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him; and his mouth could drop sentences as easily as an ordinary man's could speak sense.” Such was the condensation, so to say, of this good man's study; one, of whom it might be said, as Selden said of Archbishop Ussher, “ Vir summâ pietate, judicio singulari, usque ad miraculum doctus, et literis severioribus promovendis natus.”
As regards the extracts on particular subjects, I may notice those on Memoirs and Travels, from which so little is given, for want of space. It will be seen, however, how multifarious was Southey's reading, by such a sample as Brasbridge's Memoirs, and Hodgskin's North of Germany. No wheat escaped him, and he bolted it as clean as he could, after he had thrown out the chaff. By figuring of pages before me, I am inclined to think that few books of travels, subsequent to 1794, but underwent the winnowing of his judgment.
One asked—$x ó tuxơv avno-How could a man of Southey's intellect have given up time to such extracts as are contained in these volumes ? The answer is, that, combined with his super-eminent talent, this reading and these extracts gave him that super-eminence of information which has rarely been surpassed since Aristotle's time, whom Hooker calls “the Mentor of human wisdom," and "the Patriarch of Heathen Philosophers." He that reads indifferent books may winnow the chaff from the wheat; but, as Jeremy Taylor said, “ He that perpetually reads good books, if his parts be answerable, will have a huge stock of knowledge.” Probably since the collection of the Two Zuingers,— Theodore and James-no volume has contained more condensed information than the present. It is in itself a smaller Theatrum Humane Vite.
I have to request the Reader will judge candidly the faults of mine which he may find. I have bestowed no little pains in the examination of the several works; but I am well aware of my own ignorance and deficiencies. I regret also to observe more foot-notes than I was aware of - he will please to consider them as a mark rather of my small knowledge than of his.
JOHN WOOD WARTER.
West Tarring VICARAGE, Sussex,
June 21st, 1850.
APGRAVE (Vit. S. Alban, had better beer or ale, and some worse, as
. 8. 6.) and Hospinian (de their duty was, and some was worth a penny
tion of Monachism into Bri- bread was delivered, every dozen worth at tain to Pelagius the heresiarch, circiter that time six pence. 1000.—DR. SAYERS, p. 217.
They were supplied with manure also,worth two pence the load, or fudder.
The iron was for the maintenance of their
ploughs and husbandry. The abbey disMonasteries.
tributed yearly among its tenants eleven The tenants paid to the Abbot of Fur or twelve bands of the said livery-iron, ness certain wheat, barley, oats, lambs and every band weighing fourteen stone, cvery sterke, for the rent of their tenements. stone fourteen pound, and at that time
Certain bread, ale, and beer was de- worth eight pence a stone. livered and allowed weekly out of the said The tenants which paid provisions, paid monastery, unto certain of the tenants that only when they were admitted tenants, one paid provisions : and certain iron was de- penny, called a God's penny, and no other livered and allowed yearly by the said fine. And thereupon they were sworn to late abbot unto the same tenants, and the be true to the king and to the monastery. same bread, beer, ale and iron was in part The children of the said tenants and their of recompence of the said provisions, so by servants have come from the plough or other the said tenants paid, -by force of some work to the abbey, where they had dinner composition and agreement, and not of be- or supper, and so went to their work again. nevolence nor devotion.
They were suffered to come to school and The beer or ale was in barrels or firkins learning within the monastery. containing ten or twelve gallons apiece, or thereabouts, and worth about ten pence or
1 In the North this means “ the load of a two twelve pence a barrel or firkin at that time, and is used by Chaucer. Commonly it is only
horse cart.” It is a pure Anglo-Saxon word, -i.e. just before the dissolution. Some applied to lead.- J W. W.
with the king that Malvern Abbey might be left standing, for the better performance
of the duties of preaching, praying, and ENGLISH HISTORY-MONASTERIES. The tenants had wood and timber in the into Parliament for that purpose, it would woods thereabouts, for the sufficient repa- have been more regularly and justly conration of their houses, and other necessa ducted than in an after reign ; that by this ries, which was allowed and livered to them, would all have reverted to the parish at the sight of the officers or sworn men churches, and the clergy would have gained appointed for that purpose.
as much by it as the government. This One witness deposed that the tenants, appears from the sequel, that when the their families, and children, did weekly king, instead of the English monasteries, have and receive at and out of the said had only the alien priories given him, he monastery, of charity and devotion, over seized on no part of the tythes, but on the and besides the relief and commodity afore lands and tenements that were before of rehearsed, to the value of forty shillings lay fee, and might justly return into lay weekly.
hands. These too he intended to have emThey had also hedge boote, hay boote, ployed for breeding up a more learned clerplowe boote, and other necessaries, and li- gy, declaring it was his design to found a berty to get whins and brakes (fern) to college of divines and artists, and to settle their own use. (Ferns are much used in upon the said college the lands of the alien baking oatmeal cakes, and heating the priories dissolved, if he had not been pre
The smoke of dry fern is no way vented by death.”—KENNET's Case of Imoffensive, and does not stain the bread, propriations, p. 109. " therefore it continues to be in great request in Furness.")
" In the first act of dissolution there was The children had meat and drink for a saving to the interest of strangers, traone meal a day, at the monastery, whenever vellers, and poor, by binding the new posthey came to school.
sessors of any site or precinct of the reliThe sustentation, relief, and commodity gious houses, to keep or cause to be kept, which the tenants received for their chil an honest continual house and household dren weekly “ of charity and devotion" in the same site or precinct.”—Ibid. p. 123. from the monastery, was estimated as worth thirty or forty shillings a week at least. “In a preamble written by the king's
At the dissolution the domestical provi own hands to another act, it was declared sions were rated and set down to a certain to be an intent that the endowments of yearly rent, and the king, and his heirs and monasteries might be turned to better use, successors, were discharged of all sustenta God's word better set forth, children brought tion, reliefs, and commodities that the te up in learning, clerks nourished in the nants before that time received and en Universities, and exhibition for ministers joyed.
of the Church. Divers of the visitors They paid also after the dissolution, for themselves did petition the king to leave every fine on adinission, double their rent. some of the religious houses for the benefit
This appears from the Interrogatories on of the country, and Latimer moved that the cause between John Boograve, Esq. two or three might be left in every shire Attorney Gen. for the Duchy of Lancaster, for pious uses. and the tenants of Low Furness, 25 Eliz. letter from Latimer to the Lord Cromwell 1582.-WEST's Antiq. of Furness. Appen- (Cleopatra, E. IV. fol. 264), to intercede dir, No. viii.
“ Had the Monasteries been dissolved in keeping hospitality.”—Ibid. p. 126. Henry V.'s reign, when the Bill was brought
I have seen an original