« السابقةمتابعة »
river of Central Asia. which now bears the name of Syr~Daria, or Yellow River (Daria. is the generic Tartar name for all rivers, and Syr=“ yellow "), and which, watering the barren steppcs of the Kirghtb~€ossacks, was known to the civilised world in the most remote ages.
The exploits of Gym and Alexander the Great have inscribed its name in history many centuries before our aera. If we are to believe the traditionary statements about Cyrus, the left bank of this river formed the N. limit of the vast dominion of that. conqueror, who built a town, deriving its name from the founder [CYBELSCIIATA], upon its banks; and it was upon the right bank that he lost his life in battle with Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae. Herodotus (i. 20l—2lfi), who is the authority for this statement, was aware of the existence of tho Syr-Dan'o ,- and although the name Jaxartes, which was a denomination adopted by the Greeks and followed by the Romans, does not appear in his history, yet the Araxes of Herodotus can be no other than the actual Sgr, because there is no other great river in the country of the Mawigetae. Much has been written upon the mysterious river called Araxes by Herodotus; M. De Guignes, Fosse, and Gattercr, suppose that it is the same as the Oxus or AmouDuria; M. Dela Nauze sees in it the Araxes of Armenia; while Bayer, St. Croix, and Lsrchcr, conceive that under this name the Vokyn is to be understood. The true solution of the enigma seems to be that which has been suggested by D'Anville, that the Ames is an appellative common to the Am, the Armenian Araa, the Volga, and the Syr. (Comp. AllAXE-S, p. l88; illém. de I’Acad. dc! loser. vol. xxavi. pp. 69-85; Heeren, Axial. Nations, vol. ii. p. l9, trans.) From this it may be concluded, that Herodotus had some vague acquaintance with the Syr, though he did not know it by name, but confounded it with the Araxes; nor was Aristotle more successful, as the Syr, the Volga, and the Don, have been recognised in the description of the Ame; given in his .lletcoroloylca (i. 13. § 15), which, it must be recollectt-d, was written before Alexander's expedition to India. (Comp. Ideler, Meteoroloyiu Vet. Graecor. e! Rom. ad I. e., Bcrol, 1832; St. Croix, Exanwn Critique dc: Hist. d'Alcx. p. 703.)
A century after Herodotus, the physical geography of this river-basin become well known to the Greeks, from the expedition of Alexander to Bactria and Sogdians. In 11.0. 329, Alexander reached the Jaxnrtes, and, after destroying the seven towns or thrtrcsses upon that river the foundation of which was ascribed to Cyrus, founded a city, bearing his own name, upon its banks, Annxannnsm ULTIMA (K/mjend). (Q. Curt. vii. 6; Arrian, Anab. iv. 1. 3.)
Aftér the Macedonian conquest, the Syr is found in all the ancient geographers under the form Jaxarms; while the country to the N. of it bore the general name of Scythin, the tracts between the Syr and Amou were called 'l'ransoxiuna. The Jaxartcs is not properly a Greek word, it was borrowed by the Greeks from the Barbarians, by whom, as Arrion (Anab. iii. 30. § l3) asserts, it was 'called Orxantes (’Opfia'v-rns). Various etymologies of this name have been given (St. Croix, Examm Critique (ks Hist. d‘Alez. § 6), but they are too uncertain to be relied on: but. whatever he the derivation of the word, certain it is that the Sgr anpeam in all
ancient writers under the name Janrtes. Some, indeed, confounded the Jsxartes and the Tanais, and that purposely, as will be seen hereafter. A few have confounded it with the Oxus: while all, without exception, were of opinion that both the Jaxartes and the Oxus discharged their waters into the Gaspian, and not into the Sea of Aral. It seems, at first sight, curious, to those who know, the true position of these rivers, that the Greeks, in describing their course, and determining the distance of their respective “embouchunes,” should have taken the Sea of Aral for the Caspian, and that their mistake should have been repeated up to very recent times. You Humboldt (Arie Conn-ale, vol. ii. pp. 162-— 297) —-to whose extensive inquiry we owe an invaluable digest of the views entertained respecting the geography of the Caspian and One by classical, Arabian, and European writers and travellers, along with the latest investigations of Russian scientific and military men — arrives at that; conclusions respecting the ancientjunctjon of the Aral, Oxus, and Caspian:
1st. That, at a period before the historical era, but nearly approaching to those revolutions which preceded it, the great depression of Central Asia-— the concavity of Twan— may have been one large interior sea, connected on the one hand with the Euxine. on the other hand, by channels more or less broad, with the Icy Sea, and the BalL-luh and its adjoining lakes.
2nd. That, probably in the time of Hu'odotus, and even so late as the Macedonian invasion, the Aral was merely a buy or gulf of the Caspian, connected with it by a lateral prolongation, into which the Dane flowed.
3rd. That, by the preponderance of evaporation over the supply of water by the rivers, or by diluvill deposits, or by Plutonic convulsions, the Aral and Caspian were separated, and a bifurcation of the Oxus dcveloped,- one portion of its waters continuing its course to the Caspian, the other terminating in the Aral.
4th. That the continued preponderance of eVaporation has caused the channel communicating with the Caspian to dry up. >
At present it must be allowed that, in the absence of more data, the existence of this great Arslo-Caspian basin within the " historic period," must be a moot point; though the geological appearances prove by the equnble distribution of the same peculiar organic remains, that the tract between the Aral and the Caspian was once the bed ofan united and continuous sea, and that the Caspian of the present day is the small residue of the once mighty AndoCaspian Sea.
Strabo (xi. pp. 507—517) was acquainted with the true position of this river, and has uposod the errors committed by the historians of Alexandcr (p. 508), who confounded the mountains of the Paropamisus—or Pampauisus, as all the good MSS. of Ptolemy read (Asia Centrale, vol. i. pp. ll4--ll8) ——~with the Caucasus, and the Juartes with the Tunai's. All this was imagined with aview of cxalting the glory of Alexander, so that the;grent conqueror might be supposed, after subjugating Asia, to have arrived at the Don and the Caucasus, the scene of the legend where Hercules unbound the chains of the fire-bringing Titan.
The Jaxartes, according to Strabo (p. 510), took its rise in the mountains of India, and he determines it
as the frontier between Sogdiana and the nomad Scy
thians (pp. 514, 517), the principal tribes of which were the Sacae, babes, and Massagetae, and adds (p. 518) that its “ embouchure " was, according to Patrooles, 80 parasangs from the mouth of the Oxus. Pliny (vi. 18) says that the Scythians called it “ Silis," probably a form of the name Syr, which it now bears, and that Alexander and his soldiers thought that it was the Tanai's. It has been conjectured that the Alani, in whose language the word tan (Tan-sis, Dan, Don) signified a river, may have brought this appellative first to the 13., and then to the W. of the Aralo-Caspian basin, in their migrations, and Hans have contributed to confirm an error so flattering to the vanity of the Mawlonian conquerors. (Asia Centrale, vol. ii. pp. 254, 291; comp, Schafarik, Slav. All. vol. i. p. 500.) Pomponius Mela (iii. 5. § 6) merely states that it watered the vast countries of Scythia and Sogdiana, and discharged itself into that E. portion of the Caspian which was called Scythicua Sinus.
Arrian, in recounting the capture of Cyropolis (AMb- iv. 3. § 4), has mentioned the curious fact, that the Macedonian army entered the town by the dried-up bed of the river; these desiccations are not rare in the sandy steppes of Central Asia, — as for instance, in the sudden drying up of one of the lrms of the Jaxartes, knovvn under the name of Tanglei-Duria, the account of which was first brought to Europe in 1820. (Comp. Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. xiv. pp. 333—335.)
Ptolemy (vi. 12. § 1) has fixed mathematically the sources, as well as the “einbouchnre,” of the Juanes. According to him the river rises in Int. 43° and ion . 125°, in the mountain district of the Content (1‘; 5pm")! Kwpnoo'w, § 3: ilqu- Ta'gll), and throws itself into the Caspian in lat. 48° and long. 97°. carrying with it the waters of many affluents, the principal of which are called, the one BASCATXB (Baaxarls, §3), and the other Dame's (Aim-M, §3)He describes it as watering three countries, that of the " Sacae," “ Sogdiana," and “ Scythia intra Imaum." In the first of these, upon its right bank, were found the Comm (Kilaapoi) and CARATAE (Knpe'rai, vi. 13. § 3); in the second, on the left bank, the AMESEB ('Amc'osu) and Dnarsmru (Apolomi), who extended to the Oxns, the TACIIORI (Tixopol), and Inn (‘Idnon vi. 12. § 4); in Scythia, on the N. bank of the Syr, lived the Jnx~ AlrrAn (Midpoint), a numerous people (vi. 14. § 10), and near the “ embouchure," the Alumni; (Nihilist, vi. 14. § 13). Ammianus Marcellinus (not 6. § 59), describing Central Asia, in the "PP" course of the Juanes which falls into the Utopian, spake of two rivers, the ARAXATEB and PYlAs (probably the Demus of Ptolemy), “ qui per 1118! vallesque praecipites in campestrem planitiem dtcunentes Oaiam noniine paludein efliciunt longe illoqoe didusam." This is the first intimation, ih‘mllh very vague, as to the formation of the Sea of AMI. and requim a. more detailed examination. [0m Paws]
' The Obscure Geographer of Ravens, who lived, as It is believed, about the 7th century A. 0., mentions the river Juartes in describing Hyrcania
Those who wish to study the accounts given by meiisci'al and modern travellers, will find much valuable information in the “ Dissertation on the River ertes" annexed to Levchine, Hordes at Steppes 4'1 Kirghiz-Kane‘s, Paris, 1840. This same writer (puss-70) has described the course of the syr.
Which has its source in the mountains of
Kackkar-Daaan, a branch of the range called by the Chinese the “ Mountains of Heaven," and, taking 3 NW. course through the sandy stepped of Kiza'lKoum and Kara-Korma, unites its waters with those of the Sea ofAral, on its E. shores, at the gulf of Kameclzleochi [E. B. J.]
JAXAMATAE ('Idatui'rar, 'la-Ea/Aanu, 'IEapdflu, Ixomatae, Amm. Marc. nii. 8. §31; Exomatae, Val. F lace. Argonaut. vi. 144, 569) a people who first appear in liktory during the reign of Satyms 111., king of Bosporns, who waged war with Tirgatao, their queen. (l’olynen. viii. 55.) The ancients attribute them to the Snrlnatian stock. (Scymn. Fr. p. 140; Anon. Peripl. Eur. p. 2.) Pomponius Mela (i. 19. § 17) states that they Were distinguished by the peculiarity of the women being as tried warriors as the men. Ptolemy (v. 9) has placed them between the Don and Volga, which agrees well with the position assigned to them by the authors mentioned above. In the second century of our era they disappear from history. Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 340), who considers the Sarmatians to belong to the Median stock, connects them with the Median word “ mat " = “ people," as in the termination Sauromatae; but it is more probable that the Sarniatians were Slavonians. B. J.]
JA'ZYGES, IA'ZYGES ('Iaflrycs, Steph. B. Iazyx), a people belonging to the Sannatian stock, whose original settlements were on the Pains Maeotis. (PtOI. iii. 5. § 19; Stmb. vii. p. 306 ; Arrian, Anab. 1,3; Amm. Marc. xxii. 8. § 31.) They were among the barbarian tribes armed by Mithridates (Appian, Mithr. 69); during the banishment of ()vid they were found on the Danube, and in Bessarnbia and Wallachia (Ep. a: Font. i. 2, 79. iv. 7, 9, Triat. ii. 19. 1.) In A. n. 50, either induced by the rich pastures of Hungary, or forced onwards from other causes, they no longer appear in their ancient seats. but in the plains between the Lower Theiss and the mountainsof Transylvania, from which they had driven out the Dacians. (Tac. Ann. xii. 29; Plin. iv. 12.) This migration, probably, did not extend to the whole of the tribe,as is implied in the surname“Metanastae;" henceforward history speaks of the Iazross METANASTAE (“169176 01 Mercado-rm), who were the Sarrnutians with whom the Romans so frequently came in collision. (Comp. Gibbon, c. xviii.) In the second century of our era, Ptolemy (iii. 7) assigns the Danube, the Theiss, and the Carpathians as the limits of this warlike tribe, and enumerates the following towns as belonging to them: -- Uscnnmu (Ofloxrvou); BonMAnum or Gonmuwm (Bop/.tayov, al. I‘dppayov); ABIETA or ABXNT‘ ('Ael'rrra, al. 'ASumz); Trussum (Tpitmdv); Cmnanum (KdvMyny); Panca (Llipxa); PESSIUM (I‘lédomy); and PARTLSCUM (1'1 rumor). These towns were, it would seem, constructed not by the lazyng themselves, who lived in tents and waggons, but by the former Slave inhabitants of Hungary; and this supposition is confirmed by the fact that the names are partly Keltic and partly Slavish. Mannert and Reich:er (Forbiger, vol. ii. p. 1111) have guessed at the modern representatives of these places, but Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 514) is of opinion that no conclusion can be safely drawn except as to the identity of Perth with Pesaium, and of Potinje with Partiscum.
The 1&7.ng lived on good terms with their neighbours on the W., the German Quadi (Tao. Hist. iii. 5), with whom they united for the purpose of subjugating the native Slaves and resisting the power of Rome. A portion of their territory was taken from them by Decebulus, which, after Trajan‘s Daciun conquests, was incorporated with the Roman dominions. (Dion Cass. xiviii. 10, ll.) Pannonia and Moesia. were constantly exposed to their inroads; but, A.D. ITI, they were at length driven from their lust holds in the province, and pushed across the Danube, by M. Aurelius. In mid-winter they returned in great numbers, and attempted to cross the frozen stream; the Romans encountered them upon the ice, and inflicted a. severe defeat. (Dion Cass. laxi. 7, 8, l6.) At n Inter period, as the Roman Empire hastened to its fall, it was constantly exposed b0 the attacks of these wild hordes, who, beaten one day, appeared the next, plundering and laying waste whatever came in their wny. (Amm. Marc. xvii. 12, 13, mix. 6.) The word “ peace" was unknown to them. (Flor. iv. 12.)
They called themselves “ Sarmatae Limigantes,” and were divided into two classes of freemen and slaves, “ Snrmutae Liberi," “ Sarmatae Servi." Ammianus Marcellinus (xvii. 13. § 1) calls the subject class “ Limignntes" (a word which has been falsely explained by " Limitnnei "), and St. Jerome (Chrom) says that the ruling Snrmatinns had the title “ Arcagarantes." By a careful comparison of the accounts given by Dion Cassius, Amminnus, Jerome, and the writer of the Life of Constantine, it may be clearly made out that the Surmatian Iazygcs, besides subjugating the Gctne in Dacia and on the Lower Danube, had, by force of arms, enslavsd a people distinct from the Getoe, and living on the T heirs and at the foot of the Carpathians. Although the nations around them were called, both the ruling and the subject race, Sarirmtiuns, yet the free Sarmntians were entirely distinct from the senile population in language. customs, and mode of life. The Inzygcs, wild, bold riders, scoured over the plains of the Danube and '1‘ heiss valleys on their unbroken horses, while their only dwellings were the waggons drawn by oxen in which they carried their wives and children. The subject Sarmntians, on the other hand, had w00den houses and villages, such as those enumerated by Ptolemy (l. 0.); they fought, more on foot than on horseback, and were daring seamen, all of which peculiarities were eminently characteristic of the ancient Slaves. (Schnfarik, vol. i. p. 250.)
The Slaves often rose against their masters, who sought an alliance against them among the Vicmfali and Quadi. (Ammisn. l. 0.; Euseb. Vii. Constant. iv. 6.) The history of this obscure and remarkable warfare (A. D. 334) is given by Gibbon (c. xviii.; comp. Le Bean, 8!" Empire, vol. i. p. 337; Manse, Leben Constantine. p. 195). In A. D. 857—359 a new war broke out, in which Constantiua made a successful campaign, and received the title “ Sarnmticus.” (Gibbon, c. xix.; Le Beau, vol. ii. pp. 245—273.) In A. D. 471 two of their leaders, Bengal and Babn‘r', were defeated before Singidunnm (Belgrade) by Theodoric the Ostrogoth. (Jornand. de Reb. Get. 55; comp. Gibbon, c. xxxix.; Le Beau, vol. vii. p. 44.) The hordes of the Huns, Gepidae, and Goths broke the power of this wild people, whose descendants, however, wncealed themselves in the desert districts of tho Thciss till the arrival of the Mugysrs.
Another branch of the Sarmatian Iazyges were settled behind the Carpathians in Podlachia, and were known in history at the end of the 10th century of our era; it is probable that they were among
the northern tribes vanquished by Hermanric in A. D' 382—350, and that they were the same people as those mentioned by Jornandes (de Rel). Get. 3) under the corrupt form Innuxxns.
There is a monograph on this subject by Hennig (Comment dz Reba; [azyyum S. lazvingorum, Regiomont, 1812); a full and clear account of the fortunes of these peoples will be found in the German translation of the very able work of Schat’urik, the historian of the Slavish races.
In 1799 a golden dish was found with an inscription in Greek characters, now in the imperial cabinet of antiquities at Vienna, which has been referred to the quygm. (Von Hammer, Osman. Gesch. vol. iii. p. 726.) [15. B. J.]
IBAN ('ICar, Cedren. vol. ii. p. 774), a city which Cedrcnus (l. c.) describes as the metropolisof Vasbouragan (inrrpfioMr 8% min] 105 8mmpax
The name survives in the modern Va'n. St. Martin, the historian of Armenia (Me'm. our l'Arnwnie, vol. i. p. 117), says that, according to native traditions, Vdn is a very ancient city, the foundation of which was attributed to Semiramis. Ruined in course of time, it was rebuilt by a king called Van, who lived a short time before the expedition of Alexander the Great, and who gave it his name; but, having ngnin fallen into decay, it was restored by Vagh-Arshag (Valarsases), brother to Arsases, and first king of Amienia of the race of the Arsasidae. In the middle of the 4th century after Christ it was captured by Super lI. (Bitter, Erdlmmie, vol. ix. pp. 787, 981; London Geog. Journal, vol. viii. p. 66.) [ARTEMITA BUANAiI [E. B. J.]
IBI'L'RA, a city of Hispania Citerior, mentioned only by Livy, who gives no explicit account of its site, further than that it was near the Iberus (Ebro), whence it- took its name; but, from the connection of the narrative, we may safely infer that it was not far from the sea. At the time referred to, namely, in the Second Punic War, it. was the wealthiest city in those parts. (Liv. uiii. 28.) The manner in which Livy mentions it seems also to warrant the conclusion thnt it was still well known under Augustus. Two coins are extant, one with the epigruph MUNHIBERA JULIA on the one side, and [LEROAVONXA on the other; and the other with the head of Tiberius on tho obverse, and on the reverse the epigraph M. n. J. ILEHCAVOHIA; whence it appears to have been made a mnnicipium by Julius, or by Augustus in his honour, and to have been sitnnted in the territory of the ILEBCAONES. The addition nrm'r. on the latter of these coins led I-Iarduin to identify the place with Dertoca, the site of which, however, on the left bank of the river, does not agree with the probable position of lbera. Florez supposes the allusion to be to a treaty between Ibern and Dertooa. The ships with sprmd sails, on both coins, indicate its maritime site, which modem geographers seek on the S. side of the delta of the Ebro, at 8. Carlos de la Rapita, near Ampotkk Its decay is easily accounted for by its lying out of the great high road, amidst the malaria of the riverdelta, and in a position where its port would be choked by the alluvial deposits of the Ebro. It seems probable that the port is now represented by the Salinas, or lagoon, called Puerto de lo: Al/‘w-t, which signifies Port of the Jam, i. e. of the river(Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Hurduin, ad 100. :, Mares. ii. 8, Flores, Med. dc Esp. vol. ii. p. 453; Seslim,
p I60; Rnsche, Let. Num. a. v.; Eckhel, vol. i. pp. 50.51; Ultcrt, vol. ii. pt. I. pp. 416, 417; Ford, Handbook ofSpm'n, p. 210.) [P. S.] lBE'RIA (1‘1 ’lénpla), the extensive t t of country which lies between the Euxme and Caspian m, to the S. of the great chain of the Caucasus, and which, bounded on the W. by Colcliis, on the E. by Albania, and the S. by Armenia, is watered by the river Cyrus (Kiir). (Strab. xi. p. 499, comp. i. pp. 45, 69 ; Pomp. Mel. 5. § 6 ; Plin. vi. 1]; l’tol. V. II.) From these limits, it will be seen that the Iberia of the ancients corresponds very nearly with modern Georgia, or G'ruu'a, as it is called by the Russians. Strubo (p. 500) describes it as being hemmed in by mountains, over which there were only four passes known. One of these crossed the Moscrllcm Mourns, which separated Iberia from Colchis, by the Colchian fortress SARArAsA (Scharapani), and is the modern road from Hinyrelia into Georgia over Summ. Another, on the N., rises from the country of the Nomudw in a steep ascent of three days’ journey (along the valley of the Terck or Tergl); after which the road passes through the defile of the river Armous, a journey of four days, where the pass is closed at the lower end by an impregnahle wall. This, no doubt, is lhe pass of the celebrated Caucasian Gates [CAUcAsun Penna], described by Pliny (vi. )2) as a prodigious work of nature, formed by abrupt precipices, and having the interval closed by gates with im burs. Benmth run a river which emitted a strong smell("Subter medias (hires), amne diri odoris tlnente," Plin. l. c.). It is identified with the great central road leading from the W. of Georgia by the pose of Dn'n'yel, so named from a fortress situated on a rock washed by the river Terelc, and called by the Georgians Shem'a Kari, or the Gate of Shevi. The third pass was from Albania, which at its commencement was cut through the rock, but afterWards went through a marsh formed by the river which descended from the Caucasus, and is the same u the strong defile now called Der-bend or “ narrow was," from the chicf city of Ddgheua'n, which is at the extremity of the great arm which branches out from the Caucasus, and, by its position on a steep and almost inaccessible ridge, overhanging the Caspian sea, at once commands the coast-er and the Albanian Gates. The fourth pass, by which Pompeius and Canidins entered Iberia, led up from Armenia, and is referred to the high road from 15mm, through Kara, to the N. [Au/tors.)
The surface of the country is greatly diversified with mountains. hillsI plains, and valleys; the best portion of this riCh province is the basin of the Krir, with the valleys of the Arayavi, Alazrm, and other tributary streams. Strabo (p. 499) speaks of the numerous cities of Iberia, with their houses having tiled roofs. as well as some architectural pretensions. Besides this, they had market-places and other public buildings.
The people of the Issues or Inner ('Iancs, Steph. B. Ltl.) were somewhat more civilised than their neighbours in Colchis. According to Strnbo (P- 500). they were divided into four castes :—
_ (1-) The royal horde, from which the chief's, both "1 peace and war, were taken. (2.) The priests, who aclcd also as arbitrators in their quarrels with the neighbouring tribes. (3.) Soldiers and husbandmen. (4.) The mass of the population, who were 51mm to the king. The form of gchrnmc-nt was Pam-1101111. The people of the plain were pewceful,
and cultivated the soil; while their dress was the same as that of the Armenians and Modes. The mountaineers were more warlike, and resembled the Scythians and Sarmatians. As, during the time of Herodotus (iii. 9), Colchis was the N. limit of the Persian empire, the Iberians were probably, in name, subjects of that monarchy. Along with the other tribes between the Caspian and the Euxine, they acknowledged the supremacy of Mithridates. The Romans became acquainted with them in the campaigns of Lucullus and Pompeius. In 11.0. 65, the letter general commenced his march northwards in pursuit of Mithridates, and had to fight against the Iberians, whom be compelled to sue for peace. (Plot. Pomp. 34.) A.D.35, when Tiberius set up Tiridutes as a claimant to the Parthian throne, be induced the Iberian princes, Mithridates and his brother Phamsmanes, to invade Armenia; which they did, and subdued the country. (Tac.A|m. vi. 33 -36; comp. Dict. of Biog. Pimkasmanns.) In A. 0. HS, when Armenia became a Roman province under Trajan, the king of the Iberians made a form of submitting himself to the emperor. (Eutrup. viii. 3: comp. Dion Cass. lxix. l5; Spartian. Hadrian. 17-)
Under the reign of Constantine the Iberians were converted by a captive woman to Christianity, which has been prescrvu'l there, though mixed with superstition, down to the present times. One of the original sources for this story, which will be found in Neander (Allgcmein Gcsch. der Christi. Ifch'g. vol. iii. pp. 234—236; comp. Milman, llist. of CherIianily, vol. ii. p. 480), is Rufinua (x.10), from whom the Greek church historians (Socrat. i. 20; Sozom. ii. 7; Theod. i. 24; Moe. Choren. ii. 83) have borrowed it. In A.D. 365—378, by the ignominions treaty of Jovian, the Romans renounced the sovereignty and alliance of Armenia and Ilioria. Sapor, after subjugating Armenia. marched against Sauromaces, who was king of Iberia by the permission of the emperors. and, after expelling him, reduced Iberia to the state of a Persian province. (Amm. Marc. xxvii. 12; Gibbon, c. xxv; Le Beau, Baa Empire, vol. iii. p. 357.)
During the wars between the Roman emperors and the Sammian princes, the lunnmn Garns had come into the possession of a prince of the films, who otl'ered this important pass to Anastasins; but when the emperor built Danni, with the object of keeping the Persians in check, Cobades, or Knbild, seized upon the defilcs of the Caucasus, and fortified them, though less as a precaution against the Romans than against the Huns and other northern barbarians. (Procop. B. P. i. 10; Gibbon. c. xl. ; Le Beau, vol. vi. pp. 269, 442, vol. vii. p. 898.) For a curious history of this pass, and its identification with the fabled wall of Gog and Magog, see Humboldt. Arie Contrale, vol. ii. pp. 93—104; Eichwald, l’cripl. (lea CognMeem, vol. i. pp. l28——l32. On the decline of the Persian power, the Iberian frontier was the scene of the operations of the emperors Maurice and Heraclius. Iberia is now a province of Russia.
The Georgians, who do not belong to the IndoEuropcnn family of nations, are the same race as the ancient Ibcriuns. By the Armenian writers they are still called Virk, a name of perhaps the same original as 'I€1)pes. They call themselves Kartli, and derive their origin, according to their national traditions, from an eponyimlus ancestor, Knrtlos. Like the Armenians, with whom howchr, there is no atIinity either in language or descent, they have an old version of the Bible into their language. The structure of this language has been studied by Adelung (Mithridat. vol. i. pp. 430, foll.) and other modern philologers, among whom may be mentioned Brosset, the author of several learned memoirs on the Georgian grammar and language: Klaproth, also, has given a long vocabulary of it, in his Asia Polyglotkt.
Armenian writers have supplied historical niemoirs to Georgia, though it has not been entirely wanting in domestic chronicles. These curious records, which have much the style and appearance of the half-legendary monkis'h histories of other countries, are supposed to be founded on substantial truth. One of the most important works on Georgian history is the memorials of the celebrated Orpelian family, which have been published by St. Martin, with a translation. Some account of these, along with a short sketch of the History of the Georgians and their literature, will be found in Prichard (Physical lliat. quankind, vol. iv. pp. 261—276). Dubois de Montpe'renx (Voyage auteur du Caucase, vol. ii. pp. 8—169) has given an outline of the history of Georgia, from native sources; and the maps in the magnificent Atlas that accompanies his work will be found of great service. [E. B. J.]
IllE'RlA INDIAE (1&1th Peripl. M. E. p. 24, ed. Hudson), 2 district placed by the author of the Periplus between Larica and the Scythians. It was doubtless peopled by some of the Scythian tribes, who gradually made their descent to the S. and SE. part of Scinde, and founded the Indo-Scythio empire, on the overthrow of the Greek kings of Bactria, about u.c. 136. The name would seem to imply that the population who occupied this district had come from the Caucasus. V.]
IBPI’RICUM MARE. [HISPANUM Mann.
lBli'ltES, IBE’RI, IBE'RIA. [Hisrmuui
IBERINGAE ('leepi'rym, Ptol. vii. 2. § 18), a people placed by Ptolemy between the Bepyrrhus Mons (Naraka Hts. f) and the Montee Damassi, in India extra Gangem, near the Braknmputra.
IBE’RUS ('Ignp, gen. -11por, and 'Ié'npos; in MSS. often Hiberus: Ebro), one of the chief rivers of Spain, the basin of which includes the NE. portion of the peninsula, between the great mountain chains of the Pyrenees and Idubeda [HISPANDL] it rises in the mountains of the Cantabri, not far from the middle of the chain, near the city of Juliobriga (the source lies 12 miles W. of Reyfiosa), and, flowing with a nearly uniform direction to the 515., after a course of 450 M. P. (340 miles), falls into the Mediterranean, in 40° 42' N. lat., and 0° 50' E. long., forming a considerable delta at its mouth. It was nain'gable for 260 M. P. from the town of VARIA (Varea, in Burgos). Its chief tributaries werez—on the left, the Slconls (Segre) and the Gauncus (Gallega), and on the right the Saw (Xalon). It was long the boundary of the two Spains [HISPANIA], whence perhaps arose the error of Appiun (Hisp. 6), who makes it divide the peninsula into two equal parts. There are some other errors not worthy of notice. The origin of the name is disputed. Dismissing derivations from the Phoenician, the question seems to depend very much on whether the Iberisna derived their name from the river, as was the belief of the ancient writers, or whether the river took its name from the people, as W. vvn Humboldt contends. If the former was the case, and if Niebuhr's view is correct, that the popu
lotion of NE. Spain was originally Celtic [Him mum], a natural etymology is at once found in the Celtic aber, i. 0. water. (Polyb. ii. 13, iii. 34, 40, et alib.; Scyl. p. l; Strab. iii. pp. 156, et seq.; Steph. 13.1. v.; Mela, ii. 6. § 5; Cass. B. C. i. 60; Liv. xiii. 5, 19, 22, &c.; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4, iv. 20. s. 34; Lucan. iv. 23; Cato, Orig. VII. up. Nonius, 0. o. PiscuIe-ntus.) [P. 5.]
IBES, a town in the SE. of Hispania Citerior, mentioned by Livy (xxviii. 21, where the MSS. vary in the reading), is perhaps the modern Ibi, NE. of
'ulencia. (Coins, up. Sestini, p. 156 ; Lnborde, Itin. vol. i. p. 293.) [P. 3.]
IBIO’NES, VIBIO'NES (‘16:0'wes, al. 06:84:61“, Ptol. iii. 5. § 23), a Slavonian people of Sartnatia Europaea, whom Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 213) looks for in the neighbourhood of a river Iva-[vicaIvinlu, of which there are several in Russia deriving their name from “iwa”=“ Salix Alba,” or the common white willow. [E. B. J.]
IBLIODURUM, in Gallia Belgica, is placed by the Antonine ltin. on the road between Virodunum ( Verdun) and Divodurum (flick). The termination (durum) implies that it is on a stream. The whole distance in the Itin. between Verdun and Net: is 23 Gallic leagues, or 34; M. P., which is less than even the direct distance between Verdun and Meta. There is, therefore, an error in the numbers in the Itin. somewhere betwechirodunum and Divodurum, which D‘Anville corrects in his usual way. The site of Ibliodurum is supposed to be on the Iron, at a place about two leagues above its junction with the Orne, a branch of the Mood, and on the line of an old road. [G.L.]
ICA'RIA. [A'l'l‘ch, p. 328, b.]
ICA'RIUM MARE. [Icanus ; Ascanum Mann.
I’CARUS, I’CARIA ('lxapor, ’lmpi’c: Nikafia), an island of the Aegean, to the west of SNHOS, according to Strabo (x. p. 480, xiv. 639), 80 stadia from Cape Ampelos, while Pliny (v. 23) makes the distance 35 miles. The island is in reality a continuation of the range of hills traversing Samos from east to west, whence it is long and narrow, and extends from NE. to SW. lts length, according to Pliny, is 17 miles, and its circumference, according to Stmbo, 300 stadia. The island, which gave its name to the whole of the surrounding sea (Icarium Mare or Pelaguo), derived its own name, according to tradition, from learns, the son of Daedalus, who was believed to have fallen into the sea near this island. (0v. llet. viii. 195, full.) The cape forming the easternmost point of the island was called Drepanum or Dmcamnn (Strab. xiv. pp. 637. 639; Ram. 11pm. xxxiv. l; Diod. Sic. iii. 66; Plin. iv. 23; Steph. B. l. v. Apdxolwv), and near it was a small town of the same name. Further west, on the north coast, was the small town of lsrt (11111“), with a tolerably good roadstend; to the south of this was another little place, called OENOE (01min, Strab. I. 0.; Athen. i. p. 80.) According to some traditions, Dionysus was born on Cape Dmconum (Theocrit. Idyll. xxvi. 33), and Artemis had a temple near Isti, called Tauropolion. The island had received its first colonists from Miletus (Strnb. xiv. p. 635); but in the time of Strabo it belonged to the Saminns: it had then but few inhabitants, and was mainly used by the Snmians as pasture lam! for their flocks. (Strab. 1:. pp. 488, xiv. p. 639: Scy