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99; Ptol. v. 2. § 30; P. Mela, ii. 7.) Modem writers derive the name of lcaria from the Ionic word xdpa, a paisture (Hesych. 3.0. de), according to which it would mean “ the pasture land." In earlier times it is said to have been called Doliche (Plin. l. 0.; Callint. Hymn. in Dian. 187), Macris (Plin. l. 6.; Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 530; Liv. xxvii. 13), and lchthyoessa (Plin. L 0.). Respecting the present condition of the island, see Tournefort, Voyage do Leml, ii. lett. 9. p. 94; and Ross, Rezken auf den Griecll. Imeln, vol. ii. p. 164, foL [L. 8.]

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tioncd in the Itinerary as the Venta Icenorum, and in contrwlistinction to the Venta Belgnrum (Winchester). [11. G. L.] 1011 ('lx), a river of Central Asia which only occurs in Mcnauder of Byzantium (Hill. Legal. Barbarorum ad Romanos, p. 300, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1829), surnamed the “ Protector," and contemporary with the emperor Maurice, in the 6th century after Christ, to whom comparative geography is indebted for much curious information about the basin of the Caspian and the rivers which discharge themselves into it on the E. Nielinhr has recognised, in the passage from Menander to which reference has been made, the first intimation of the knowledge of the existence of the lake of Aral, after the very vague intimations of some among the authors of the classical period. Von Humboldt (Arie Cenlrnle, vol. ii. p. 186) has identified the Ich with the Emba or Lyem, which rises in the mountain range Airln-uk, not far from the sources of the 01', and, after traversing the sandy steppes ot' Sagkiz and Balammbai, falls into the Caspian at its NE. corner. (Comp. Levchine, Horde; at Steppes des KirghizKazaks, p. 65.) B. J.] ICHANA ('lxava: Eth. ’lxtwi‘rar), a city of Sicily, which, according to Stephanus of Byzantium, held out fora long' time against the arms of the Syracusana, whence he derives its name (from the verb iXth-N,l form equivalent to luxamiw), but gives us no indication of the period to which this statement refers. The Ichanenses, however, are mentioned by Pliny (iii. 8. s. 14) among the stipendiary towns of the interior of Sicily, though, according to Sillig (ad 100.), the true reading is lpaueuses. [Hmmmai] In either case we have no clue to the position of the city, and it is a mere random conjecture of Cluven'us to give the name of lchana to the ruins ofn city which still remain at u place called Vindicari, a few miles N. ot'Cupe Pachynnm, and which were identified (with still less probability) by Fazello as those of Imnchnra. [laucuanm] [15. 1-1. It] ICHNAE ('lxvm), a city of Bottiaea, in Macedonia, which Herodotus (vii. 123) couples with l’ella. (Luke, Travel: in Northern Greece, vol. iv. p 582.) . B.J.] ICHNAE ('vaai, Isid. Char. p. 3; Steph. B. a. v), a small fortified town, or castle, in Most)potnmia, situated on the river Bilecha, which itself flowed into the Euphrates. It is said by Isidorus to have owed its or'gin to the Macedonians. There can be little doubt that it is the same place as is called in Dion Cassius 'lxvtm (x1. 12), and in l’lularch 'TUXWU (Cr-nu. c. 25). Accurding to the former writer, it was the place where Crassus over~ came Talymeuus: according to the latter, that to which the younger Crassus was persuaded to fly when wounded. Its exact position cannot be determined; but it is clear that. it was not far distant from the important town of Carrhae. [v.1 ICClUS PORTUS. [l'rws] ICHTHYO'PHAGI ('lxfluoqad'ym, Diod. iii. 15, seq.; Herod. iii. 19 ; Pausan. i. 33. § 4; Plin. vi. 30. s. 32). were one of the numerous tribes dwelling on each shore of the Red Sou which derived tlu-ir uppcllation from the principal article of their diet. Fish-eaters, however, were not confined to this region: in the present day, savages, whose only diet is fish cast ashore and cooked in the sun, are found an the coasts of New Holland. The Aethiopian Ichthyophngi, who appear to have been the most numerous of these tribes, dwelt to the southward of the Regio Troglodytica. Of these, and other more inland rates, concerning whose strange forms and modes of life curious tales are related by the Greek and Roma writers, a further account is given under TBOGl-DDYTES. [W. B. D.] ICHTHYOPHAGORUM SINUS ('lxflvnoui'ywv IniMrus, Ptnl. vi. 7. § l3), was a deeply embayed portion of the Persian gulf, in lat. 25° N., situated between the headlands of the Sun and Asubé on the eastern coast of Arabia. The inhabitants of its borders were of the same mixed race —Aethiopo-Arabian—with the Ichthyophagi of Aethiopin. The bay was studded with islands, of which the principal were Aradus, Tylos, and Tharos. [W. B. D.] ICHTHYS. [Eus, p. 8l7, b.] lClANl, in Britain, mentioned in the Itineraryas a station on the road from London to Carlisle (Luguballinm). As more than one of the stations on each side (Villa Fanstini, Camboricum, &c.) are uncertain, the locality of the Iciani is uncertain also. Chzslerford, lckburg, and The/ford are suggested in the Alonumenla Briurmica. [R. G. L.] ICIDMAGUS, a town of Gallia Lngdnnensis, is placed by the Table on a road between Revessium (supposed to be St. Paulina) and Aquae chete. [AQUAE SEGETE.] Icidmagus is probably lumycauz or Issioluzur, which is SSW. of St. Etienne, on the west side of the mountains, and in the basin of the Upper Loire. The resemblance of name is the chief reason for fixing on this site. [G. L.] ICO'NII ('lmimm), an Alpine people of Gallia Slrabo (p. 185) says: “ Above the Cuvares are the Vocontii, and Tricorii, and Iconii, and Pcduli;" and again (p. 203): “ Next to the Vocontii are the Siconii, and Tricorii, and after them the Medali (Mcdulli), who inhabit the highest summits." These Iconii and Siconii are evidently the same people, and the sigma in the name Sioonii seems to be merely a repetition of the final sigma of the word Oz’morrioiis. The Peduli of the first passage, as some editions have it, is also manifestly the name Medulli. The ascertained position of the Cavares on the east side of the Rhone, between the Durance and Isére, and that of the Vocontii east of the Cavnres, combined with Strabo’s remark about the position of the Me. dulli, show that the Tricorii and the Iconii are between the Vocontii and the Mcdulli, who were on the High Alps; and this is all that we know. [G. L] lCO'NlUM ('lxovwv : Elli. 'Inomtls : Cogni, Kamjah, or Kom‘yeh), was regarded in the time of Xenophon (Anab. i. '2. § 19) as the easternmost town of Phrygiinv while all later authorities describe it as the principal city of Lycaonis. (Cic. ad Fam. iii. 6, 8, xv. 3.) Strabo (xii. p. 568) calls it s iroAlxvmv, whence we must infer that. it. was then still a small place; but he adds that it was Well peopled, and was situated in a fertile district of Lycaonia. Pliny (v. 27), however, and the Acts of the Apostles. describe it as a very populous city, inhabited by Greeks and Jews. Hence it would appear that, within ashort period, the place had greatly risen in importance. In Pliny‘s time the territory of Iconium formed a tetrarchy comprising l4 towns, of which Iconium was the capital. On coins belonging to the reign of the emperor Gallienus, the town is called a Roman colony, which was, probably, only an assumed title, as no author speaks of it as a colony. Under the Byzantine emperors it was the metropolis of Lyraonio, and is frequently mentioned (Hierocl. p. 675); but it was wrested from them first by the

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Saracens, and afterwards by the Turks, who made it the capital of an cmpife, the sovereigns of which took the title of Sultans of Iconium. Under the Turkish dominion, and during the period of the Crusades, Iconium acquired its greatest celebrity. It is still a large and populous town, and the residence of a pasha. The place contains some architectural remains and inscriptions, but they appear almost all to belong to the Byzantine period. (Comp. Amm. Marc. xiv. 2; Steph. B. s. n; Ptol. v. 6. § 16; Leuke, Asia Minor, p. 48; Hamilton, Researches, vol. ii. p. 205, fol. ; Eckhe], vol. iii. p. 31; Seatini, Geo. Num. p. 48.) The name lconium led the ancients to derive it from sixn’w, which gave rise to the fable that the city derived its name from an image of Medusa, brought thither by Perseus (Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 856) ; hence Stephanus B. maintains that the name ought to be spelt Elmlmov, a form actually adopted by Eustnthius and the Byzantine writers, and also found on some coins. [L 5.]

ICORIGIUM. [Econiowim]

1008. [less]

ICOSITA'NI. [Iucn]

ICO'SIUM ('lxdowv: Algier),n city on the coast of Mauretania Caesariensis, E. of Caesarea, a colony under the Roman empire, and presented by Vespnsian with the jm Latinum. (Itin. Ant. p. 15; Mela, i. 6. § l; Plin. v. 2. s. l; Ptol. iv. 2. § 6.) Its site, already well indicated by the numbers of Ptolemy, who places it 30' W. of the mouth of the Savus, has been identified with certainty by inscriptions discovered by‘the French. (Pcllissier, in the Euploration Scientifique dc I'Algérie, vol. vi. p. 350.) Many modern geographers, following Manncrt, who was misled by a confusion in the numbers of the Itinerary, put this and all the neighbouring places too far west. [Comp 10L] [1’. 8.]

lC'l‘lMU’Ll or VlCTlMU'Ll (‘lx-roilnoultm, Strab.), a people of Cisalpine Gaul, situated at the foot of the Alps, in the territory of Vercellae. They are mentioned by Strabo (v. p. 218), who speaks Of a. village ofthe Ictimuli, where there Were gold mines, which he seems to place in the neighbourhood of Vercellae; but the passage is so confused that it would leave us in doubt. l’liny, however, who notices the gold mines of the Victimnli among the most productive in Italy, distinctly places them “ in ugro Vcrcollensi." We learn from him that they were at one time worked on so large a scale that a law was passed by the Roman censors prohibiting the employment in them of more than 5000 men at once. (l’lin. xxxiii. 4. s. 21.) Their site is not more precisely indicated by either of the above authors, but the Geographer of Ravcnns mentions the “civitas, quas dicitnr Victimnla” as situated “ near Eporedia, not far from the foot of the Alps " (Geogr. Rav. iv. 30); and a modern writer has traced the existence of the “ Castellum Victimula" during the middle ages, and shown that it. must have been situated between [urea and Biella on the banks of the Elva. Traces of the ancient gold mlmsi wbich appear to have been worked during the middle ages, may be still observed in the neighbouring mountains. (Durandi, Alpi Gracie a I'm— m'ne, pp. 1 10—112; Walckenser, Gc'oyr. dos Gaul”, vol. i. p. 168.) [E. H. 8.]

lCTlS, in Britain, mentioned by Diodorus Sicnlus (v. 22) as an island lying oil the coast. of the tin districts, and, at low tides, becoming l petrinsula, whither the tin was conveyed in waggona. St. Michael‘s Mount is the suggested locality for Ictis Probably, however, there is a confusion between the Isle of Wight, the Isle of Portland, the Scilly Isles, and the isle just mentioned; since the name is simpiciously like Vech's, the physical conditions being different This view is continued by the text of Pliny (iv. 30), who writes, “ Timacus historicus a Britannia introrsus sea: diermn navigatione ahesse dicit insulam JIfictim in qua candidum plumbum prorasiat; ad earn Britannos vitilibus navigiis corio ciwumsntis navigarc." [11. G. L]

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IC'I'UDURUM, in Gnllia. The Antonine Itin. places Caturiges (Chorger) on the road between Ebrodunum (Embrun) and Vapincum (Gap): and the Table adds Ictodurum between Cnturigomagus, which is also Charges, and Vupincum. We may infer from the name that Ictodururn is some stream between Charges and Gap,- and the Table places it half-way. The road distance is more than the direct line. By following the road from either of these places towards the other till we come to the stream, we shall ascertain its position. D'An~ ville names the small stream the Vance; and Walclrenaer names the site of Ictodurum, La Btl-llilk Vieille. [G. L.]

ICULISMA, a place in Gallin, mentioned by Ansonius (Ep. xv. 22) as a retired and lonely spot where his friend Tetradius, to whom he addresses this prieticd epistle, was at one time engaged in teaching:—

“ Qnondam decendi munere adstrictum gravi

Iculisma cum te absconderet."

It is assumed to be the place called Civitns Ecolismedium in the Notitia Prov. Gall., which is Angouiéme, in the French department of Cluzrente, on the river Charente. [6. L]

ICUS ('Ixor: EM.'IK|os), one of the group of islands off the coast of Magnesia in Thessaly, lay near Peptirethus, and was colonised at the same time by the Clussinns of Crete. (Scymn. China, 582; Strnb. ix. p. 436,- Appian, B. C. v. 7.) The fleet of Attalus and the Ithodians sailed past. Scyrus to Icus. (Liv. xxxi. 45.) Phanodemus wrote an account of this insignificant island. (Steph. B. av.) It is now called Sorakirw. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. ]>. 312.)

IDA, IDAEUS MONS (h '1511, 161: Ida), a mugs of mountains of Phrygia, belonging to the system of Mount Taurus. It traverses western Mysin in many branches, whence it was compared by the ancients to the scolopendra or milliped (Strab. xiii. p. 583), its main branch extending from the southmat to the north-west; it is of considerable height, the highest point, called Gargarus or Gargaron, rising about 4650 feet above the level of the sea. The greater part is covered with wood, and contains the sourccsof innumerable streams and many fivers, whence Homer (IL viii. 47) calls the mountain wokv-rlfiaf. In the Homeric poems it is also described as rich in wild beasts. (Comp. Strab. Xiii. pp. 602, 604 ; Ilom. IL ii. 8‘24, vi. 2553, viii. 170, n. 153, 196; Athen. xv. e; “or. 0d. iii. 20. 15: I’tol. v. 2. § 13; Plin. v. 32.) The highlands about Teleia formed the northern extremity of Mount Ida, while Lee-tum formed its extreme point in the south-west. Two other subordinate ranges, pming from the principal summit, the one at Cape Rheel'ellm. ihe other at Sigeum, may be said to enclose the territory of Troy in a crrscent; while another centntl ridge between the two, separating the valley

of the Scamander from that of the Simois, gave to ,

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the whole the form of the Greek letter r. (Demetr. up. Strab. xiii. p. 597.) The principal rivers of which the sources are in Mount Ida, are the Simois, Scannmder, Granicus, Aesepus, Rhodins, Caresus, and others. (Hum. 11. xii. 20, full.) The highest peak, Gargarus, afford: an extensive view over the Hellespont, Propontis, and the whole surrounding country. Besides Gargarus, three other high peaks of Ida are mentioned: viz. Cotylus, about 3500 feet high, and about 150 stadia above Scepsis; Pytna; and Dicte. (Strab. xiii. p. 472.) Timosthenos (up. ' Steph. B. 3.1;. ’Mefidvbpna) and Strubo (xiii. p. 606) mention a mountain belonging to the range of Ida, near Antandrus, which bore the name of Alexandria, where Paris (Alexander) was believed to have pronounced his judgment as to the beauty of the three goddesses. (Comp. Clarke's Travel-r, ii. p. 134: Hunt's Journal in li'alpole's Turlxy, i. p. 120; Cramer's Asia Minor, i. 120.) [L. 8.]

IDA ('1511, Ptol. iii. 17. § 9 : Pomp. Mela, ii. 7. § 12; I’Iin. iv. 12, xvi. 33; Virg. Aen. iii. 105; Solin. ii.; Avien. 676; Prise. 528), the central and loftiest point of the mountain range which truverses the island of Crete throughout the whole length from W. to E. In the middle of the island, where it is broadest (Strab. 1. pp. 472, 475, 478), Mt. Ida lifts its head covered with snow. (Theophrast. II. 1’. iv. 1.) The lofty summits terminate in three peaks, and, like the main chain of which it is the nucleus, the offshoots to the N. slope gradually towards the sea, enclosing fertile plains and valleys, and form by their projections the numerous buys and gulfs with which the coast is indented. Mt. Ida, now called Pa'kn-iti, sinks down rapidly towards the SE. into the extensive plain watered by the Lethaena This side of the mountain, which looks down upon the plain of Ileaara, is covered with cypresses (comp. Theophrast. dc Vent. p. 405; Dion. I’ericg. 503; Eustath. ad. 100.), pines, and junipera. Mt. Ida was the locality assigned for the legends connected with the history of Zeus, and there was a cavern in its slopes sacred to that deity. (Diod. Sic. v. 70.)

The Cretan Ids, like its ijan namesake, was connected with the working of iron, and the Idecan Ductyls, the legendary discoverers of metallurgy, are assigned sometimes to the one and sometimes to the other. Wood was essential to the operations of smelting and forging; and the word Ida, an appellative for any wood<covered mountain, was used perhaps, like the German berg, at once for a mountain and a mining work. (Kenrick, Aegypt of Herodotus, p. 278; Hock, Kreta, vol. i. p. 4.) B. J.]

I’DACUS ('lbaxos), a town of th Thrucian Cberaoncsc, mentioned by Thucydides (viii. 104) in his account of the manoeuvres before the bottle of Cynossema, and not far from Ammuuva. Although nothing whatever is known of these places, yet. as the Athenians were sailing in the direction of the Propontis from the Aegacan, it would appear that Idacua was nearest the Aegaean, and Arrhiuno. further up the Ilellcspont, towards Sestus and the Propontis. (Arnold, ad [15. B. J.]

IDALIA, IDA'LIUM ('Ibdhiov: EM. “Ma/\w's, Steph. 13.; Plin. v. 31), a town in Cyprus, adjoining to which was a forest sacred to Aphrodite; the poels who connect this place with her worship, give no indications of the precise locality. ('l'hcocr. 1d. xv. 100; Virg. Am. i. 681, 692, x. 51; Catull. Pol. et Thet. 96; I’ropcrt. ii. 13; Lucan, Viii- I7.) Engel (Km, vol. 1. p. 153) identifies it with Dalia, de

scribed by Mariti ( Viaggi, vol. i. p. 204), situated to the south of Lcucurria, at the foot of Mount Olympus. B. J.] IDIMIUM, a town in Lower Prrnnonin, on the east of Sirmium, according to the Pent. Tab.; in the It» venna Geographer (iv. 19) it is called Idominium. lts site must be looked for in the neighbourhood of illrmvicm. [L 5.] IDIMUS, a town of uncertain site in Upper Moesia, probably on the Morawa in Servia. (It. Ant. 134; Tab. Pent.) [L. S.] lDlSTAVISUS CAMPUS, the famous battlefield where Germauicus, in A. n. 16, defeated Arminius. The name is mentioned only by Tacitus (Ann. ii. 16), who describes it as a “campus medius inter Visurgim et colles," and further says of it, that “ ut ripae fluminis cednnt ant prominentia moutiurn resistant, inncqualitcr sinuatur. Pone tergum insurgebat silva, editis in altum ramis ct pura humo inter arborurn truncoe.” This plain between the river Wm and the hills has been the subject of much discussion among the modern historians of Gennany, and various places have been at different times pointed out as answering the description of Taoitus’ 1distavisus. It was formerly believed that it was the plain near Veyamclc, below Bremen ; more recent writers are pretty unanimous in believing that Germanicus went up the river Westo- to a point beyond the modern town of Minder», and ('rosscd it. in the neighbourhood of IImr-rberge, whence the battle probably took place between Hauslrergo and Rinteln, not far from the Ports Vestphalica. (Ledebur, Land u. Volk der Bruclerer, p. 288.) As to the name of the place, it used to be believed that it had arisen out of a Roman asking a German what the place was, and the Gennsn answering, “ 1t is a wiesc" (it. is a meadow) ; but Grimm (Deutsche Mythol. p. 372. 2nd edit.) has shown that the plain was probably called ldiriavrlro, that is,“ the rnaiden's mondow " (from (did, a maiden). [L. S.] 11)O'MENE (’lbope’v-q, Ptol. iii. 13. § 39 ; 1do~ meniu, Peat. T 115.), a town of Macedonia which the Tabular Itinerary places at 12 M. P. from Stenn, the pass now called Demr'rkapi, or Iron Gate, on the river Vordhdri. Sitalces, on his route from Thrace to Macedonia, crossed Mt. Cercine, leaving the l’neones on his right, and the Sinti and Macdi on his left, and descended upon the Axius at Idomene. ('l‘huc. ii. 98.) It probably stood upon the right bank of the Axius, as it is included by Ptolemy (I. c.) in Emathia, and was near Doberus, next. to which it is named by Hierocles among the towns of Consular Macedonia, under the Byzantine empire. (Leake. Nor-Ur. Greece, vol. iii. p. 444.) B. J.] IDO’MENE. [Ancos AnrrrrLocmcuM.] IDRAE ('ldpai, Ptol. iii. 5. §23), a people of Snnnatia Europaea, whose position cannot be made out from the indications given by Ptolemy. (Schafarik, Slov. Alt. vol. i. p. 213.) [PL B. J.] I’DRIAS (’ldprdr), according to Stephanus B. (5.0.), a town in Curio which had formerly home the name of Chrysaoris. Herodotus (v. 118) describes the river Marsyns as flowing from a district called 1drias ; and it is conjectured that Straloniceia, founded by Antiochus Soter, was built on the site of the ancient town of Idrias. (Comp. Leake, Asia Minor, p. 235 ; see Laoorceu.) L. S. IDU'BEDA (neonate, niisspelt by Agathemerus ’IvliorigaAba, ii. 9: Sierra do Dec and Sierra rIe Lorenzo), a great mountain chain of Hispania, running in a SE. direction from the mountains of

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the Cnntabri to the Mediterranmn, almost parallel to the Ebro, the basin of which it borders on tho W. Slrabo makes it also parallel to the Pyrenees, in conformity with his view of the direction of that chain from N. to S. (Strab. iii. p. 161; Ptol. ii. 6. § 21.) Its chicf ofi'sets wcre:—M. CAIuns. near Bilbilis (Martial, i. 49, iv. 55), the SALTUS MANLumus (Liv. :1. 39: probably the Sierra Molina), and, above all, M. ()ROSPEIHt, which strikes ol1' from it to the S. long before it reaches the sea, and which ought perhaps rather to be regarded as its principal prolongation than as a mere branch. [P. 8.] IDUMAEA (’IEounaIa), the name of the country inhabited by the descendants of Edom (or Esau), being, in fact, only the classical form of that ancient Semitic name. (Joseph. Ant. ii. 1. § I.) It is otherwise called Mount Seir. (Gen. xxxii. 3, xxxvi. 8; Dent. ii. 5; Joshua, xxiv. 4.) It lay betwccn Mount Horeb and the southern border of Canaan (Dent. i. 2), extending apparcntly as far south as the GulfofAl-oba (Deut. ii. 2—8), as indeed it! ports, l-lzion-geber, and Eloth, are expressly assigned to the “ land of Edom.” (2 Chron. viii. 17.) This country was inhabited in still more ancient times by the Horirns (Deal. ii. 12, 22), and derived its more ancient name from their patriarch Seir (Gen. mini. 20; comp. xiv. 6), as is properly maintained by Rel-and, against the fanciful conjecture of Josephus and others. (Polaostina, pp. 68, 69.) The Jewish historian extends the name Idumaea so far to the north as to comprehend under it great. part of the south of Judaea; as when he says that the tribe of Simeon received as their inheritance that port 01' Idumacn which borders on Egypt and Arabia. (Ant. v. 1. § 22) He elsewhere calls Hebron the first city of Idnmaea, i. e. reckoning from the north. (BJ. iv. 9. § 7.) From his time the name Idumaes disappears from geographical descriptions, except as an historical appellation of the country that was then called Gehalcne, or the southern desert (i; Ka-rr‘r. neon/Lé‘pr’av dpfipws, Euscb. Onom. s. v. AiAcip), or Arabia. The historical records of the Idumaeans, propcrly so called, are very scanty. Saul made war upon them; David subdued the whole country; and Solomon made Ezion'gebor a naval station. (1 Sam. xiv. 47, 2 Sam. viii. 14; 1 Kings, xi. l5, ix. 26.) The Edomitcs, however, recovered their national indep-ndence under Joram, king of Judah (2 Kings, xiv. 7), and avenged themselves on the Jews in the cruclties which they practised at the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. (Psalms, cxxxvii7.) It was probably during the Babylonish captivity that they extended themselves as far north as Hebron, where they were attacked and subdued by Judas Maccabncus. (1 )Iaccab. v. 65—68; Joseph. Ant. xii. 8. § 6.) It was on this account that the whole of the south of Palestine, about Ilcbron, Gaza, and Elcuthcropolis (Bait Jelm'n), came to be designated ldumaea. (Joseph. B. Jiv. 9. § 7, c. Apion. ii. 9 ; S. Jerom. Comment. in Obod. ver. 1.) Meanwhile, the ancient seats of the children of Edom had been invaded and occupied by another tribe, the Nabntlraeans, the descendants of the Ishmoelitc patriarch Nebaioth [NABATIIAEI], under which name the country and its capital [l’rrrua] became famous among Greek and Roman geographers and historians, on which account their description of the district is more appropriately given under that head. St. Jerome‘s brief but accurate notice of its general features may here suffice;— “Omnis anstralis regio ldumacorum de Eleuthero

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poli nsqne ad Petram et Ailnm (haec est possessio Esau) in specubus habitatiunculas habet; et propter nimios calores $01.18, quia meridinnn provincin out, snbterraneiii tuguriis utitur." (Comment. in Obad. W. 5, 6.) And again, writing of the same country, he says that south of Tekoa " ultra nullus est viculus. ne agrestea quidem casae et furnorum similes, quas Afri appellant mapalia. Tanta est eremi vastitas, quae usque ad Mane Rubrnm Persarumque et Aethiopain atque Indorum terminos dilatatur. Et quia humi arido atque arenoso nihil omnino frugum gignitnr, cuncta sunt plena pastoribus, ut sterilitntcm terrae compenset peoorum multitudiue.” (Prolog. ad Amourm.) [G. W.]

lDUNUM, a town in the extreme south of Pannonia (P101. ii. 14. § 3), which, from inscriptions found on the spot, is identified with the modern Jud _ [L. 8.]

JEBUS,JEBUSI'TES. [Juana/rm:er

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF. BALI-2M.

lENA, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 2) as an atuary between the outlets of the rivers Abruvaunus and Deva to the south of the promontory of the Novautae (=17'éqlon Buy). [11. G. L.]

ll-lltABRl'GA. [AMERICA-1

Jl-IRICHO ('1eprxré,'1eprxofir, Strab.), a stroneg fortified city of the Cunaanites, miraculoust taken by Joshua, who utterly destroyed it, and prohibited it from being rebuilt under pain of an anathema (Josh. ii. vi.), which was braved and incurred by Hiel of Beibel, five centuries afterwards, in the reign of Ahab, king of Israel. (1 Kings, xvi. 34.) It then became a school of the prophets. (2 Kings, ii. 4, 5.) 1t lay in the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned (Josh. xviii. 12, 21), but was not far from the sonthem borders of Ephraim (xvi. 1). It is mentioned in the New Testament in connection with the wealthy revenue-farmer Zacchusus, Who resided there, and probably farmed the govemmcnt dues of its rich and well cultivated plain. Jmepbus describes it as well situated, and fruitful in palms and balsam. (Ant. iv. 8. § 1, B. J. i. 6. §6.) 11c places the city 60 stadia from the Jordan, 150 from Jerusalem (B. J. iv. 8. § 3), the intervening country being a rocky desert. He account»- for the narrow limits of the tribe of Benjamin by the fact that Jericho was included in that tribe, the fertility of which iar surpassed the richest soil in other parts of Palestine 21, 22) “3 PM" was 70 stadia long by 20 wide, irrigated by the waters of the fountain of Elisha, which possessed almost miraculous properties. (Ant. iv. 8. 2, 3.) It was one of the eleven toparchies of J udnea (B. J. iii. 2.) he pulm grove was granted by Antony to Cleopatra (i. 18. § 5), and the subsequent possess-ion of this envied district by Herod the Great, who first fanned the revenues for Cleopatra, and then redeemed them (Ant. xiv. 4. l, 2), probably gave occasion to the proverbial use of his name in Horace (Ep. ii. 2. 154):

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“ cessare ct ludere et ungi, Praefemt llerodis palmetis pinguibus."

ll is mentioned by Straho (xvi. p. 763) and Pliny (Y. 14) in connection with its palm-trees and fountains. The former also alludes to the palace and 1L“ garden of habam. the cultivation and collecting of Which is more fully described by Pliny (xii. 25).

The palace was built by Herod the Gleat, as his “"1 residence, and there it was that he died;

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having first confined in the hippodrome the most illustrious men of the country, with the intention that they should be massacred after his death, that there might be a general mourning throughout the country on that occurrence. (B. J. i. 33. 6.) Josephus further mentions that Jericho was visited by Vespasiun shortly before he quilted the country, where he left the tenth legion (B. J. iv.8. § 1, 9. § 1); but he does not mention its destruction by Titus on account ofthe perfidy of its inhabitants; a fact which is supplied by Eusebins and St. Jerome. They add that a third city had been built in its stead; but that the ruins of both the former were still to be seen (Onomast. s. v.) The existing ruins can only be referred to this latest. city, which is frequently mentioned in the mediaevnl pilgrimages. They stand on the skins of the mountain country that shuts in the valley of the Jordan on the went, about three hours distant from the river. They are very extensive, but present nothing of interest. The waters of the fountain of Elisha, now Mines-Sultan, well answer to the glowing description of Josephus, and still fertilise the soil in its immediate neighbourlmorl. But the palms, balsam, sugar-canes, and roses, for which this Paradise was formerly celebrated, have all dimppeared, and the modern [film consists only of the tents of a Bedouin encampment. [6. W.]

IERNE, is a better form for the ancient name of Ireland than Hrnuusm, [ennui/r, Ivunnu, 810., both as being nearer the present Gaelic name Eri, and as being the oldest fomi which occurs. It is the form found in Aristotle. It is also the form found in the poem attributed to Orpheus on the Argonautic expedition, which, spurious as it is, may nevertheless be as old as the time of Onomacritua (i. e. the rcign of the first Darius): —

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Aristotle (de Mundo, c. 3) writes, that in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules “ are two islands, called Britannic, very large, Albion and lame, beyond the Celtae.” In Diodorua Siculus (v. 32) the form is Iris,- the island Iris being occupied by Britons, who were cannibals. Strabo (ii. p. 107) makes Ierne the farthest voyage northwards from Celtics. It was too cold to be other than barely habitable, the parts beyond it being absolutely uninhabited. The reported distance from Celticn is 500 stadia. The same writer attributes cannibalism to the Irish; adding, however, that his authority, which was probably the same as that of Diodorus, was insutiicirr-t. The form in Pomponius Mela is Iver-1m. In [rerun the luxuriance of the herbage is so great as to cause the cattle who feed on it to burst, unless occasionally taken off. Pliny's form is Hybernia (iv. 30). Solinus, whose form is Hibernia, repeats the statement of Mela as to the pasture, and adds that no snakes are found there. Wurlike beyond the rest of her sex, the Hibernian mother, on the birth of a male child, places the first morsel of food in his mouth with the point of a sword (c. 22). Avienns, probably from the similarity of the name to Yspu, writes:

“ Ant in duobus in Sam-am, sic insulam
Dixero prisci, solibns cursus mta est.
Haec inter undas multa cespitcm Jucrt
Eamque late gens Hibernorum eolit."
(Ora Marti. 109—113.)

Avienus's authorities were Carthaginian. More im.

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