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THE LITERARY GAZETTE, Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, &c. .

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THE LITERARY GAZETTE,

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Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, &c.

No. 468.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, 1826.

PRICE ls.

och inte hade promise to meddle; in chis place,

ADDRESS.
Seythian, and the Sarmatian or Sclavonic

. student of philology, when he conpleted his It has every new year been our good fortune to address Others have more completely considered and publication of the same sort. Mr. Armstrong's a few lines to a very largely increased number of friends, verified this probable classification, which first is still more acceptable, because it is fuller, --for such, with the pleasant intercourse which subsists drew a distinct line between these different better, more satisfactory, more illustrative, and between its Readers and the LITERARY GAZETTE, we are masses of population, and which the continental more conprehensive. All the examination that gratified to reckon all our subscribers. On the present historians still strangely confuse. It is sin- our leisure has allowed us to give, is favourable occasion we have more than usual reason to be satisfied'in gular, that few, if any, of onr neighbours, to it. The author has prefixed, a grammar, this respact; for we can truly say, that no literary pe either in France, Germany, or Russia, had which is very neatly and ably drawn-up; he riadical in existence enjoys so wide a range of circulation, any clear ideas of this natural and just dis-, has added many analogies and afinities from or exercises & more honest influence in every quarter of criinination

until lately, but continued to con- other languages, which evince considerable rethe globe. The form of our publication (so reaclily trans- found the Celcic and Scythian branches, both search, and has made it altogether anore useful muhasible to all points) has no doubt contributed to this of population anů language. But the reason to the Gaelic student. The first part is Caelic breasts, so far as to pretend a belief that the efforts made may have been, that Germany had lost all re- and English ; the second, English and Gaelic.

mains of the Celtic branch in her yaried re. We should be glad if some other gentleman to deserve this popularity have not, in a great measure, * merited success. For into this sheet, slighit as it is, have gions, and France contained only one fragment would perform the same service to the Irish

been enlisted the services of the most distinguished of it in Bretagne, and that not of natural tongue as Dr. Owen Pugh has rendered to the writers, scholars, critics, artists, and wten of science of growth, but rather an artificial transplantation Welsh, and now Mr. Armstrong to the Gaelic. the period, both at home and abroad: no exertion has from our own island.

We will only add a few extracts from his mobeen, at is, spared to procure the earliest and best intelli- It has happened fortunately for the history derate and sensible preface, which does credit gance from all sides and correspondents are established of philology, and has enabled our philological both to lais temper and to his judgment, and whencesoever information is likely to be derived; volun- students to discern and to illustrate more satis gives a favourable opinion both of his attainteer assistance, toas of the most valuable character has factorily the true views on this subject, that ments and of his work. We do not, however, grown into the highest interest with the growth of our three important portions of our population, the pledge ourselves to all its opinions, as we do work, la comunqumice of the loven of literature prefer- Welsh, the Highlanders, and the Irish, have not know where to find the parent Celtic to thug it as the Attest medium for disseminating those facta preserved in colloquial use, and as their native which it alludes. or opiniuns, the knowledge of which they considered to tongues, three leading and ancient varieties of live beneficial to mankind. These and other chucumstances, the great Celtid branch, besides a modification with the keenlcontested point, whether the facio many for detall, have made the LITERARY GAZETTE of the Welsh in Cornwall, while France has Gaelic of the Highlands be the parent of the prakse due to diligence, impartiality, and perfect Inde only the other modification of it which was speech of Ireland , however, I may be permitted pendence.). proinises that he will do "hls utmost to nake taken by Welsh and Cornish emigrants into to observe, that the Scotch Gaelic bears a closer it still better.

Bretagne. Out of these three distinct vari. resemblance to the parent Celtic, and has eties of the great Celtic branch, we have fewer inflections than the Welsh, Manks, or

written compositions of the Welsh that ascend Irish dialects. It has this circunstance, too, REVIEW OF NEW BOOKS

regularly upwards into the fifth century, and in cominon with the Helsrew and other oriental A Gaelic Dictionary, in Two Parts. I. Gaelic represent to us the actual speech of the abo- languages, that it wants the simple present

and English-Ii. English and Gaelic. In riginal Britons who once inhabited England ; tense ; a peculiarity which strongly supports which the Words, in their different Accepta. and if we do not possess specimens of equal the opiniou that the Gaelic of Scotland is the tions, are illustrated by Quotations from the antiquity and genuineness of the Highland and more ancient dialect. This question has been best Gaelic Writers, and their Affinities Irish varieties, we have, at least, soine written long discussed with eagerness and ability. The traced. To which is prefixed a New Gaelic and traditional remains of them that are some one party draws its opinions partly from hisGrammar. · By R. A. Armstrong, A.M. centuries old ; but both have long appeared in tory, partly froin acute hypothetical reasoning, James Duncan. London, 1825.

a written forin in their poetry, and may now and from the natural westward progress of The British Islands, among their other ad- be read in their vernacular translations of the early migrations; the other argries from levantages, have the philological distinction of Scriptures ; and, therefore, we have to produce gends for which credulity itself is at a loss to possessing two of the distinct branches of the to the world three main subdivisions of the discover a foundation. most ancient languages of Europe. We call principal Celtic branch of language, which once “ Throughout this work I have followed the them branches, because as all the forms of spread from the Pyrenees to the Baltic, and from orthography of two writers, who are relied on speech in the world are recorded, in the most the Orkneys in the north to Constantinople in as guides by their countrymen. The one, Dr. early authority that touches upon the subject, the east, and to the Hebrides and the Irish Stewart, of Luss, the translator of the Holy to have einanated from one primitive stock, Sea in the west. Besides these philological Scriptures into Gaelic ; the other, Dr. Smith, all the languages which are used by mankind treasures, although it be no longer a living of Campbelton, the author of a Gaelic metrical are but the ramifications of one common trunk, tongue, we have one of the most insportant version of the Psalms, and other creditable though they have been long separated from the and most authentic specimens of the ancient works. These writers spent much of their primeval parent, and have been planted in Scythian and German branch of langnage in time in settling the orthography of our lanregions very distant from their native locality, our venerable Anglo-Saxon, of which we may guage; and, as they have a just and acknow. and have since become much diversified by ac- also affirm that we possess inore authentio pud ledged claim to be considered authorities, it is cident, art, natural growth, and occasional in- abundant remains than any other modern nas much to be desired that they should, hencetermixture.

tion, excepting China, has preserved of any forth, be regarded in that light. Ancient Europe, in its western regions, be- language of equal antiquity;

“ I have bestowed pains on referring des came peopled by three distinct classes of po. In proportion as we value these venerated rivative words to their primitives — in resolving pulation, introducing, as their tribes spread relics of the ancient world, and of its anterior compound words to their component parts in over it, three great branches of language, as inhabitants, we rejoice to see any atteinpt made affixing to substantives their genitive singular distinguished from each other as the colonising to preserve and perpetuate them. We were, and gender--and to verbs their signification, races that brought them. Our most recent therefore, pleased to hear a new Gaelic dic- whether active or neuter, The quotations from antiquaries who have studied the subject ac- tionary amounced by Mr. Armstrong. The Gaelic writers are translated into English as quiesce in the arrangement of Dr. Percy, who Gaelic is the Celtic variety spoken in the High- literally as the idioins of these languages will first clearly and justly classed them under three lands of Scotland. Mrisha mude i im. allow.” great divisions— the Celtic, ibe Germanic and portant present to his countrymen, and to the It is, in our judgment, rather a matter of literary reproach to the northern parts of our | Tonquinese, bo., Japanese, arbo, ox. Hotten- the playfulness and the pathos of Scottish songs island, that a work so important to philology, tots, boa, and buboa.

Thus his own talerits, and his memory, richly and so responsive to national feelings, as this of * Arnar, gen. athar, s. m. a father, an an- endowed with those productions which have Mr. Armstrong's is, should have remained a cestor, &c. &c.

emanated from the talents of others in ancient desideratum till the year 1825; and that while Greek, wutng. Latin, pater. Swedish and and modern times, combined to give him at societies were forming to revive tartan hose Danish, fadder. English, father. Persic, phader. once the taste to appreciate and the knowledge and heron's feathers, &c., (though we do not French, tpetre, now written père. Gothie, to illustrate the prodigious extent and variety mean to disparage these patriotic matters) no atta. German, tad.-Athair," the compiler re- of his subject. He has accordingly presented institution took measures to embody and pre- marks, “is derived from the Celtie at, father; us with a publication which cannot fail to be serve the language of the country in an en- whence are derived the Tartar and the Turkish come extremely popular, and transmit his name during shape. The laborious task has now ata, father. Tobolsk, atai. Calmuc Tartars, with Honour to future generations. been performed by an unassisted individual, atey. Phrygian and Thessalian, atta. Hun. The collection is excellent. It not only prewho has not only produced an excellent Gaelic garian, atya. ATTu was a Greek terın of re- serves a very large number of favourite songs, and English dictionary, but explored seventy spect to an aged man; at signifies parent, in but it rescues froin oblivion some remarkable languages, in order to raise his publication to a atavus, great-grandfather. Carinthian, atei. snatches, which are strikingly characteristic of much higher class as a dictionary of affinities. Mogul Tartars, atzia. Biscayan, aita, fa- the olden days and early literature. Mr. Cun..

Having made these general observations, we ther.”- Respecting the term athair, we rather ningham has also another strong claim to apmay remark, that the Gaelic grammar is very think that it is not a derivative, but a com- probation; he has guardedly weeded the lux. explicit and well digested; though the verbis pound word, made up of a, a Celtic word uriant garden in which he vrought of rank assume rather a formidable appearance, owing meaning chief, and fear, a man.

and offensive growths ; so that his nosegay, in to every tense's being rendered into English “ BRATHAIR, gen, bràthar, s. m. (i. e. bruf- its freshness, is as proper for the female hand, throughout, with a view, no doubt, to facilitate ath-urr, a second person of the same womh ; as for the drier inspection of withering antithe acquisition of this anomalous language. a brother, &c. &c.

quarianism. The rules of syntax are judiciously constructed, “ Greek Eolic, ggarwg and pearng. Latin, An Introduction of nearly 300 pages (a and each rule is followed by useful examples. frater. French, +fretre, now frère.' Danish, historical coup d'æil) is very pleasant and Prosody occupies the concluding part of the broder. Swedish, broder and bror. Islandic, amusing ; though, as the author confesses, granmar; and here the compiler takes octasion brodur. Anglo-Saxon, brather. English, bro- rather desultory and rambling. Yet the misto bridle the rambling, irregular rhymes of the ther. German, bruother. Belgic, broeder. fortunes of Queen Mary Stuart, the supersti. Highland poets. He is, in many cases, eini. Polish, bråt. Lusatian, bradt. Russian, bràte. tions of Scotland, and " sic-like matters,” are nently successful; in others, he seeins to have Sclavonic, brat. Bohemian, brat and brodr. so nearly connected with the poetry of the given up the business pro re irrita. But to Teutonic, broeder and bruder. Irish, bràthair. country, that the error of a little digression pass on to the dictionary.

Welsh, brawd and brawdair. Cornish, brawd, upon such themes, if error it can be called, is We observe that, in some of the Asiatic breur, and bredar. Armoric, breuzr (z silent). extremely venial. And there are so many tongues and in others nearer home, he has Cimbric, brodir. Tartar, bruder. Persic, bé. touches in the essay which we cannot help overlooked affinities which are so obvious that rader, burader, and braeder. Hindoostanee, admiring - touches peculiar to the åuthor as a we are surprised how they could have escaped brooder."—The compiler might have adiled the true bard—that so far from wearying when he his observation. For example, ainong the af- Hebrew, berith, and the Shungorit, bhratara. wanders from his direct line, we reatt on with finities, under the article CLASX, the cognate

“ Tur, tùir, 8. m. a tower, &c. &c. &c. enjoyment, and are only sofry that his devia. term Khán, (head or chief,) in the Persic and "" Arabic, thor, a tower, and tour, hill. Persic tions are not more frequent and prolonged. Arabic, are omitted. The word CEANN, just and Armenian, tar, hill

. Syriac, thur, hill. Thus, for instance, after noting the alliance of noticed, is laid down as follows:

Hebrew, thur and thor, hill

. Greek, Tugos, song with the supernatural world, he says : “ CEANN, gen. cinn, 8. m. (Irish, ceann. ruges, and ruptos, in Suidas. Latin, turris. “I shall not, however, attempt to follow my Welsh, cwn and cyn. Cornish, kyn.) A head; Danish, tur. Swedish, tor. Dalmatian, turan. subject through all the winding vistas of coma a point; a hilt; a top; an end ; a chief; a Anglo-Saxon, tor and torr. Teutonic, torre. mon belief, but proceed to examine some of cominander; a high headland ; a promontory:Italian, torre. Irish, tùr. Armoric, twr and those old customs and amusements where song and then follow a multitude of quotations. tur. Strabo," the compiler adds, observes, that was often the chief pleasure, and always a The very common menning, harvest-home, is, the ancient Moors called Mount Atlas dyr." welcome auxiliary: however, unnoticed; but this oversight is, we see, These articles, which we have selected in a “ By those intimately acquainted with the rectified in the Appendix. “It is observable," manner ad aperturam, are less copious and cu- manners and customs of the peasantry, somiethe compiler remarks," that ceann, promontory, rious than a multitude of others.

thing like the remains of a rude drama - a reis seen in the ancient names of many capes and To conclude, this quarto is as moderate in presentation uniting the fourfold qualities of promontories thronghout Europe; as Ceneum, price as it is valuable in contents; and we acting, dancing, music, and song --'must have a eape in the north-west of Lubæa; Cen- sincerely congratulate Mr. Armstrong on the been often observed at weddings, at harvestchree, a tape on the isthmus of Corinth; spirited and successful stand he has made in honnes, and other festividius. "To mé ii lias Canastræum, a cape in Macedonia ; Candaria, defence and in preservation of the Gaelic lan- appeared under tly'ee different forins; and a in Cos; and many others."

guage. His work is a monumentum perennius brief description of each may recall similar We shall now give our readers some idea ære, of which, not only every Scot, but every rustic attempts at dramatic representation to of Mr. Arinstrong's success in his pursuit of general scholar and philologist throughout Eu- many of my northern readers. The first I saw cognate or kindred terms.

rope ought to avail himself; and we trust that was called " The Wooing of the Maiden,' * +ABA, s. m. water. (We wish to apprise it will prove as beneficial to the compiler as it favourite pastime at the close of a wedding our readers that bh are silent in this word.) is surviceable to general literature and to his feast, and indeed it seemed designed as a huTonguinese,* hài, sea. Shanscrit, ab and couniry.

morous portraiture of the vicissitudes of court. heater. Arabic, ahha, pool. Persic, awe. Greek

ship. When dancing and carousal had quickfolic dialect, hoà. Latin, aqua. Danish, aae. The Songs of Scotland, Ancient and Modern ; ened up the spirits of the wedding guests, and Welsh, aw. French, eau. Gothic, a. Islandic, with an Introduction and Notes, Historical just before the time of stocking-throwing, the

Low German, aa, water. Swedish, a, a and Critical, and Characters of the Lyric door of the barn was opened, and a youth and fiver. Old Saron, a, ea, eha.

Poets. By Allan Cunningham. 12mo. 4 vols. maiden entered, keeping time to the sound of “ Bò, gen. boin, 8.f. A cow; rarely a fawn." London, 1825. John Taylor.

the fiddle, which commenţed the air that gave Here follow numerous applications of the word It is not at the expense of any contemporary we a name to the entertainment. The youth wne bò.

si express our conviction that to individual living a lively peasant, with no small skare of inven. “ From bò are derived the Greek Boos, an or, was better fitted to undertake the task here so tire humour, and dressed in the extremity of and Boes, to roar; and also foi, which means delightfully fulfilled, than Allan Cunningham. the fashion ; while the damsel personated with any thing that is terrible. Latin, bos, an ox. His genuine feeling for the songs of his native very good grace a fantastic old maid, Alourishing

Italian, bue, an ox. Irish, bo, a cow. 'Welsh, land constitute him a far better judge of them in ancient finery, with a sharp shrill voice and brw. Cornish, buih and bu. Armoric, bu. than all the rules of all the critics that ever a look of great importance. They advanced to Manf, bua. Biscayan, beya. Portuguese, hoy, wrote. But beyond this great and indispen- the middle of the floor, beating time to the W. Spanish, buey. Turkish, bugba, un az. sable gift, he possessed other eminent qualifi. tune, and smiling upon each other, and mimick

aus lie, is himself a natural and beautiful ing the appearance of delight and joy. This 'We wüte the names of the languages as full 16 gth:

siz anl be has beguiled the dearest portions pantomime having lasted some five minutes, are contracted fill the dictionary

for his Wie midst the charms and the witchery, the maiden sang part of a song adapted to the

aw,

aa.

they

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