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of the bill may possibly have belonged to the temple of Juno Sospita; and a small portion of a theatre, brought to light by excavations in 1832, are all that are now visible. The inscriptions discovered on the spot belong principally to the time of the Antonines, and excavations in the last century brought to light many statues of the same period. (Nibby, Dinlorm'dx' Roma, vol. ii. pp. 173—187; Abeken, Mittel Italien, p. 215.)

Lanuvium, as already observed, was situated at a short distance from the Appian Way, on the right of that road: the station “ Sub Lanuvio,“ marked in the Tabula Pcutingeriana between Aricia and Tree Tabernae, was evidently situated on the high and, probably at the eighteenth milestone from Rome, from which point a branch road led directly to the ancient city. (Westphal, Rom. Kemp. p. 28; Nibby, L c.)

The remains of two other ancient roads may be traced, leading from the W. and S. of the city in the direction of Anlium and Astura. The existence of this line of communication in ancient times is incidentally referred to by Cicero (ad Attxii. 41, 43, 46). The tract of country extending S. of Lanuvium in the direction of Antium and the Pontine marshes, was even in the time of Strabo very unhmlthy (Strab. v. p. 231), and is now almost wholly depopulated. [15. H. 3.]

LAODlCEIA COMBUSTA (Aaooinua Ira-ransxaunévn or xexatue'vn), one of the five cities built by Selencus 1., and named after his mother Scleuca. Its surname (Lat. Combusta) is derived by Strabo (xii. pp. 576, 579, xiii. pp. 626, 628, 637) from the volcanic nature of the surrounding country, but Hamilton (Researches, ii. p. 194) asserts that there is “ not a particle of Volcanic or igneous rock in the neighbourhood ;" and it may be added that if such were the case, the town would rather have been called A. Ti; m-rancxaupc'vnr. The most probable solution undoubtedly is, that the town was at one time destroyed by fire, and that on being rebuilt it received the distinguishing surname. It was si. tnated on the north-west of Iconium, on the high road leading from the west coast to Meliteno on the Euphrates. Some describe it as situated in Lycaonia (Steph. B. a. v. ; Strab. xiv. p. 663), and others as a town of Pisidia (Socrat. Hist. Ecol. vi. 18; Hierocl. p. 672), and Ptolemy (v. 4. § 10) places it in Galatia ; but this discrepancy is easily explained by moollecting that the territories just mentioned were often extended or reduced in extent, sotha! at one time the town belonged to Lycaonia, while at another it formed part of Pisidia. its foundation is not men. tioned by any ancient writer.

Both Leaks (Asia Minor, 1). 44) and Hamilton identify Laodiceia with the modern Ladik; and the former of these geographers states that at Ladik he saw more numerous fragments of ancient architecture and sculpture than at any other place on his route through that country, Inscribed marbles, altars, columns, capitals, friezes, cornices, were dispersed throughout the streets, and among the houses and burying ground5_ From this it Would appear that Laodioeis must once have been a very considerable town. There are a few imperial coins of Laodiceia, belonging to the reigns of Titus and Domitian. (Sestini, Mon. Ant. p. 95 ; comp. Droysen, Gem/t. dc: Ilellm. i. p. 668, toll.) [L 5.]

LAODlCElA Al) LYCUM (Anodikua 1rpr 'rq'i Alma»: Eski Hiuar), a city in the south-west of


I’hrygia', about a mile fmm the rapid river Lyons, is situated on the long spur of a hill between the narrow valleys of the small rivers Asopus and Caprns, which discharge their waters into the Lyons. The town was originally called Diospolis, and afterwards Rhoas (Plin. v. 29), and Lauditeis, the building of which is ascribed to Autiochus Theos, in honour of his wife Laodice, was probably founded on the site of the older town. It was not far west from Colossae, and only six miles to the west of Hierapolis. (It. Ant. p. 337; Tab. Pent; Strab. xiii. p. 629.) At first Laodiceia was not a place of much importance, but it soon acquired ahigh degree of prosperity. It sufl'ered greatly during the Mithridntic War (Appian, Bell. Mithr. 20; Strab. xii. p. 578), but quickly recovered under the dominion of Rome; and towards the end of the Republic and under the first emperors, Lamliceia became one of the most important and flourishing commercial cities of Asia Minor, in which large money transactions and an extensive trade in wood were carried on. (Cic. ad Fam. ii. 17, iii. 5; Strab. xii. p. 577; comp. Vitruv. viii. 3.) The place often suffered from earthquakes, especially from the great shock in the reign of Tiberius, in which it was completely destroyed. But the inhabitants restored it from their own mums. (Tsc. Ann. xiv. 27.) The wealth of its inhabitants created among them a taste for the arts of the Greek, to i! manifest from its ruins; and that it did not remain behind-hand in science and literature is attested by the names of. the sceptics Antiochus and Theiodas, the successors of Aenesidemus (Diog. La'e'rt. in "§ 106, 12. § 116), and by the existence ofngmt medical school. (Strab. xii. p. 580.) During the Roman period Laodiceia was the chief city of a Roman oonventus. (Cic. dd Fawn. iii. 7, it. 35. xiii. 54, 67, av. 4, ad Au. v. 15, 16,20,221. vi1, 2, 3. 7, in Verr. i. 30.) Many of its inhabitants were Jews, and it was probably owing to this 011" cumstancc, that at a very early period it becanw one of the chief seats of Christianity, and the see of a bishop. (St Paul, Ep. ad Coloss. ii. 1, iv. lh5| foll.; Apocal. iii. 14, ML; Joseph. Ant. Jad._xrv. 10,20; Hierocl. p. 665.) The Byzantine wntcrs often mention it, especially in the time of the Conn neni; and it was fortified by the emperor Manuel(Nicet. Chou. Arm. pp. 9, 81.) During the invasion of the Turks and Mongols the city was much exposed to ravages, and fell into decay, but the orifiing remains still attest its former greatness. 'th ruins near Denisli are fully described in P00001591 Chandler's, Cockarell’s, Arundel’s and Leake's warh“ Nothing,” says Hamilton (Researcher, Wl- 1- P515), “can exceed the desolation and melancholy appearance of the site of Laodiceia; no picturesque features in the nature of the ground on which. it stands relieve the dull uniformity of its undulating and barren hills; and with few exceptions, its g"? and widely scattered ruins possess no architectural merit to attract the attention of the traveller. )8! it is impossible to view them without interest, 'fht‘fl we consider what Luodiceia once was, and butt If *3 connected with the early history of Christian"? . . . . . Its stadium, gymnasium, and that"? (0.“ of which is in a state of great preservation, “‘115

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seats still perfectly horizontal, though merely laid upon the gravel), are well deserving of notice. Other buildings, also, on the top of the bill, are full of intcrest; and on the east the line of the ancient “all may be distinctly traced, with the remains of a gateway; there is also a street within and without the town, flanked by the ruins of a colonnade and numerous pedestals, leading to a confused heap of fallen ruins on the brow of the hill, about 200 yards outside the walls. North of the town, towards the Lycus, are many sarcophagi, with their covers lying near them, partly imbedded in the ground, and all having been long since rifled.

“Amongst other interesting objects are the remains of an aqueduct, commencing near the summit of a low hill to the south, whence it is carried on arches of small square stones to the edge of the hill. The water must have been much charged with calcareous matter, as several of the arches are covered with a thick incrustntion. From this bill the aqueduct crossed a valley before it reached the town, but, instead of being carried over it on lofty arches, as was the usual practice of the Romans, the water In conveyed down the hill in stone barrel-pipes; some of these also are much incrusted, and some wmpletely choked up. It traversed the plain in Piles of the same kind ; and l was enabled to trace them the whole way, quite up to its former level in the toer . . . . . The aqueduct appears to have been overthrown by an earthquake, as the remaining arches lean bodily on one side, without being much broken. . . . .

“The stadium, which is in a good state of preservation, is near the southern extremity of the city.

The seats, almost perfect, are armngcd along two,

sides of a narrow valley, which appears to have been taken advantage of for this purpose, and to have been closed up at both ends. Towards the west are coluiderable remains of a subterranean passage, by which chariots and horses were admitted into the milk with a long inscription over the entrance. The whole area of the ancient city is covered with ruined buildings, and I could distinguish the sites of several temples, with the bases of the columns still in rim. . . . . The ruins bear the stamp "f Minn extravagance and luxury, rather than of the stern and massive solidity of the Greeks. Strabo attributes the celebrity of the place to the fertility of the soil and the wealth of some of its inhabitants: mongrt whom Hiero, having adorned the city with many beautiful buildings, bequeathed to it more than 2000 talents at his death." (Comp. Fellows, Jmll Milk" in Asia Minor, p. 280, ML; lute. Am mm, p. 251, on.) [u s.] LAODICEIA AD LIBANUM (Aaodfxeta h "it Ngbqi), mentioned by Strabo (xvi. p. 755) as the wmmeuoement of the lilarsyas Campus, which iéxtended along the west side of the Orontes, near its “W. [MAHSYAS CAMPUS.] It is called Csbiosa L*ltiiit‘eia by Ptolemy (Kagr'raao. Modlxera, v. 15), ""1 tire its name to a district (nuaimwi), in Which he places two other towns, Pamdisus (floodWM) and Jabruda (new-in). Pliny (v. 23), “"10"! other people of Syria, reckons “ ad orientem laodiceooa. qui ad Libanuni cognorninantur.” [G.\\'.] LAODICEIA AD MARE, a city of Syria. 80'1"! 0i Enuctera [V0]. L p. 1050]. described by .Stmbo (X'i. pp. 751, 752) as admirably built, with an excellent harbour, surroundid by a rich country spew“? fruitful in vines, the wine of which furnished

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planted on the sides of gentlyaloping hills, which were cultivated almost to their summits, and BL» tended far to the east, nearly to Apameia. Strabo mentions that Dolabella, when he fled to this city before Cassius, distressed it greatly, and that, being besieged there until his death, he destroyed many parts of the city with him, A. r). 43. [Die-t. ofBiog. Vol. I. p. 1050.] it was built by Seleucus Nieotor, and named after his mother. it was fumishcd with an aqueduct by Herod the Great (Joseph. B. J. i. 21. § 11), a large fragment of which is still to be seen. (Shaw, Travels, p. 262.)

The modern city is named Ladikiye'b, and still exhibits faint traces of its former importance, nutWithstanding the frequent earthquakes with which it has been visited. Irby and Mangltu noticed that “ the Marina is built upon foundations of ancient columns,” and “ there are in the town, an old gateway and other antiquities," as also sarcophagi and sepulchml caves in the neighbourhood. (Travels, p. 223.) This gateway has been more fully described by Shaw (1. c.) and l’ocockc, as “ a remarkable triurnphal arch, at the SE. corner of the town, almost entire: it. is built with four entrances, like the Forum Jam' at Rome. It is conjectured that this arch was built in honour of Lucius Verus, or of Septimius Severus.” (Description of the Hall, Vol. ii. p. 197.) Show noticed several fragments of Greek and Latin inscriptions,dispersed all over the ruins. but entirely defaced. Pococke states that it was a Very inconsideruble place till within lift y years of his visit, when it opened a tobacco trade with Damietta, and it has now an enormous trattic in that article, for which it is far more celebrated than ever it was for its wine. The port is half an hour distant from the town, very small, but better sheltered than any on the coast. Show noticed, a furlong to the “Tab of the town, “ the ruins of a beautiful cot/ion, in figure like an amphitheatre, and (“spacious enough to receive the whole British navy. The mouth of it opens to the westward, and is about 40 feet wide." [(3. W.]

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([lt'lmys. xiii. 447), owed its name to the legendary Lapathus, a follower of Dionysus. Strubo (l. 0.) says that. it received a Spartan colony, headed by Praxnnder. He adds, that it was situated opposite to the town of Nagidus, in Cilieia, and possessed a harbour and docks. It was situated in the N. of the island, on a river of the same name, with a district called LAPE'I‘IHA (Aamflla, Ptol. v. 14. 9'5). In the war between Ptolemy and Antigonns, Lapathns, with its king l’raxippus, sided with the latter. (Died. xix. 59.) The name of this place was synonymous with stupidity. (Said. 3. v. Anti-9m.) Pococke (Two. in the East, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 228) saw at aniUlo several walls that were cut out of the rock, and one entire room, over the sea: there were also remains of some towers and walls. (Muriti, Viagyi, vol. i. p. 125 ; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 37, 78, 174, 224, 364, 507.) [3. n. J. LAPATHUS. n fortress in the north of Thessaly, ncnr Tempe, which Leake identifies with the ancient castle near Rlilnani. (Liv. xliv. 2, 6; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 397, 418.) LAPHY'STIUM. [Boso'ru, p. 412, h.] LAl’lDEI CAMH or LAPlDEUS CAMPUS (“Eloy A1065", Althvov TNBiOY), in Galliu Norbenensis. Strnbo (p. 182) says: “ Between MMsnlia and the mouths of the Rhone there is a plain, about 100 stadia from the sea. and as much in diameter, being of a circular form ; and it is called the Stony, from its character; for it is full of stones, of the size of a man’s fist, which have grass growing among them, which furnishes abundant food for animals: and in the middle there is standing water, and salt springs, and salt. Now all the country that lies above is windy, but on this plain cspu'inlly the Melamborian (La Bike) comes down in squtdls, —a violent and chilling wind: accordingly, they say that some of the stones are moved and rolled about, and that men are thrown down from vehicles, and stripped both of arms and clothing by the blast.” This is the plain called La Crau, near the east side of the east- branch of the delta of the Rhone, and near the E'tang do Berra. It is described by Arthur Young (Travels, (fa. vol. i. p. 379. 2nd ed.), who visited and saw part of the plain. He supposed that. there might be about 136,780 English acres. “It is composed entirely of shingle—being so uniform a mass of round stones, some to the size of n man's bend, but of 11]] sizes less, that the newly thrown up shingle of a seashore is hardly less free from soil. Beneath the“ surface-stones is not so much a send as a kind of cemented rubble, a small mixture of loom with fragments of stone. Vegetation is rare and miserable." The only use that the uncultivated port is turned to, he says, is to feed, in winter, an immense number of sheep, which in summer feed in the Alps towards Barcelonette and Piedmont. When he saw the place, in August, it was very bare. The number of sheep said to be fed there is evidently an exuccerntion. Some large tracts of the Cmu had been broken up when he was there, and planted with vines, olives, and mulberries, and converted into corn and meadow. Corn had not succeeded; but the meadows, circled richly with “clover, chicory, rib-grass, and gum elutim'," presented an extraordinnry contrast to the soil in its natural state. The name Crau is probuhly a Celtic word. In the Stalirlique du Départ. deg Bowl, (1 Blame (tom. ii. p. 190, quoted in Ultert's Gallic», 425) it is supposed that Cr-anu, us it is there written, is a Liguriun Word ; which may be “no, or it may not. What is added is more valuable


information : “ There is in Provence a number of places which have this name; and one may even say that. there is not; a village which has not in its territory a Green."

Aristotle (Strobe, p. 182) snppcsed that earthquakes, of the kind named Bmstae threw up these stones to the earth‘s surface, and that they rolled down together to the hollow places in these pirt» l'osidonius, who, having travelled in Gallia, lnul probably seen the Gran, supposed that the place was once a lake. Here the text in Strobe is obscure, and perhaps corrupt; but he seems to mean that the action of water rounded the stones, for he adds, after certain words not. easy to explain. that (owing to this motion of the water?) “ it was divided internally stones, like the pebbles in rivers and the shingle on the msllOl‘E." Strobe (whose text is here agsin somewhat corrupted) considers both explanations so far true, that stones of this kind could not have been so made of themselves, but. must have come fnm great rocks being repeatedly hmken. Another hypothesis, not worth mentioning, is recorded in the notes of Eustathius (ad Dimiys. Per-icy. v. 76).

It is a proof of the early communication between the Phoeaean colony of hhissalis and other ports of Greece, that Aeschylus, whose geography is neither extensive nor exact, was acquainted with the existente of this stony plain; for in the Pronwllwua Unbound (quoted by Strabo) he makes Prometheus tell Hercules that when he comes into the country of the Ligyfsv Zeus will send him a shower of round stones, to defeat the Ligurian army with. This stony plain was a good ground for mythological figments. (The following passages of ancient suthors refer to this plain: Mela, ii. 5; Plin. iii. 4, xxi. 10; Gellius. ii. 22, and Seneca, Nat. Quaest. v. 17, who speak of the violent wind in this part of Gallia; and Dionys. Halicum. i. 41, who quotes part of the passage from lilt' Prometheus Unbowul.)

This plain of stones probably owes its origin to the floods of the Rhone and the Durance, at some remote epoch when the lower part, of the delta of the Rhone was covered by the sea. [G-L-l

LA'PITHAE (Amrlflat), a mythical race in This— saly- See Diet. of Baby. and Myth. Vol.11. p. 75“

LAPITHAEUM. [Lit-om, p- “3.1-1

LAPITHAS. [Et.ts. p. 817, b.]

LAl‘l‘A, LAMPA (Alina, Ptol. iii. 17. § 10; Italy-1m, Admrtu, Hierocl. ; Adorn, Steph. 11.: El}!Aamaios, Am'l'aior), an inland town of Crew '"h a district extending from sea to sea (Scylfl. P 18h and possessing the port Phoenix. (Strab.x.p.475_.) Although the two forms of this city's name occur In ancient authors, yet on coins and in inscriptionstln word Lapps is alone found. Stt-plianns of Bymntmm shows plainly that the two nnmes denote the some place, when he says that Xenion, in his Creticn, ""019 the word anpa, and not Lamps. The same author (s. v. Adorn) says that it was founded by Agsmemnon, and was called after one Lampos, a 'l‘arrhsesn; the interpretation of which seems to be thut tt WIS a colony of Ton-ha. ,

When Lyctus had been destroyed by the Cnossuws. its citizens found refuge with the people of Mill‘8 (l’olyh. iv. 53). After the submission of C.“th C nossus, Lyctus, and Eleutherna, to the arm of Ali“ tellns, the Romans advanced against anpa, which was taken by storm, and appears to have been alum“ entirely destroyed. (Dion Cass. xxxvi. 1.) Allgus‘ ton, in consideration of the aid rendered to hood” the anpoeans in his struggle with “Miamis bestowed on them their freedom. and also restored their city. (Dion Cass. 1i. 2.) When Christianity was established. Lappa became an episcopal sec ; the name of its bishop is recorded as present at. the Synod of Ephesus. AJ). 431, and the Council of Cluilcedcn, A. n. 451, as well as on many other subsequent occasions. (Cornelius, Creta. Sacra, vol. i. pp. 25L 252.)


Lappa was 32 Ml". from Elenthema and 9 M.P. from Cisainus, the port of Aptem (Peat. Tab.); distances which agree very well with Po'h's, the modern representative of this famous city, where Mr. thley (Ti-(web, vol. i. p. 83) found considerable rcmnins of a massive brick edifice, with buttresses 15 feet wide and of 9 feet projection ; a circular building, 60 feet. diameter, with niches round it I 1 feet wide : a cistern, 76 ft. by 20 ft.; 3 Roman brick building. and several tombs cut in the rock. (Comp. Mus. Class. Anliq vol. ii. p. 293.) One ofthe inscriptions relating to this city mentions a certain Marcus Aurelius Clesippus, in whose honour the I.nppacana erected in statue. (Gruter, p. 1091; Chishull, Antt'q. Ariat. p. 122; Mahillon, Mus. Ital. p. 33; B‘ockh, C017). Jase-r. Gr. vol. ii. p. 428.)

The head of its benefactor Augustus is exhibited on the coins of Imppu : one has the epigmph, BEE KAIZAPI IEBAETI); others of Domitian and Commodus are found. (Hardnuin, Num. Antiqpp 93, 94 ; ilionnet, rol. ii. p. 286 ; Supplém. vol. iv. p. 326 ; Ruchc, VUI. ii. pl. ii. p. 1493.) On the autonomous coins of Lappa. from which Spanheim supposed the city to have P)>Si'§$t§(l the right of asylnmdike the Grecian cities enumerated in Tacitus, see Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 315. The maritime symbols on the coins of Lappa are accounted for by the extension of its territory to both shores, and the possession of the port of Phoenix. [I'L B. l]

LAPURDUM, in Gullin. This place is only mentioned in the Notitia of the Empire, which fixes it in Novempopnlana; but there is neither any historical notice nor any Itinerary measurement to determine its podtion. D'Aurille, who assumes it to be represented by Bayonne, on the river Adour, says that the name of Bayonne succeeded to that of anurdum, and the country contained between the .4de and the Bidasoa has retained the name of LawaIt is Slld that the bishopric of Bog/0mm is not mentioned before the tenth century. The name Bayonne ll Basque, and means “port.” It seems probable that Lupurdum may have been on the site of Bayonne; but it I: not certain.


LARANDA (rd Atipawda: Elk. Aupavbelir, f. ,Aflptwdiy; Larenda or Kamman). one of the most. Important towns of Lycuonia, 400 studio. to the south-east of Iconium. Stmbo (xii. p.569) states that the town belonged to Antipnter of Derbe, which Showg that for .1 time it was govemcd by native princes. Reflpccting its history in antiquity scarcely anything is known beyond the fact that it was taken It." Storm, and destroyed by Perdiccas (Diod. xviii. 22); that it was afterwards rebuilt, and on account of the fertility of its neighbourhood became one of the chief seats of the Isaurian pirates. (Amm. Mil"!- XiV. 2; comp. Steph. B. a. 0.; I’tol. v. 6. in; nimt. I. 675; Ewe. 11111.5ch vi. 19.) huidaa (I. u.) say: that Lumnda was the birthplace of Nestor. an epic poet, and father of Pisnnder, a poet of still greater celebrity; but; when he calls the former Await" be Amt-tug, he probably mistook Llcil for Lymonia. Lenka (Ar. Min. p. [00)


shttca thnt he found no Greek remains at Laranda nor are there any coins belonging to the place. The ancient name, Larcmla, is still in common use among the Christians, and is even retained in the firmans of the Porto; but its more general name, Karanum, is derived from a Turkish chief of the same name; for it was at one time the capital of a Turkish kingdom, which lasted from the time of the partition of the dominion of the Seljukinn monarchs of Iconium until 1486, when it was conquered by the emperor Baynzid 11. At present the town is but a poor place, with some manufactures of course cotton and Woollen stuffs. “cape-cling a town in Cappadocia, called by some Laranda, see the article Lnnnms. [L 5.] LAKES (Sail. Jug. 90, where Lari-v is the ace. pl.: Afipns, Ptol. iv. 3. §28: the abl. form LARIBL'S is given, not only. us is so usual, in the ltin. Ant. p. 26, and the Tab. Peat, but alm by Angustine, adv. Donut. vi. 20; and that this ablative was used for the nominative, as is common in the Romance languages. is shown by the Greek form Adpignr. Prooop. B. V. ii. 23, whence came at once the modern name, Lorbuu or Lorbm). An important. city of Numidia, mentioned in the Jngurthine War as the place chosen by Marius for his stores and military chest. (Sall.Jug. 1.0.) Under the Rmnum it became a colony, and belonged to the province of Africa and the district of Bymcena. Ptolemy places it much too far west. It lay to the E. of the Bagrndns, on the road from Carthage to Thevcste, 63 M. I’. from the latter. In the later period of the Empire it had decayed. (Pellissier, Explomtion SCIUHWM 11: FA Iy/érie, vol. vi. p. 375.) [I'. 5.] LAHGA, in Gallia, is placed by the Anton. ltin. between the two known positions of lilptunanduodurum (Marathon) and Mons Brisiacus (View: Brisach). The distance from Epamanduoduruln to Largo is 24 M. l’. in the ltin., and in the Table 16 Gallic leagues, which is the same thing. Larpa is Largitam, on or near the Larg'ues, in the French department of Ilrmt Min and in the neighbourhood of Altleirch. I‘IPAMANDUODURUMJ [G. L] LA'RICA (Aapunf, Ptol. vii. l. 4, 62), R rich commercial diatrict on the extreme of India, described by Ptolemy as being between Syrastrene and Arise; and having for its chief town Barygm (Beroaclt), the emporium of all the surrounding country. It must, therefore, have comprehended considerable part of Gazer-at, and some of the main land of India, between the gulf of Barygaza and the Namtulus or Nerlnulda. Ptolemy considered Larice to have been part of Indo-Scythia (vii. I. § 62), the Scythian tribes having in his day reached the sea mast in that part of India. LARI'NUM (Adpwov,Ptol.; Adpwn, Steph. IL: Elk. AGPIVGJbI, Steph. 3.; but Anpr-ris, Pol.; Lorilit13, -itis : Larino Veccln'a). a considerable city in the northern port of Apulia, situated about I4 miles from the sea. a little to the S. of the river Tifernus. There is much discrepancy among ancient authorities, as to whether Larinurn with its territory, extending from the river Freuto to the Tifernns, belonged properly to Apulin. or to the land of the Frentani. Ptolemy di>tinctly assigns it to the latter people; and Pliny also, in one passage, speaks of the “ Lnrinatea cognomine Frcntuni :" but at the some time he distinctly places Larinurn in Apuliu, and not in the “regio Frentuna," which. according to him,hegins only from the Tifemus. Mela takes the same view, while Strabo, strangely enough, omits n11 mention of Larinmn. (i’tol. iii. 1. § 65; Plin. iii. 11. 5. l6; Mel. ii. 4. § 6.) Caesar, on the other hand, distinguishes the territory of Larinum both from that of the l-‘rentani and from Apulia (“per fines Marrucinorum, Frentanorum, Larinatinm, in Apuliam pervenit," B. (.7. i. 23). Livy uses almost exactly the same expressions (xxvii. 43); and this appears to be the real solution. or rather the oi' the difiiculty, that the Larinates long formed an independent community, Inoscssing a territory of considerable extent, which was afterwards regarded by the geographers as connected with that of their northern or southern neighbours, according to their own judgment. It was included by Augustus in the Second Region of Italy, of which he made the Tifcrnus the boundary, and thus came to he naturally considemd as an appurtenance of Apulia: but the boundary would seem to have been subsequently changed. for the Liber Coloniarum includes Larinum among the “ Civitates Regiunis Samnii," to which the Frentani also were attached. (Lib. Colon. p. 260.)

Of the early history of Larinum we have scarcely any information. Its name is not even once mentioned during the long continued wars of the Romans and Samnites, in which the neighbouring Luceria figures so conspicuously. Hence we may probably infer that it was at this period on friendly term with Rome, and was one of those Italian states that passai gradually and almost imperceptibly from the condition of allics into that of dependents, and ultimately subjects of Rome. During the Second l’unic War, on the other hand, the territory of Lsrinum became repeatedly the scene of operations of the Roman and Carthaginian armies. Thus in no. 217 it was at Gerunium, in the immediate neighbourhood of Larinum, that Hannibal took up his winter-quarters, while Fahius established his camp at Caleln to watch him; and it was here that the engagement took place in which the rushness of Minucius had no nearly involved the Roman army in defeat. (Pol. iii. 101; Liv. xxii. 18, 24, 8:0.) Again, in 8.6. 207, it was on the borders of the same territory that Hannibal's army was attacked on its march by the praetor Hostilius, and outlined severe loss (Liv. xxvii. 40); and shortly after it is again mentioned as being traversed by the consul Claudius on his memorable march to the Metaurua. (lbéd. 43; Sil. Ital. xv. 565.) In the Social War it appears that the Larinates must have joined with the Frentsni in taking up arms against Rome, as their territory was ravaged in B. c. 89 by the praetor C. Cosconius, after his victory over Trebatius near Canusium. (Appinn, B. C. i. 52.) During the civil wars of Caesar and Pompey, the territory of Larinum was traversed by the former general on his advance to Brundusium (Cries. B. C. i. 23). Pompey seems to have at one time made it his head-quarters in Apulia, but abandoned it on learning the disaster of Domitius at Corfinium. (Cic. ml All. vii. 12, 13. b.)

From the repeated mention during these military operations of the territory of Larinnm, while none occurs of the city itself, it would appear that the latter could not have been situated on the high road, which probably passed through the plain below it. But it is evident from the oration of Cicero in defence of A. Cluentius, who was a native of Larinum, that it was in his day a flourishing and considerable municipal town, with its local magistrates, senate, public archives, forum, and all the other appnnenauces of muniiipnl government. (Cic. pro Cluent.


5, 8, 13, 15, 8w.) We learn from the Liber Co loniarum that it received a colony under Cesar (Lego Julia, Lib. Colon. p. 260): but it appoint from inscriptions that it continued to retain its municipal rank under the Roman Empire. (Onll. Inocr. I42; Mommscn, Imor. chn. Neap. pp 272. 278.) The existing remains sufliciemly prove that it must have been a large and populous town; but no mention of it is found in history after the Close of the Roman Republic. Its name is found in the Itineraries in the fourth century (Itin. Ant. p. 314, where it is corruptly written Armio; Tab. Peat); and there is no remain to suppose that it ever ceased to exist, as we find it already noticed as an episcopal see in the seventh century. In A. D. 842 it was ravaged by the Saracens, and it was in consequence of this calamity that the inhabitants appear to have abandoned the ancient site, and founded the modern city of Lat-inn, a little less than a mile to the W. of the ancient one. The ruins of the lattcr, now called Lorine Veccbio, 0ccnpy a considerable space on the summit of a hill called ilfonlerone, about three miles S. of the BL ferno ('I'ifcrnus): there remain some portions of the ancient walls, as well as of one of the gates; the ruins of an amphitheatre of considerable extent, and those of a. building, commonly mlled 1! P0111220. which appeam to have stood in the centre of the town, adjoining the ancient forum, and may probably have llPl'll the Curio or senate-house. (Tris, Memorie dt' Larina, i. 10.)

The territory of Larinum seems to have originally extended from the river Tifernus to the Frenlo (I‘ortore), and to have included the whole tract between those rivers to the sea. The town of Cliternia, which was situated within these limits, is expressly called by Pliny a dependency of Larinum (“ Larinatum Clitcrnia,” Plin. iii. 11. s. 16); and Teanum, which is placed by him to the N. of lile I-‘rento, was certainly situated on its right bankllence it is probable that the municipal territory of Larinum under the Roman govemmcnt still comprised the whole tract between the two rivers. Th8 'l‘abula places Larinum eighteen miles from Tcanum in Apulia, and this distance is continued hi all 9" press statement of Cicero. (Tab. Pent; Cic. pro Clnent. 9.)

There exist numerous coins of Larinum, with the inscription Lamxon in Roman letters. From this last circumstance they cannot. be referred to a very early period, and are certainly not older than the Roman conquest. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 107: Mnmm‘ sen, Rom. Mamet, p. 335.) [a 11.13.]

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