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§ 1). or of Piasus, a Pelasgiau prince. (Strab. xiv. .621.)

P 1. An important town of Thessaly, the capital of the district Pelasgiotis, was situated in a fertile plain open a gently rising ground, on the right or south bank of the Peneius. It had a strongly fortified citadel. (Died. xv. 61.) Larissa is not. mentioned by Homer. Some commentators, however, suppose it to be the same as the Pelasgio Argos of Homer ([1. ii. 681), but the latter was the name of a district rather than of a town. Others, with more probability, identify it with the Argissa of the poet. (IIv ii. 738.) [See vol. I. p. 209.] in foundation was ascribed to Acrisius. (Steph. B. s. v.) The plain of Larissa was formerly inhabited by the Perrhaebi, who were partly expelled by the Larissaenns, and partly reduced to subjection. They continued subject toLarisso, till l'hilip made himself master of Thessaly. (Strab. ix. p. 440.) The constitution of Larissa was democratical (Aristnt. Pol. v. 6), and this was probably one reason why the Larissaeans were allies of the Athenians during the Peloponnesian War. (Thuc. ii. 22.) During the Roman wars in Greece, Larissa is frequently mentioned as a place of importance. It was here that Philip, the son of Demetrius, kept all his royal paper-s during his campaign against Flamininns in Greece; but after the battle of Cynoscephalae, in u. c. 197, he was obliged to abandon Larissa to the Romans, having previously destroyed these documents. (Polyb. xviii. 16.) It was still in the hands of the Romans when Antiochus crossed over into Greece, is. c. 19], and this king made an ineffectual attempt upon the town. (Liv. xxxvi. 10.) In the time of Strnbo Larissa toutinued to be a flourishing town (ix. p. 430). It is mentioned by Hieioeles in the sixth century as the first town in Thessaly (p. 642. ed. \Vessel) It is still a considerable place, the residence of an archbishop and a pasha, and containing 30,000 inhabit‘ ants. It continues to bear its ancient name, though the Turks call it Yem'lhehe'r, which is its official lppellntion. Its circumference is less than three lilllt'tl. Like other towns in Greece, which have been continually inhabited, it presean few remains of Hellenic times. They are chiefly found in the Turkish "mteries, consisting of plain quadrangular stones, il'lgrnents of columns, mostly fluted. and a great number of ancient cippi and sepulchral stelae, which now serve for Turkish tombstones. (Leaks, Nor-(1k "I Greece, vol. 1. p. 439, seq.)

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more celebrated Larissa, situated in a plain. Strabo also dmribes it as well watered and producing vines (ix. p. 440). The same writer adds that it was surnamed Pclasgia as well as Cremaste (I. c.). From its being situated in the dominions of Achilles, none writers suppose that the Roman poets give this hero the surname of Larissaeus, but this epithet is perhaps used generally for Thessalian. Larissa Cromaste was occupied by Demetrius I’olioroetes in B. c. 302, when he was at war with Cassander. (Diod. xx. 110.) It was taken by Apostius in the first war between the Romans and Philip, B c. 200 (Liv. xxxi. 46), and again fell into the hands of the Romans in the war with Perseus, n. c. 171. (Liv. xlii. 56, 57.) The ruins of the ancient city are situated upon a steep hill, in the valley of Gardhiki'. at a direct distance of five or six miles from Khamo'l'o. The walls are very conspicuous on the western side of the hill, where several coursm of masonry remain. Gell says that there are the fragments of a Dorie temple upon the acropolis, but. of these Leakc makes no mention. (Gell, Itinerary of Greece, p. 252; Dodwell, Travels, vol. ii. p. 81; Leake, Northern Gncce, vol. iv. p. 347.)

3. The citadel of Argos. [\‘ol. I. p. 202.]

LARISSA (Adpwrm). l. A town in the territory of Ephesus, on the north bank of the City‘strus, which there flows through a most. fertile district, producing an excellent kind of wine. It was situated at a distance of 180 stadin front Ephesus, and 30 from Trailes. (Strab. ix. p. 440, xiii. p. 620.) In Strubo's time it had sunk to the rank nfa village, but it was said once to have been a adios, with a temple of Apollo. Crmner (As. Min. i. p. 558) conjectures that. its site may correspond to the modern Tirieh.

2. A place on the coast of Troas, about 70 stadia south of Alexandria Trons, and north of Haitiaxitus. It was supposed that this Larissa was the one mentioned by Homer (ll. ii. 841), but Strabo (xiii. p. 620) controverts this opinion, because it. is not far enough from Troy. (Comp. Steph. B. a. v.) The town is mentioned as still existing by Thu cydides (viii. 101) and Xenophon (Hellen. iii I. § 13; oomp. Scylnx, p. 36; Strab. ix. p. 440, xiii. p. 604). Athenaeus (ii. p. 43) mentions some hot springs near Larissa in Trons, which are still known to exist a little above the site of Alexandria Trans. ( Voyage Pittoreaque, rol. ii. p. 438.)

3. Larissa, snrnumed l’unicoxrs, a Pelasgiar town in Aeolis, but. subsequently taken possession of by the Aeohans, who constituted it one of the towns of their confederacy. It was situated near the coast, about 70 stadia. to the south-east of Cynte (1‘; "pl Thu Kiiimv, Stmb. xiii. p. 621; Herod. i. 149). Strnho, apparently for good reasons, considers this to be the Larissa. mentioned in the Iliad (ii. 840). Xenophon (Hellen. iii. 1. §7, comp. Cyrop. vii. 1. § 45) distinguishes this town from other: of the same name by the epithet of “the Egyptian," because the elder Cyrus had established there a colony of Egyptian soldiers. From the same historian we must infer that Larissa was a place of considerable strength, as it was besieged in vain by Thimhrom; but: in Strobo‘s time the place was deserted. (Comp. Plin. v. 32; Veil. Put. i. 4; Vit. Horn. c. 11; Steph. B. $0.; Ptol. v. 2. ' 5.) L. S ]

LARISSA (Aliptuam, Xen. Anab. iii. 4. § 7), I town of Assyria, at no great distance from the left bank of the Tigris, observed by Xenophon on the retreat of the Ten Thousand Greeks. It appears to have been situated a little to the north of the junction of the Lycus (Zdb) and the Tigris. Xenophon describes it as a deserted city, formerly built by the Medea, with a. wall 25 feet broad, and 100 high, and extending in circumference two purzunngs. The wall itself was constructed of bricks, but bad a foundation of stone, 20 feet in height (probably is causing in stone over the lower portion of the bricks). He adds, that when the Persians conquered the Medes, they were not at first able to take this city, but at last captured it, during a dense fog. Adjoining the town was a pyramid of stone, one plethron broad, and two plethra in height. It has been conjectured that this was the site of the city of Resen, mentioned in Genesis (x. 12); and there can be little doubt, that "19th ruins represent those of Nimriid, now so well known by the excavations which Mr. Layanl has conducted. [v.1

LARISSA (Aa'prooa), a city of Syria. placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotis, in which Antioch was situated (v. 15. 16). but pmbably identical with the place of the same name which, according to Strabo, was reckoned to Apsmia (xvi. p. 572). and which is placed in the Itinerary of Antoninus 16 M. 1’. from Apamia, on the road to Emesn. D’Anville identifies it with the m0dern Kulaat Shyznr, on the left bank of the Orontes, between Howrah and Kalaat el-rlledy/c or Apnmia. [G. W.]

LARISSUS or LARISUS, a river of Achaia. [VoL I. p. l4, 21.]

LA'RIUS LACUS Aa'pios Alum),- Lago dg' Como), one of the largest of the great lakes of Northern Italy, situated nt the foot of the Alps, and formed by the river Addua. (Strab. iv. p. 192; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) It is of a peculiar form, long and narrow, but divided in its southern portion into two great arms or branches, forming a kind of fork. The SW. of these, at the extremity of which is situated the city of Como, has no natural outlet; the Addun, which carries all the superfluous waters of the lake, flowing from its SE. extremity, where stands the modem town of Lecco. Virgil, where he is speaking of the great lakes of Northern Italy, gives to the Larius the epithet of “maximmfl (Gem-g. ii. 159); and Servius, in his note on the passage, tells us that, according to Cato, it was 60 miles long. This estimate, though greatly overrated, seems to have acquired a sort of 1m. ditionary authority: it is repeated by Cassiodorus (Var. Ep. xi. 14), and even in the Itinerary of Antoniniis (p. 278), and is at the present day still a prevalent notion among the boatmen on the hike. The real distance from Como to the head of the lake does not exceed 27 Italian, or 34 Roman miles, to which five or six more may be adde for the distance by water to Rico, the Lago di Riva being often regarded as only a portion of the larger lnke. Strobe, therefore, is not far from the truth in estimating the Larius as 300 stadiu (37; Roman miles) in length, and 30 in breadth. (Strnb. iv. p_ 209.) But it. is only in a few places that it at. tains this width; and, owing to its inferior breadth, it is really much smaller than the Benacns (Logo ,1; Gard“) or Verbanus (Logo Moggiore). 1m waters are of great depth, and surrounded on all sides by high mountains, rising in many places very abruptly from the shore: notwithstanding which their lower slopes were clothed in ancient times, as they still are at the present day, with rich groves


of olives, and afforded space for numenius villa; Among these the most celebrated are those of lllt’! younger I’liny, who was himself a native of Column, and whose paternal estate was situated on tho hunks of the lake, of which last he always speaks with affection :Ls “ Larius noster." (lip. ii. 8, vi. 24, vii. 11.) But, besides this, he had two villa ot' a more ornamental character, of which he gives some account in his letters (Hp. ix. 7): the one situated on a lofty promontory projecting out into the waters of the lake, over which it commanded a very extensive prospect, the other close to the water‘s edge. The description of the former would suit well with the site of the modern Villa Serbellom' near Bellagyio; but there are not sufliuicnt grounds upon whidi to identify it. The name'of Van J‘lim'amt is given at the present day to a villa about a mile beyond the village of Torno (on the right side of the lake going from Como), where there is a remarkable intermittng spring. which is also described by Pliny (Epiv. 30) ; but there is no reason to suppose that this was the site of either of his villas. Cluudiln briefly churactenses the scenery of the Lnrius Lacus in a few lines (B. Get. 319—322); and Cassiodonxs give! an elaborate, but very accurate, description of its beauties. The immediate banks of the lake Wm adorned with villus or palaces (praetnria), above which spread, as it were, a girdle of olive woods; over these again were vineyards, climbing up the sides of the mountains, the bare and rocky summits of which rose above the thick cliesnuhwouds that encircled them. Streams of water fell into the lake on all sides, in cascades of snowy whiteness. (Cw siod. Var. xi. 14.) It would be difficult to describe more correctly the present. aspect of the Labs 0f Como, the beautiful scenery of Whivll it ill“ theme of admiration of all modern travellers.

Cassiodorus repeats the tale told by the elilfl‘ Pliny, that the course of the Addua could be traced throughout the length of the lake. with which liflld not mix its waters. (Plin. ii. 10;). s. 106; Cam!I. c.) The same fable is told of the Lions Lemon— nus, or Lake of Geneva, and of many other lakes formed in a similar manner by the stagnation of 0large river, which enters them at one end and flows out at the other. It is remarkable that we have no trace of an ancient town as existing on the site of the modern Lecco, where the Addua issues fruilillle lake. We learn, from the Itinerary of Antonio“! (p_ 278). that the usual course in proceeding fmm Curie over the Rlineliun Alps to IVIBleIBIIUlflv W“ to take boat at the head of the lake and procccdb.v water to Comum. This was the route by which Slillcho is represented by Claudisu as pus-eede across the Alps (.8. Get. 1. 0.); and Cussiodofllfi speaks of Comum as a place of great trafiic of travellers (l. c.) In the latter ages of the Roma" empire, a fleet was maintained upon the lake: El'c head-quarters of which were at Coinum. (ML Dign. ii. p. 118.)

The name of Locus Larius seems to have W" curly superseded in common usage by that of LAC'TS COMACINUS, which is already found in theltinerary» as well as in Paulus Diaoonus, although the letter nuthor uses also the more classical appellation(Hi0. Ant. 1. c.; P. our. 11m v. as, 39.) [ii-H-B-l

LARIX or LAllICE, a place on the southern frontier of Noricum, at the foot of the Jilllttll Alps, and on the road from Aquileia to Lauriscum. The town seems to have owed its name to the forests of larch trees which abound in that distrifl, and its hilt must be loolrcd for bctn'ecn Erin and Kroinburg, in lllyricam. (It. Ant. p. 276; comp. hluchar, Noricool, p. 247.) [L. 3.]


LARNUM (Tordem), a small coast river in the territory of the LAEETANI, in Hispanis Tarra~ conensis, falling into the sea between Iluro and Blauda. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4.) It has been inferred that there was a town of the same name on the river, from Pliny’s mention of the Lausnssrzs in the oonventns of Caesaruugusta: bu‘. it is plain that the Lse'c'tani belonged to the conventus of Tarraco. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 456, assigns these Lame-uses to the Arcvaczw.) [P. 8.]


LARYMNA (Adpvnva), the name of two towns in Boeolia, on the river Cephissus, distinguished as Upper and Lower Larymna. (Strab. ix. pp. 405. 406.) Strabo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at the Upper Larymna, and joined the sea at the Lower Larymua; and that Upper Larymna hnd belonged to Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Lsrymna by the Rouians Upper Larymna belonged originally to tho Opunlian Locris. and Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax O'ilcus. (Lycophr. 1146.) Paussnias also states, that it was originally Locrian; and he adds, that it voluntarily joined the Boeotians on the increase of the power of the Thebaos. (Pans. ix. 23. § 7.) This, however, probably did not take

place in the time of Epaminondas, as Scyth. Who “"81 subsequently, still calls it n Locrian town (ll 93)- Uln'chs conjectures that it joined the lloeotian league st‘zer Thebes had been rebuilt by Cassander. in no. 230, Larymnn is described as a limotian town (Polyb. xx. 5, where Adpv/avav should he mud instead of Aegpu'vav); and in the glut of Soils it is again spoken of as a Bocotinn


We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Lurymna, situated at a spot, called Anchoe by Strnho, where the Cephissos emerged from its subterranan channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Lrl'mnfl had a port upon the coast, which gradually m into importance, especially from the time “hm Lsrymn- joined the Boeotian League, as its l'lfrt then became the most convenient communication "1111 the eastern sea for Lebadeia, Chacroncia, Orthmmwv Cflpse, and other Boeotian towns. The norm was called, from its position. Lower lMyml'ln, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may also have been called more espeflllly the Bocotian Larymna, as it became the seaP011 Or so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymns, tbouléh it had joined the Boeotian League, continued 19 frequently called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris. When the Romans halted Upper Larymna w Lower Larymnn, the illhohitants of the fomer place were PFObflbly “any fen'ed to the latter; and Upper Lorymna was thccfoxth abandoned. This accounts for Pausunias mentioning only one Lnrymna, which must have hen the Lower city; for it' he had visited Upper 14‘7"“. he could hardly have failed to mention the uni-scary of the Cephissus at this spot. Moreml'. the rains at Lower Larymna show that it bemm H place of much more importance than Upper homo These ruins, which are called Kusn-i, like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the B‘j‘y Q/ Luv-mu, on 3 level covered with bushes, tcn millle to the left of the mouth of the Cepbissus.

VOL. u.


The circuit of the walls is less than a mile. The annexed plan of the remains is taken from Leslie.

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1. A small port, unclently closed in the manner here ill-scrum.

‘1. The (0'11 IR". traceable all around.

3. Another wall along the lea. likewllo traceable.

4. A mole. in the sea.

5. Various ancient foundation: in the tower and acro

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6. A Some. 7. Glyflmerd, or Salt Source. a. An oblong foundation of an ancient bulldlng.

Leake adds, that the walls, which in one place

are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone, very much 00le by the sea air, and in some places are constructed of rough masses. The same is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, and stands in its original place upon the rocks: there was an inscription upon it, and some ornaments of sculpture, which are now quite defaced. The Gig/onero' is a small deep pool of water, impregnated with salt, and is considered by the peasants as sacred water, because it is cathartic. The sea in the bay south of the ruins is very deep; and hence we ought probably to read in Pausaniss (ix. 23. § 7), high 84 colon! do'rlv d-yXiGnOiu, instead of Mom, since there is no land-lake at this place. The ruins of Upper Lnrymna lie at Hazard/vi. on the right bank of the Cephissns, at the place where it issues from (Leaks, Northern Greece, Vol. ii. p. 287. leq.; Ulrichs, Reisen in Griechenland, p. 229, seq.)

its subterranean channel.

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Stcph. B. s. 11.: EM. Adm), one of the most. ancient towns of Lsconia, situated upon the western coast of the Laconinn gulf. it is the only town on the coast. mentioned by Scylax (p. 17) between Tuenarus and Gythiuln. but, according to Pansanias, the town itself was distant 10 stndin from the lea, and 40 stadiu from Gytllium. (l‘aus. iii. 24. §6.) In the time of Pausnniss the town lay in a hollow between the three mountains, Asia, llium, and Cnaczuliuni; but the old town stood on the summit. of Mt. Asia. The name of Las signified the rock on which it originally stood. It is mentioned by llomcr (ll, ii,

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585), and is said to have been destroyed by tho Dioscuri, who hence derived the surname of anersac. (Strab. viii. p. 364; Stcph. B. on. A5.) There was also a mountain in Laconin callcd Lapcrso. (Steph. B. Lu. Aare'po'a.) In the later period it was a place of no importance. Livy speaks of it as “ \‘iCus maritimus" (xxxviii. 30), and Pans-maids mentions the ruins of the city on Mt. Asia. Before the walls he saw a statue of Hercules, and a trophy erected over the Macedonians who Were a part of Philips army when he invaded Loconin; and among the ruins he noticed a statue of Athena Asia. The modern town was near a fountain called Galaoo (Faltaxui), from the milky colour of its water, and near it was a gymnasium, in which stood an ancient statue of Hermes. Besides the ruins of the old town on Mt. Asia, there were also buildings on the two other mountains mentioned above : on Mt. Ilium stood a temple of Dionysus, and on the summit a temple of Asclepius; and on Mt. Cnncndium a temple of Apollo Carneius.

Les is spoken of by Polyhius (v. 19) and Strabo (viii. p. 363) under the name of Asine; and hence it has been an posed that some of the fugitives from Asine in Argolis may have settled at Les, and given their name to the town. But, notwithstanding the statement of Polybius, from whom Straho probably copied, we have given reasons elsewhere for believing that there was no Laconian town called Asine ; and that the mistake probably arose from conthunding “Asine” with “ Asia," on which hits originally stood. [Arile No. 3.]

Les stood upon the hill of Prusava', which is now crowned by the ruins of a fortress of the middle ages, among which, however, Lcake noticed, at the aonthcm end of the eastern wall, a piece of Hellenic well, about 50 paces in length, and two-thirds of the height of the modern wall. it is formed of polygonal blocks of stone, some four feet long and three broad. The fountain Gnlnco is the stream Turkdm-yaa, which rises between the hill of Pa;savd and the village of Kdrvela, the latter being one mile and a half west of Pasaomi. (Lenke, Moron, vol. i. p. 254, seq., p. 276, amp; Pelnponneaiaca, p. 150; Boblaye, Re'clwrclm, 4-0. p. 87; Curtina, Peloponnuol, vol. ii. p. 273, seq.)

LASAEA (Aazralu), a city in Crete, near the roadstend of the “ Fair Havana.” (Acts, xxvii. 8.) This place is not mentioned by any other writer, but is probably the same as the Lisin of the Puntinger Tables, 16 M. P. to the E. of Gortyna. (Comp. Hiiclt, Kreta, vol. i. pp. 412, 439.) Some MSS. have Lam; others, Alasss. The Vulgate reads Thalasaa, which Bern contended was the true name. (Comp. Coneyheart; and Howson, Li a and Epist. of 5?. Paid, vol. ii. p. 830.) [E]. B. J.]

LA'SION (Amn’uv or Aama’w), the chief town of the mountainous district of Acroreia in Elia proper, was situated upon the frontiers of Arcadia near Psophis. Curtius places it with great- pmhahility in the upper valley of tho Lodon, at the Paleokagpm of Kiimam', on the road from the Eleian Pylos and Ephyra to Psophis. Lesion was a frequent object of dispute between the Arcadinns and Eleians, both of whom laid claim to it. In the war which the Span. tans carried on aqainst Elis at the close of the Poloponnesian War, l’ausunian, king of Span-tn, took Lu. Sim; (Died. xiv. 17). The invesion of l’ausnnius is not mentioned by Xenophon in his account of this wnr; but the hitter author relates that, by tho twnty of peace concluded between Elie and Sports in 0.0.

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of the loralitim. Thus the laborious, but often most inrweurate, compiler Fnrhiger, while taking on himself tnmrrect Stmbo's exact- account, tells us that. “ the river and lake (Strubo's harbour) have now entirely vanished ;" and yet, a few lines down, he refers to a passage of Beechey‘s work within a very few pages of the place where the river itself is actually described! (Forbiger, Hamfiucll tier altcn Geographic, vol. ii. p 828, note.)

The mearchm made in Bccchey’s expedition give the following results :—Esst. of the headland on which stands the ruins of llesperides or Berenioe (now Reagan) is a small lake, which communicates with the harbour of the city, and has its water of course salt. The water of the lake varies greatly in quantity, according to the season of the year; and is nearly dried up in summer. There are strong grounds to believe that its waters were more abundant, and its communication with the harbour more perfect, in ancient times than at present. On the margin of the hke is a spot of rising ground, nearly insulated in winter, on which are the remains of ancient buildings. East of this lake again, and only a few yards from its ill-"Kin, lhnre gushes forth an abundant spring of fresh water, which empties itfelf into the lake, “ running along a channel of inconsidernble breadth, bordered with reeds and rushes,” and “ might be mistaken by a common observer for an inrond of the lake into the sandy soil which bounds it.” Moreover, this is the only stream which empties itself into the lake ; lnd indeed the only one found on that part of the wt of Cyrenaica. Now, even without searching further, it is evident how well all this answers to the dmriptiou of Strsbo (xvii. p. 836) :—“ There is u promontory called Pseudopenins, on which Berenice is illufltod, beside a certain Lake of T ritom's (wupd Mimi" fwd Torrmvtdbc), in which there is generally (Wrfl‘ru) I. little island, and a temple of Aphrodite upon it: but there is (or it is) also the Harbour Qf Inflpm'da, and the river Lathon falls into it." It is now evident how much the sense of the description would be impsired by reading Aim for Alum! in lite last clause; and it matters but little whether 5min 81mins ofthe river as falling into the harbour ll‘f’nuse it fell into the lake which communicated vnth the harbour, or whether he means that the lake, wllich he calls that of Triwnis, was actually the harbour (that is, an inner harbour) of the city. But the little stream which falls into the lake is not the only "presentative of the river Lathon. Further to the fat, in one of the subterranean caves which abound In the neighbourhood of Banged, Benchy found a “'29 body of fresh water, losing itself in the bowels of the earth ; and the Bey of Bengali uflirmed that be 114 tracked its subtemneous course till he doubted the safety of proceeding further, and that be had found it as much Is 80 feet deep. That the stream "I"! lost in the earth is the same which reappears in 'h' swing on the margin of the lake, is extremely Millet but whether it be so in fact, or not, we fill hardly doubt that the ancient Greeks would {mlglne the connection to exist. (Beechey, Proceed"9'745‘. pp. 326, ML; Barth, quierlmgen, tj-c. p. 387. [P S

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ditionn, which, with the definite article cl prefixed, is as accurately Npl'fisr‘ntul by Lithrippn as the Greek alphabet would admit. “Medinch is situated on the edge of the great Arabian dmcrt. close to the chain of mountains which traverses that country from north to south,and is a continuation of Libanon. The great plain of Arabia in which it lies is considerably elevated above the level of the sea. It is ten or eleven days distant from Mel-kn, and has been always considered the principal fortress of the Iledjaz, being surrounded with a stone wall. It is one of the brat-built towns in the East, ranking in this respect next to Aleppo, though mined houses and walls in all parts of the town indicate how far it has fallen from its ancient splendour. It is surrounded 0n three sides with gardens and plantations, which, on the east and south, extend to the distance of six or eight miles. Its population amounts to 16,000 or 20,000— 10,000 or 12,000 in the town, the remainder in the suburbs." (Burckhardt, A mbia, 321-400 ; Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. i. p. 15, ii. pp. 149, &c.) [G. W.]

LATlUM (i, Au'rlwl: E211. and Ali. Latinos), was the name given by the Romans to a district or region of Central Italy, situated on the Tyrrhcninn sea, between Etruriu and Campunin.

1. NAME.

There can be little doubt that Latinm mount originally the land of the LA'rtm, and that. in this, as in almost all other cases in ancient history, the name of the people preceded, instead of being,r derived from, that of the country. But the lncient Roman writers, with their usual infelicity in all matters of etymology, derived the name of the Latini from a king of the name of Latinus, while they sought for another origin for the name of Latium. The common etymology (to which they were obvioust led by the quantity of the first syllable) was that which derived it from “ intern" and the usual explanation was, that it was so called because Saturn had thcrc Iain hid from the pursuit of Jupiter. (Virg. Am. viii. 322; Ovid, Fast. i. 238.) The more learned derivations proposed by Suufcius and Vnrro, from the inhabitants having lived hidden in caves (Snufeius, ap. Sm. ad Am. i. 6), or because Lstium itself was as it were hidden by the Apennines (Vnrr. op. Sm. ad Aen. viii. 322), are certainly not more satisfactory. The form of the name of Lstium would at first load to the supposition that the ethnic Lstini was derived from it; but the same remark applies to the case of Sumnium and the Samnitea, where we know that the people, being a race of foreign settlers, must have given their name to the country, and not the converse. Probably Latini in only a lengthened form of the name, which was originally Lstii or Latvi; for the connection which has been generally recognised between Latini and Lavinium, Latinos and Lavinus. seems to point to the exitsan of an old form, Lntvinus. (Donaldson, Varrrmiamn, p. 6; Niebuhr, V.u. L. Kunde, p. 352.) Van-o himself seems to regard the name of Latium as derived from that of Lntinus (LL. v. §32); and that it was generally regarded as equivalent to “ the land of the Latins" is sufliciently proved by the fact that the Greeks always rendered it by 1‘; Atari"), or 1'] Aurivwv 7?]. The name of Art-now is found only in Greek writers of a late period, who borrowed it directly from the Romans. (Appian, B. 0. ii. 26; llcrorlian, i. 16.) From the same cause it must have proceeded that when the Lutini ceased to

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