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the Ettrick Shepherd, had for their quarrel. The boys of two different schools met on the ice. One boy said, "What are ye glowtin' at, Billy ?" The answer was, "What's that to you? I'll look where I have a mind, an' hinder me if you daur." A blow followed-then the battle became general. A boy of one party was asked what the other boys had done, that they should fight them so. "Oh, nothing at a', man; we just want to gie them a good thrashing." After fighting till they were tired, one of leaders, streaming with blood, and his clothes in tatters, said to the opposite party, Weel, I'll tell you what we'll do wi' ye: if ye'l let us alone, we'll let you alone." So the war ended, and they went to play. Do not children of a larger growth engage in deadly war, often with no better cause than that which the boy assigned, and with about the same results?
The ways in which society or a nation can practice the law of kindness, are full as many as those in which they can be unkind. And, oh! how much more glorious, and how fraught with choice blessings to the poor, the ignorant and the sinful! A nation practices the law of kindness, when it uses every means to settle difficulties with other nations amicably; when it has no craving to seize the territory of another, by military conquest; but, in all its trans
actions with the world, pursues a course of conciliation, integrity, and high-mindedness; and, especially when, with noble effort, it induces two nations on the eve of war, to arrange the subject of contention without bloodshed. A nation practices the law of kindness, when it gives orders to its generals and admirals not to molest, during war, any expeditions of utility pursued by the enemy-kindness which was exhibited by France, in reference to Captain Cook, when directions were given to the captains of their ships, to treat Cook as "the commander of a neutral or allied power," should they meet him while the then existing war continued. The directions were issued in March, 1779. By this act of kindness, France gained more true credit than though it had conquered a thousand ships. The same kindness was manifested by the great and good Franklin, when, as the Plenipotentiary of the United States in Paris, during the Revolution, he earnestly recommended the officers of the American navy, to spare the ships of "that most celebrated discoverer, Captain Cook."
A nation practices the law of kindness, when it gives attention to the comfort of prisoners taken in war, instead of confining them with the utmost rigor in unhealthy buildings, on short allowances of food, and with the most cruel
treatment, as has been too universally the case heretofore. But whenever prisoners of war have been met with kindness, its results have been decidedly excellent. During our last war, who does not know, that in two or three instances, the crews of captured British frigates returned their warmest thanks to their captors for the very kind treatment which they had received? Thus proving that a single shadow of the law, "love your enemies," even though in the circumstances of war, has its appropriate and legitimate effect in drawing out the admiration of the heart. Who does not know that the character of the lamented Lawrence, of the illfated Chesapeake, excited the warmest respect from his foes, who, even in the time of contest, mourned his death? And who does not know that General Brock was, on account of his goodness of character, sorrowed over, when killed in battle, not only by the Canadians, but also by the Americans? Thus showing, that kindness will produce corresponding feeling in the souls of national foes.
• A community practices the law of kindness, when it avoids all sanguinary laws; when laws are based on a philanthropy which seeks not only to protect society and deter others from crime, but also aims to reform the offender and
restore him to sound moral health.* Because a man is a criminal, it does not argue that he is incapable of becoming better, or that he is devoid of feeling. A judge in central New York, whose head is whitened with the coming frosts of age, and who has long sat on the bench of justice, said to me-" In the whole course of my experience as a judge, I have never yet had a criminal before me for sentence, but whose feelings I could touch, and whose heart I could subdue, by referring to the mother who watched over and sustained him, or by kindly and affectionately describing to him the evil which he had brought upon himself." A community practices the law of kindness, when it places men over its prisons, who are qualified for their duty, by a
*Lord Coke, in his epilogue to his Third Institute, which treats of the crown law, after observing that frequent punishment does not prevent crime, says "What a lamentable case it is that so many Christian men and women should be strangled on that cursed tree, the gallows, insomuch as if in a large field a man might see together all the Christians that but in one year, throughout England, come to that untimely and ignominious end; if there were any spark of grace or charity in him, it would make his heart to bleed for pity and compassion."His lordship then proceeds to show that the method of preventing crime is-1. By training up youth in the principles of religion and habits of industry. 2. In the execution of good laws. 3. In the granting pardon very rarely, and upon good reasons. He then concludes "that the consideration of this prevention were worthy of the wisdom of parliament; and in the mean time expert and wise men to make preparation for ut benedicat eis dominus. Blessed shall he be that layeth the first stone of the building; more blessed that proceeds in it; most of all, that finisheth it, to the glory of God and the honor of our king and nation."-Penny Magazine, vol. viii, p. 283.
thorough acquaintance with human nature, by the most extensive and earnest Christian benevolence, joined with the most prudent firmness, and by a deep conviction that criminals are morally sick, and are deprived of their liberty only that moral medicine may be applied to them to restore them to sound moral health.
A nation practices the law of kindness, when its energies are directed to the advancement of education in reference to each and every one of its members. Especially when its attention is directed to the education of the poor children which may now be found in every community, growing up in ignorance, theft, and crime of all kinds, to fill jails and prisons, and at last to form a debased rabble, subject to the nod of any demagogue who may use them to destroy our government. The kindness consists in preparing them by knowledge to become good citizens and defenders of the American Constitution, as well as lovers of religion and virtue. A nation or community practices the law of kindness, when it stretches the broad hand of its protection over the poor as well as the rich, and. seeks to raise the condition of the lowly and degraded-when it aims to remove poverty and distress, by encouraging industry, by compelling the idle to be active, by removing the causes of crime, and by holding out encourage