. A distinguished Hebrew scholar has sent us a list of a few mistranslations, which have occurred to him in using the work a short time.

Page 81, under v, one like the Son of man came with the


clouds of heaven. It should be, one like a son of man, as the definition immediately preceding evidently requires. That the Messiah is referred to was probably the opinion of Gesenius. But there is not the slightest probability that the phrase son of man is here an appellative of the Messiah. The meaning is, that one like a son of man, i. e., like a man, having the appearance of a man, was seen, &c.

Page 225, under ya, which Professor Robinson renders, to

- T

take away, to withhold from; and subsequently, "withholdest prayer from before God." The word "withhold" is not authorized by Gesenius, and does not suit the meaning of the passage, which is, that Job diminished or destroyed piety in general by the language which he used; not that he himself withheld or neglected prayer before God.

Page 243, under "; the nations labor for the fire, in pabulum ignis, i. e., says the translator, they only become food for the fire. It should be, for that which shall become food for the fire.

Page 766, under hy. Here, "quovis pretio, pr. ob quicquid est," is rendered, "at what price, pp. on account of what." It should be," for any price whatever," literally, "for any thing whatever it is," i. e. for any consideration, however slight. Here, too, we are at a loss to know what English word the initials pp. stand for. If he meant them for the Latin proprie, we see not why pr. should be changed into pp.

Page 992, under i "ne confidat malo (sceleri) fallitur, nam malum (calamitas) ejus præmium erit," is rendered "let him not trust in evil, (i. e. in the wicked) for evil (i. e. calamity) shall be his recompense." Surely the professor more than nodded, when he rendered "sceleri" "the wicked," instead of " wickedness," as the sense of the passage requires.

Page 1057, under nnin, "Semel de reprehensione (Dei),

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