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Juliuum, and from Julinoum through Tiberiscum to Cologne. On this road also Juliacum is placed 18 leagues from Cologne. Juliacnm is Julian, or Jilin/l, as the Germans call it, on the river Roar, on the carriage road from Cologne to Air-Ia- Chupelle.

The first part of the word seems to be the Roman name J uli-, which is rendered more probable by finding between Juliacum and Colonia a place Tiberiacum (Berckoim or Berg Acum is a common ending of the names of towns in North Gallia. [G. L.]

JULIANO’POLIS ('louMuoliwoAu), a town in Lydia which is not mentioned until the time of Hierocleo (p. 670), according to whom it was situated close to Maoonia, and must be looked for in the southern parts of Mount Tmolus, between Philae delphia and Trailes. (Comp. Plin. v. 29.) [L 5.]

JULIAS. [Brrrnuunm]

JULIO’BONA (’lovhroé’ova), a town in Gnllia Belgica, is the city of the Caleti,or Calcitae as Ptolemy writes the name (ii. 8. 5), who occupied the Page do Can-2:. [CALHTL] The place is Lillebom, on the little river Bolbec, near the north bwkcf the Seine, between Howe and Caudcbec, in the present department of Seine Inférieuu. The Itius. show several roads from Juliobona; one to Rotomagus (Ram), through Breviodurum; and another through Breviodurum to Noviomagus (Lin'euz), on the south side of the Seine. The road from J uliobonu to the west. terminated at Carocotinum. [Cancun-mum] The placo has the name Juliabona in the Latin middle age writings. it was a favourite residence of the dukes of Normandie, and William, named the Conqueror, had a castle here, where he often raided.

The name J ulioboua is one of many examples of a word formed by a Roman prefix (Julio) and a Celtic termination (Bonn), like Augustobona, J uliomagus. The word Divona or Bibona [Divona] has the some termination. It appears from a middle age Latin writer, cited by D'Anville (Notice, do, Juliobona), that the place Was then called lllebonn, from which the modern name Lilleme has come by prcfixing the article; as the river Oltis in the south of France has become 1/011, and Lot.

The name Juliobona, the traces of the old roads, and the remains discovered on the site of Lillebmmo prove it to have been s Roman town. A Roman theatre. tombs, medals, and antiquities, have been discovered. [(5. L]

JULIOBRI'GA ('louMder/n), the chief city of the Cnntabri, in Hispanic. Tarraconcnsis, belonging to the conventus of Clunia, stood near the sources of the Ebro, on the eminence of Retortilb, S. of Regiiom. Five stones still mark the bounds which divided its territory from that of Logic IV. It had its‘port. named Portus Victoriue Juliobrigensium, at Santorma. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4, iv. 20. s. 84 ; Ptol. ii. 6. § 51 ; lnscr. up. Grutar, p. 354; Morales, Antig. p. 68; Florez, Esp.S. vol. vi. p.4l7; leabr. p. 64 : Ulrert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 443.) [R 8.]

J ULiOMAGUS ('lovludluryor), s town of the Andecavi, in Gnllia. Lugdunensis, and their capital. (Ptol. ii. 8. § 8.) It is named Juliomagus in the Table, and marked as a. capital. it is now Ange", [Annncnvn] [0. L.]


JULIO’POLIS AEGYPTL Pliny (vi. 23. s. 26) flung among ancient geographers mentions this plsce among the towns of Lower Aegypt. From the silence of his predecessors, and from the name itself, we may recountny infer it» recent origin. According


to Pliny, Juliopolis stood about 20 miles distant from Alexandre-in, upon the banks of the canal which connected that city with the Canopic arm of the Nile. Some geographers suppose J uliopolia to have been no other than Nicopolis, or the City of Victory, founded by Augustus Came:- in n. c. 29, psrtly to commemorate his reduction of Aegypt to a Roman province, and partly to punish the Alexandriaus for their adherence to Cleopatm and M. Antonius. Mannert, on the contrary (x. i. p. 626), believes J uliopolis to have been merely that suburb of Alexandreis which Strnbo (xvii. p. 795) cells Eleusis. At this place the Nile-boats, proceeding up the river, took in cargoes and passengers. [W. B. D.]

lU’LlS. [0505.

J U'LlUM CA’RNICUM (106va demov,Ptol: Zuglc'o), a town of the Cami, situated at the foot of the Julian Alps, which, from its name, Would seem to have been s Roman colony founded either by Julius Caesar, or in his honour by Augustus- 1i Paulus Diaoonus is correct in ascribing the foundation of Forum Julii to the dictator himselfll’. Diac. lliat. Lang. 14), there is little doubt um Julium Carnicum dates from the same period: but we have no account of its foundation. Ptolemy in one place dintinctly describes it as in Noricum (viii. 7. 4), in mother more correctly as Slimle on the frontiers of Noricum and Italy(pr1fl{il'rv¥ ’lraitlu: ml pruroii, ii. 13. § 4). But Pliny erpressly includes it in the territory of the Cami and the tenth region of Italy (“Julienses Csmomm,” Ii!19. s. 23), and its position on the S. sideofthe Alps clearly entitles it to be considered in Italy- 11*! position is correctly indicated by the itinerarny Antoninus (p. 219), which places it 60 M. P., from Aquilein, on the road leading nearly the N- W“ that city over the Julian Alps. The first stage on this road, “ Ad Tricesirnum,” still retains the name of Tn'gem'mo, and the site of Julium Camicurnu marked by the village of Zugh'o (where some Roman remains have been discovered), in a side valley opening into that ofthe T agliomcnto, about 4 miles above Tolmezzo. The pass from thence over the Monte di Sta. Croce into the valley of the Gail, now practicable only for mules, follows the line of the anneal Roman road, given in the Itinerary, and theftfflm probably n frequented under the [Anrm p. 110, No. 7 = but the imuiptm 0" the faith of which the construction of this road but been ascribed to Julius Caesar is apalpsble forge?!(Cluver. Ital. p. 200.) E. H. 11.]


JUNONIA INSULA. [Fomunnau‘lne]

JURA. [Henvmr ; GALLIA, p. 951.]

J URCAE ("lupnu), mentioned by “BMW” (iv. 22) as lying contiguous to the Thyssegetw. who lay beyond the Budiui, who lay beyond tile Sauromatae of the Pains Mneotie and Lower TammThcircountry was well-wooded. They were hunters. and had horeee. This points to some portion of the lower Umhhn range. They were pmblbiy tribes of the Ugriau stock, akin to the Present Morduim, Tallerimiu, stuombu, of which they were the most southern portion. The mason {01‘ for this lies in the probability of the nsme bemg 1‘ derivative from the root Jcr- (08 in Ukraine and Cufin-tklo)=bordcr, or boundary, some form Of which gave the Slavonic population their cquivaivm0 the Germanic name Emmi = Hard“ men. (B. G. L]


JUSTIXIA'NA. [Cameo : Hannomnum]


JUSTINIANO’POLIS. l. A city in Epeirus, formerly called Hadrianopolis. [Hannmnorous]

2. The later name of Hadrumetum in Africa.


JUTl-IUNGI (’loi’iflotrfyoi), a German tribe

dwelling on the banks of the Danube. They are described by some ancient writers as a part of the Alemanni (Amtn. Mare. xvii. 6); but they belonged more probably to the Gothic race : even their name looms to be only another form for Gothi or Gothonea. (Ambros. Epist. 20.) Dcxippus, from whom we learn mmt about their histoly, calls them a Scythian tribe. which, however, clearly means that they were Grabs. In the reign of the emperor Aurelian the J uthungi invaded Italy, and, being defeated, they sued for pace, but were obliged to return without having effected their purpose : aflerwards they made preparations for another invasion. (Dexip. pp. 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, ed. Niehuhr and Beklter.) In these wars, however, they never appeared alone, but alwny in conjunction with others, either Alsmanuians, Suevi, or Goths. (See Eisenschmidt, do Ori'gine Oatrogotlwrum et Viet'gotliomm, p. 26; Latham, Tacit. Gem, Epileg. p. caiii.) [ L. S.]

J UTTAH (‘l-rdv, LXX.), a town of Judah (Jodi. xv. 55), appropriated to the priests; according to Eusebios (Onomarr. I. a. ’Ie'v'niv) it was 18 M. P. from Eleuthcropolis. Reland (Pulaest. p. 870) suppst this to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elizabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist,—the that '1068: of Luke, i. 39, being so written, by a corruption or from a softer pronunciation, instead of miMr 'Ioiira. The modern Y 1280, on the site of the old town, in which there are said to be 'mdications of old remains, preserves the ancient name. (Robinson. Bib. Res. vol. ii. pp. 190, I95, 623: Ritter, Erdlcunde, vol. xv. pt. i. pp. 63 641; Winer, I. v.) [15. B. J.]

JUVAVUM, JUVA’VIA, a town in the interior ofNoricum,onthe left bank of the river Ivarns. I! it the modern city of Sakburg, situated in an extensive and fertile valley, on the slope of a range ‘1“th mountain. It is chiefly known from inscriptions : one of which (Orelli, no. 496) describes lhe place as n colony planted by the emperor Hadrian ; but its genuineness is disputed. (Orelli, I'M'Pt"1- i- p. 138.) Juvaviuin was the head-quarters of the fifth cohort of the first legion (Notit. Imper.) and the residence of the governor of the province. At an earlier period it seems to have been the residence of the native kings of Noricum. In the second half of the fifth century it was destroyed by the llemli; but was restored as early as the seventh century, and still contains many beautiful remains ofantiquity. especially mosaics. (Comp. Oralli, In""11 1105.496, 491, 1:5». Ant. p. 2:15, where it limits the erroneous name of Jovavis ; Eugipp. Vit. sscoev. 13, 24, where it is called Iopia; Vit. S. 11M. BP- Baanage, tom. iii. pt. 2. p. 273 ; EginM, We. Cmoh' 11.33; 1mm, okerhrkkm FM anmde dev- urui Stud! Juvam'a, Salzl'mi'g, 1784, fol.) [L. 5.]

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msnm-r (Gen. xiv. 7, xvi. 14). where the Israelites encamped with the intention of entering the Promised Land (Ntml. xxxii. 8), and the point from which the spies were sent. (Nun. xiii. xiv. 40—4-5, xxi. 1—3; Dent. i. 41—44; comp. Judg. i. 17.) The supposition that the Kadmh-Barnea, to which the Israelites first come, is difi'erent from the Kadesh-Meribah, which formed their later encampment, where the wants of the people were miniculously supplied from the smitten rock (Nam. xx. 14), reconciles some ditl'iculties. On the hypothesis that there were two places of this name, the first Kadesh and its localities agrees very well with the spring of ’Az'n Kddér or KMés. lying to the E. of the highest part of Djebel Halal, towards its N. extremity, about 12 miles from Moe'ldMi Hadjar. (Beer-lahai-roi, Gen. xvi. l4), and something like due 8. from Khalasa (Chezil. Josh. xv. 30), which has been identified by Mr. Rowlands (Williams, Holy City. vol. i. App. pp. 466—468) with the rock struck by Moses.

The second Kadesh, to which the Israelites came with a view of passing through the land of Edoin, coincides better with the more easterly position of 'A imel- Weibeh which Dr. Robinson (Bib. Res. vol. ii. pp. 582, 610, 622) has assigned to it (comp. Kitto. Scripture Londr, p. 82). Bitter (Erdkrmde, vol. xiv. pp. 1077—1089), who refers to the last discoveries in this district, does not determine whether one Kadesh would sufficiently answer all the conditions required. B. J.]

KADMONTTES (Kediwvaioi, LXX), a nation of Canaan at the time that Abraham sojourned in the land (Geraxv. 19). The name Beui-Kedem, “children of the East" (Judy. vi. 3; comp. Ina. xi. 14), was probably not distinctive of, but collectively applied to various peoples, like the Saracens in the middle ages, and the Beduins in later times. (Bitter, Erdleumie, vol. xv. pt. i. p. 188.) B. J.]

KAMON (1(an, LXX.), a town in Gilead, belonging to the tribe of Manasseh, when! Jair died. (Judges, 2. 5; comp. Joseph. Antiq. v. 7. § 6.) The Ramona (Kane-rad) of Eusebius, which lay 6 M. I’. to the N. of Legio (Ononuut. s. 11.), must have been another place of the same name; but the city which Polybius (v: 70) calls Camus (Knuciis), and which was taken, with other places in I’eraea, by Antiochus,isidcntical with the town in Gilead. (Roland, Palaesl. 649; \Viner, s. 0.; Von Ranmer, Pale-st. p.242; Ritter, Erdttundemolav. p. 1026.) [E.B.J.]

KANAH (Kud,LXX.). l. A town in the N. district of Asher. (Josh. six. ‘28.) Dr. Robinson recognises it in the large village of Kdna, on the brow of the Wady-‘Asl'uir, near Tyre.

2. A river which divided the district of Manasseh from thatof Ephraim (Josh. xvi. 8, xvii. 9, 10). probably the river which discharges itself into the sea between Cacsareis and Apollonin (Arundinetis; comp. Schultens, Vila Salad. pp. 191, 193), now the Nah“ Abu-Zuluira. [1']. B. J.]

KAPHARABIS (Ram‘s), a fortified plnce,in Idnmaea, taken, with Kaphethra, by Cerealis, an. 69. (Joseph. B. J. iv. 9. 9.) B. J.]

KEDEMOTH (Baked , LXX), a city in the tribe of Reuben (Josh-xiii. 18), which gave its name to the wilderness of Kedemoth, on the borders of the river Arnon. from whence Moses sent messengers of peace to Sihcn king of Heshbon (Pent. ii. 26.) Its site has not. been made out. (Bitter, Erdkunde, vol. xv. pt. i. pp. 574, 1208; Winer,

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LABANAE AQUAE. [Ami/m Lacuna] LABEA'TES. [LABEATIS LACUSJ LABEA'TIS LACUS, a large lake of Roman 11lyllmm, situated to the N. of Soudra, the chief city of the Lausn'rsa (Liv. xiiii. 21, xliv. 31, xlv. 26) or lannnns. (Plin. iii. 26.) It is now called the lake (l Sfilart'. famous for the quantity of fish, especially of the “Cyprious” family. The rivers, which drain the rocky district of Monte-Negro, discharge themlclves into this lake, which communicates with the M by the river BARBANA. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia, voli. pp. 411, 415, 476.) B. J.] LAlll'CUM or LAVI'CUM, sometimes also(Liv. ii. 39,5145) LAVl'Cl,(1'b Aaé'uzdv: EULAagmavdr, lflbimnns and Lavicanus: La Colonna), an ancient “‘1' "f Latium, situated at the foot of the northeastern slope of the Alhan hills, and distant about 15 miles from Rome. Its foundation was ascribed, “Wing lo a tradition reported by Scrvius (ad Anal. vii. 796), to Glaucus, a son of Minos: and 11"le (L c.) mentions it among the cities which 53" assistance to king Latinos against Aeneas, so that he must have regarded it as more ancient than the Trojan settlement in Latium. But the current, tradition, adopted by Dionysius, represented labicum, in common with so many other Latin "PM. as a colony of Alba. (Dionys. viii. 19; lhtdor. up. Emb. Arm. p. 185.) Whatever was ‘“ "1'81"," know with certainty that it was one


of the cities of the Latin league, and as such retained, down to a late period, the right of participating in the sacrifices ou the Alban Mount. (Dionys. v. 61 ; Cic. pro Plane. 9.) It first appears in history as taking part in the league of the Latins against Rome previous to the battle of Regillns (Dionys. I. c.), and is afterwards mentioned among the cities which are represented as taken in nuccession by Coriolanus, during his campaign against the Romans. (Liv. ii. 39; Dionys. viii. 19.) It is not improbable that this legend represents the historical fact that Labicum, together with Bola, Pedum, and other places which figure in the same narrative, actually fell about that time into the hands of the Aequians, as Satricum, Cnrioli, and other towns further to the 8., did into those of the Volscians. (Niebnhr, vol. ii. p. 259.) But. during the subsequent wars of the Romans with the Aequians, Labicum always appears as a Latin city: and from its position on the frontier of Latium adjoining the Aequians, its name repeatedly occurs in the history of those contests. Thus, in B. c. 458, its territory was ravaged by the Aequian general Gracchus : and in 418 we find the Labicana themselves abandoning the Roman alliance, and joining the Aequians, together with whom they established a camp on Mount Algidus. Their combined forces were, however, defeated by the Roman dictator Q. Servilius Prisons, and Labicum itself was taken by storm. In order to secure their new conquest against the Aequians the Roman senate sent thither a colony of 1500 Roman citizens, which appears to have maintained itself there, though attacked the very next. year by the Aequians. (Liv. iii. 25, iv. 4547,49.) In 3.0. 383, its territory was again ravaged by the Praenestines, at that time on hostile terms with Rome (Liv. vi. 21); and after a long interval, in 3.0. 211, it once more sustained the same fate from the army of Hannibal. (Liv. xxvi. 9.)

From this time the name of Labicum disappears from history, but we learn that it still existed as a municipium, though in a very poor and decayed condition, in the days of Cicero. (Cic. pro Plane. 9, do Leg. Agr. ii. 35.) Strabo, however, sleaks of the town as in ruins, and Pliny mentions the population “ex agro Labica-no” in a manner that seems to imply that, though they still formed a “populos” or community, the city no longer existed. (Strab. v. pp. 230, 287; Plin. 5. s. 9.) In like manner we find the “ager Labicanus" elsewhere mentioned, but no further notice of the town. (Snot. Cacs. 83.) The inhabitants seem to have, under the Roman empire, congregated together afresh in the neighbourhood of the station on the Via Labicann, called Ad Quintanas, and hence assumed the name of Lavicani Quintanenses, which we meet with in inscriptions. (Orell.1ns¢v~.118,3997.) The territory appears to have been one of great fertility, and was noted for the excellence of its grapes. (Sil. Ital. viii. 366; Jul. Caplt. Clod. Albin. 11.)

The yarsition of Labicum has been a subject of much dispute, having been placed by diflbrent. writers at anmontone, Zagarolo, and Lugnano. But the precise statement of Strabo (v. p. 237) as to the course of the Via Labicano, together with the fact that he describes the ancient city as situated on a hill to the right of that road, about 120 atadla (15 Roman miles) from Rome, ought to have iett no difliculty on the subject: and Holstenius long ago correctly placed the ancient. city on tho bill now occupied by the village of La Colonna; s herght a little in advance of the Tusculsn hills, and commanding the adjoining portion of the plain. it is about a mile from the 15th milestone on the Roman road, where, as we have seen, the suburb Ad Quintanas afterwards grew up, and is certainly the only position that accords with Strabo's description. No ruins are visible ; but the site is one well calculated for an ancient city, of small magnitude, and the discovery of the inscriptions already noticed in its immediate neighbourhood may be considered couclusivs of the point. The modern village of La. Colonna dates only from the 11th century. (Holsteu. Not. ad Clue. p. 194 ; Fsbrett. do Aquaeduct. p. 182 ; Nibby, Dintomida' Roma, vol. ii. pp. 157 -—164.) Ficoroni, in his elaborate work (Memorie della Prim a Seconda Cim‘z di Labr'co, 4m. Roms, 1745), has laboured to prove, but certainly without success, that Labicum was situated on the Calla dci Quadn‘, near Lugnano, about 5 miles beyond La Colonna. The remains there discovered and described by him render it probable that Dugnano was an ancient site, probably that of Bola [Bonn] ; but the distance from Rome excludes the supposition that it was that of Labicum.

The VIA LABXCANA, which issued from the Ports Esquilins at Rome together with the Via Praencstins, but separated from the latter immediately afterwards, held 11 course nearly parallel with it u for as the station Ad Quinmnas; from whence it turned round the foot of the Album hills, and fell Into the Vis. Latins at the station Ad Pictas, where the latter road had just descended from Mt. Algidus. (Strab. v. p. 287; Itin.Ant. pp. 304, 305.) it is strange that the Itinerary gives the name of Lsvicsns to the continuation of the road sfrer their junction, though the Via. Latins was so much the more important of the two. The course of the ancient Via. Lahicsns may be readily traced from the gates of Rome by the Torre Hgnatara, Cento Cello, Torre Nuova, and the Otter-r31 dt' Finocchr'o to the Ostert'a della Colonna, at the foot of the hill of that name. This Osteria is 16 mile from Rome and a mile beyond the ancient station Ad Quintanus. From thence the road proceeded to San Cesanb, and soon after, quitting the line of the modern road to Valmmrtme, struck 08' direct to join the Via Lstina; but the exsct site of the station Ad Pictss has not been determined. (Westphsl, Rom. Kam‘ pagne, pp. 78 —80; Gell's Topogr. of Rm,


p On Zhe left of the Via sticsns, shout thirteen miles and a half from Rome, is a small crater-formed lake, which has often been considered as the sncient Lawns Regillus: but the similar basin of the Lago di Comufelle, near Tusculum, appears to have a better claim to that eelebrsted nsme. [1130111.th Lucas]

The course of the Via sticans in the immediste neighbourth of Rome was bordered, like the other highways that issued from the city, with numerous sepulchres, many of them on s large scale, and of massive construction. Of these, the one now known as the Torre Pigmuzro, about three miles from the Pork; Maggiore, is represented by very ancient tradition, but with no other authority, as the mansoleum of Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. (Nibby, vol. iii. p. 243.) We learn, also, that the family tomb of the emperor Didius Julianus was situated on the same road, at the distance of 5 miles from Rome. (Spartian. Did. Jul. 8.)




LABO'TAS (Mac), a small river of the plain of Antioch. (Strsb. xvi. p. 751.) it runs from the north, parsllel to the Ancsurttus, sud, mixing with its waters and those of the Oenopurss coming from the east, in a small lake, they flow off in one stream and join the Orontes a little above Antioch. it is the western of the two rivers shown in map, Vol. I. p. 115, and Pagrae (Bagrru) is situated on its westenr bunk near its mouth. [G.W.

LABRANDA (rd Arispowba. or Ad€pnw6s), s village in the west of Carin, about 60 studio from the town of Mylsss, to which the village belonged, and with which it was connected by a road called the sacred. strsnds was situated in the mountains, snd was celebrated for its sanctuary of Zeus Station, to which processions went. along the sacred road from Myla-ss. Herodotus describes (v. HQ) the sanctuary as an extensive grove of plane trees, within which a body of Carisns, in their war sgsinst the Persians, retreated for safety. Stmbo (xiv. p. 659) speaks of an ancient temple with s {dawn of Zeus Stratios, who was also snrnnmed “ strsndenns " or “ strandeus." Aelinn (H. A. xii. 30), who state; that the temple of stranda was 70 stsdis from Mylasa, relates that a spring of clear Water, within the sanctuary, contained fishes, with golden neclrlaces and rings. Chandler (Antiq. oflonr'a, pt. 1. c. 4, and Asia Minor, c. 58) was the first who stated his belief, that the ruins at Ink-Ii, south of Kizey'ik, consisting of a. theatre and s ruined temple of the Ionian order, of which “5 columns, with the entablsture, were then still standing, were those of ancient Labrunda and of the temple of Zeus Stratios. But Choiseul Goufiier, Barbie du Bocage, and Locke (Asia Minor, p. 232), agree in thinking that thus ruins belong to Euromus rather than strandlTheir view is supported by the fact that the 111155 of the temple have nothing very ancient about them. but rather- show that they belong to a structure 0f the Roan period. The renmins of Lnbrauds must be looked for in the hills to the north-east of Myles“Sir C. Fellows (Journal, p. 261), apparently not knowing what had been done by his predecessors. unhesitstingly speaks of the ruins at Irrin us those oi Labrsnds, Ind gives an engraving of the remains 0i the temple under the name of the “ Temple at strands." [L. 5.]


LABUS or LABU'TAS (AdGos or Adovrni). a mountain range in the N. of Parthia, mwmml by Polybius (x. 29). it seems to have a pm of the greater range of M. Coronus. sod is probably represented now by the Sobath'oh, a part of 111° Elbrm mountains. -],

LACANI'TIS (America), the name of s drstnct in Cilicis Proper, above Tarsus, between the river! Cydnus and Ssrus, and containing the town of Irenopolis. (Ptol. v. 8. § 6.) [L's-l

LACCU'RIS. [Omansn]

LACEA. [Lusrnmm]

LACEDAEMON (Annebalpuw, Steph.B. s. a; Eustath. ad. 1!. ii. 582), a town in the interior 01' Cyprus. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 158.) B. J-]


LilCI-IREIA. [Do'rws Camus]

LACETA’N] (Amrrravnr’), one of the small {copies of Hispanic. Tamconensis, who occupied 1!“ valleys ut the S. foot of the Pyrenees (

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