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have any national existence, the name of Latinm is still not unfrequently used, as equivalent to “ nomon Latinuin," to designate the whole body of those who possessed the rights of Latins, and were therefore still called Latiui, though no longer in a national sense.

The suggestion of a modern writer (Abckcn, Mitfel Italian, p. 42) that Latium is derived from “latus,” broad, and means the broad plain or expanse of the Campagna (like Campania from “ Campus "), appears to be untenable, on account of the difference in the quantity of the first syllable, notwithstanding the analogy of shrubs, which has the first syllable short.

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The nameof Lstium was applied at different periods in a verydifl‘crent extent and signification. Originally, asalready pointedout,it meant the land of the Latini; and as long as that people retained their independent national existence, the name of Latium could only be applied to the territory )mscssed by them, exclusive of that of the llornici, Aequians, Volscinns, &c., who were at that period independent and often hos~ tile nations. It was not till these separate nationalitics had been merged into the common condition of subjects and citizens of Rome that the name of Latium come to be extended to all the territory which they had previously occupied; and was thus applied, first in common parlance, and afterwards in oliicial usage, to the whole region from the borders of Etruria to those of Campania, or from the Tiber to the Liris. Hence we must carefully distinguish botwch Latium in the original sense of the name, in which alone it occurs throughout the early Roman history, and Latium in this later or geographical seltsl'; and it will be necessary here to treat of the two quite separately. The period at which the latter usage of the name came into vogue we have no means of determining: We know only that it was fully established before the time of Augustus, and is recognised by all the geographers. (Strab. v. pp. 228, 23l; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Ptol. iii. l. §§ 5,6.) Pliny designates the original Latium, or Latium properly so called, as Latium Antiqunm, to which he opposes the newly added portions, as Latium Adjectum. It may, however, be doubted whether thwc appellations were ever adopted in common use, though convenient as geographical distinctions.

l. Lanna Annquum, or Latium in the original and Mambo! sense, was a country of small extent, bounded by the Tiber on the N., by the Apennines on the E., and by the Tyrrheniau sea on the W.; while on the S. its limits were not defined by any natural boundaries, and appear to have fluctuated considerably at different periods. Pliny defines it as extending from the mouth of the Tiber to the Circeian promontory, a statement confirmed by Strabo (Plin. iii, 5. s. 9; Stmb.v. p. 231); and we have other authority also for the fact that at an early period all the tract of marshy plain, known as the Pontine Marshes or “ Pomptinus Agar," extending from Velitrae and Antium to Girccii, ers inllabiled

v by Latins, and regarded as a part of Latium. (Cato, up. l’riscl'an. v. p. 668.) Eren of the adjoining mountain tract, subsequently occupied by the Volscians, a part at least must have been originally Latin, for (Inns, Norba, and Sctia were all of them Latin cities (Dionys. v. 61),-—though, at a somewlmt later period, not only had these towns, as well as the plain benesth, fallen into the hands of the Volsciami, but


that people had made themselves masters of Anlinm and Velitrae, which are in consequence repeatedly called Volsciun cities. The manner in whirh the early Roman history has been distorted by poetical legends and the exaggerations of national vanity renders it very diflicult to truce the course of thew changes, and the alterations in the frontiers rouse quent upon the alternate progress of the \‘olsrisn and the Roman arms. But there seems no mm to doubt the fact that such changes repeatedly took place, and that we may thus explain the apparent inconsistency of ancient historians in calling the same places at one time Volscian, at another Latin. cities. We may also clearly discem two diil‘erent periods, during the first of which the Yolscian arms were gradually gaining upon those of the Latins, and extending their dominion over cities of Latin origin: while, in the second,thc Volscians were in their turn giving way before the preponderating power of Rome. The Gaulish invasion (8.6. 390) may be taken, 11" proximately at least, as the turning point between the two periods.

The case appears to have been somewhat similar, though to a less degree, on the northern frontier. where the Latins edjoined the Sebines. Here, shit we find the same places at different times, and by different authors, termed sometimes Latin and some times Sabine, cities; and though in soincoi these cases the discrepancy may have arisen from more inndvcrtence or error, it is probable that in some instances both statements are equally correct, but rclbr to different periods. The circumstance lllll the Anio was fixed by Augustus as the boundary of the First Region seems to have soon led to the notion that it was the northern limit of Latium also; "Ill hence all the towns beyond it were regarded as Sabine, though several of them were, according it the general tradition of earlier times, originally Leli" cities. Such was the confusion resulting from this cause that Piny in one passage enumerates Nomentum, Fidenae, and even 'l‘ibur among the Sahinr towns, while he elsewhere mentions the two former as Latin cities,—and the Latin origin of Tibur is to“ well established to admit of a doubt. (Plin. 5e. 9, l2. 5. 17.)

In the absence of natural boundaries it is only bl' means of the names of the towns that we can tan the extent of Latium; and here fortunately the list! that have been transmitted to us by Dionysius and Pliny, as wall as those of the colonies of Albav "lord us material assistance. The latter, indeed, 08mm be regarded as of historical value, but they wen {1"questionsbly meant to represent the fact, with "him their authors were probably well acquainted, ill.“ the places there enumerated were properly L’lm cities, and not of Sabine or Volscian origin. Takini! these authorities for our guides, we may if! we limits of ancient Lutium as follows:—l. From the mouth of the Tiber to the confluence of the AW" the former river constituted the boundary helm“ Letium and Etruria. The Romans, indeed, from M early period, extended their territory beyond the Tiber, and hold the Janiculum and Campus Vancnnus on its right bank. as well as the so-I'fllllll Septem Pagi, which they wrested from the Vrienm: and it is probable that the Etruscans, on the fillll'l' hand, had at one period extended thcir power o\'_fl' ll part of the district on the left bank of the TMbut that river nevertheless constituted the Kellen? "W’Zniscd gcographical limit between litnirizrnml Latiuin. 2. North of the Anio the Latin tcmto"! comprised Fidenae, Crustumcrium, and Nomentnm, all of which are clearly established as Latin towns, while Eretum, only 3 miles from Nomentuin, is equally well made out to be of Sabine origin. This line of demarcation is confirmed by Stra'oo, who speaks of the Sabines as extending from the Tiber and Nvmenmm to the Vestini. (Strub. v. p. 228.) From Nomentnm to Tihur the frontier cannot be traced with accuracy, from our uncertainty as to the prsilion of several of the towns in this part of Lstium—Coniiculum, llledullia, Cornerin, and Ameriuls; but we may feel assured that it comprised the outlying group of the Montes Cornicnluni (Mic. S. Angelo and illonlioelll'), and from thence stretched muss to the foot of Monte Germaro (Mons Lucretilis), around the lower slopm of which are the ruins orsites of more than one ancient city. Probably the whole of this face of the mountuim, fronting the plain of tho Campagno, was always regarded as belonging to Latium, though the inner valleys and reVerse of thesnme mnge were inhabited by the Sabines. Tibur itself was unquestionably Latin, though how fur its territory extended into the interior of the mountuins is difiicnlt to determine. But if Empulum and Sosanla (two of its dependent toums) be correctly placed at Ampr'glimue and near Sioiliano, it must have comprised a considerable tract of the mountain country on the left bank of the Anio. Variu, on the other hand, and the valley of the Digentin, were unquestionably Sabine. 3. Returning to the Anio at 'fibttr, the whole of the W. front of the range of the Apennines from thence to Praeneste (I’rrlcstn'm) was certainly Latin ; but the limits which separated the L'uins from the Aequians are very diflicult to detenuine. We know that Bola, Pedunt, Tolerium, ml Vitellia, all of which were situated in this neighbourhood, were Latin cities; though, from their proximity to the frontier, several of them fell at one time oruthcr into the hands of the Aequians; in like manner we cannot doubt that the whole group of the Alhsn llills, including the range of Mount Alglilun, was included in the original Lutium, though the Acquisus at one time were able to occupy the heights of Algidus at the opening of almost eVery campaign. l‘almonwne, whether it represent Tm lerium ur Vitr-llis, must have been about the most Illvsnccd point of the Latin frontier on this side. 4- The Volsciitn frontier, as already observed, aplQars to have undergone much fluctuation. 0n the one hand,we find, in the list of the cities forming the Latin League, as given by Dionysius (v. 6]), not “"1! Velitrae, which at a later period is called a “lesion city, but Cora, Norba, and Sctia, all of which were situated on the western front of the ""50 of mountains which formed in later times the “Mllth of the Volscian nation; but looking on till“ Pontine Marshes. Even as late as the outbreak of the great Latin War, n. c. 340, we find L. Annins ol'Sm'a, and L. Numicins of Circcii, holding the rhicf niagistracy among the Latins, from whom at the time time Livy expressly distinguishes the VolM'ifls (Liv. viii. 3). These statements, combined with those of Pliny and Strabo already cited, seem l" have no doubt that Lotinm wzu properly regarded I: extending as for as Circcii and the promontory 0‘ the same name, and comprising the whole plain of the l’ontine Marshes, as well as the towns of on. herbs, and Setia, on the B. side of that plain. 0" the other hand, Tarracina (or Anxur) and Pri"Pfflum were certainly Volscinn cities; and there con i” w on: that during the period of tho Volfit‘iztn


power they had wrested a great part of the tract just described from the dominion of the Latins. Antinm, which for some reason or other did not form a member of the Latin League, was from an mrly period a Volscinn city, and became one of the chief strongholds of that people during the fifth century n. c.

The extent of Latinm Antiqnum, us thus limited, was for from considerable; the coast-line, from the mouth of the 'l'iber to the Ciroeian promontory, does not exceed 52 geographical or 65 Roman miles (Pliny erroneously calls it only 50 Roman miles); while the greatest length, from the Circeian promontory to the Sabine frontier, near Eretum, is little more than 70 Roman miles; and its breadth, from the mouth of the 'l‘iber to the Sabine frontier, is just about 30 Roman miles, or 240 studio, as correctly stated by Dionysius on the authority of Cato. (Dionys. ii. 49.)

2. LATIUM Novniu. The boundaries of Latium in the enlarged or geographical sense of the name are much more msin determined. The term, as thus employed, comprehended, besides the original territory of the Latins, that of the Aequians, the Hernicans, the Volsciuns, and the Auruncuns or Ausonians. Its northern frontiers thus remained unchanged, while on the Rand S. it was extended so as to border on the Marni, the Somnites, and Campitnin. Some confusion is nevertheless created by the new line of demarcation established by Augustus, who, while he constituted the first division of Italy out of Lntinm in this Wider scnse together with Campaniu, excluded from it. the part. of the old Lntin territory N. of the Anio, adjoining the Snbincs, as well as a port of that of the Aequians or Aequiculani, including Carscoli and the valley of the Turana. The upper valley of the Anio about Subiaco, on tho other hand, together with the mountainous district extending from thence to the valley of the Sacco, constituting the chief abode of the Aequi durng their wars with Rome, was wholly comprised in the newly extended Latium. To this was added the mountain district of the ilcrnici, ext/ending nearly to the valley of the Liris, as well u that of the l'olsci, who occupied the country for a considerable extent on both sides of the Liris, including the mountain district around Arpinuni and Atina, where they bordered on the territory of the Samnites. The limits of Latium towards the S., where its frontiers adjoined those of Cumpania, are clearly marked by Strabo, who tells us that Cnsinum was the lost Latin city on the line of the Via. Latina,—Tcanum being already in Cnmpanin; while on the line of the Via Appia, near the sea-coast, Slnuessa was the frontier town of Latium. (Strab. v. pp. 231, 233, 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) Pliny, in one passage, appears to speak of the Liris as constituting the boundary ofthis enlarged Latium (lb. § 56), while shortly afler (§ 59) he terms Siuuessa "oppidutn extreniullt in adjecto Latin," whence it has been supposed that. the boundary of Latium was at first extended only to the Lir'ni, and subscqnemly curried a step further so as to include Sinuessa and its territory. (Cmnier's Italy, vol. ii. p. 1].) But we have no evidence of any such successive stages. Pliny in all probability uses the term “ ailjcctutn Latiuln" only as contradistinguished from “ Latium antiquuni;" and the expression in the previous pzmsuge, “ unde notnon Lutii processit ad Lirim amnem," need not be Cult. oil‘qu too strictly. It is certain, at least, that, in the days of Strobe, as well on those of l’liny, Si.

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The land of the Latins, or Latinm in its original selise, formed the southern part of the great basin through which the Tiber fioWs tothe sea, and which is bounded by theCiminian llills,and other ranges of volcanic hills connected with them,towards the X, by the Apenniues on the E., and by the Alban Hills on the S. The latter, however, do not form a continuous barrier, being in fact. an isolated group of volcanic origin, separated by a considerable gap from tho Apeunines on the one side, while on the other they have a broad strip of low plain between their lowest sloprs and the sea, which is continued on in the broad expanse of level and marshy ground, cornnronly known as the Pontine Marshes, extending in a broad bond between the Volsciun mountains and the sen, until it is suddenly and abruptly terminated by the isolated mass of the Circeiau promontory.

The great basin-like tract- thus bounded is divided into two portions by the Tiber, of which the one on the N. of that river belongs to Southern Etruria, and is not comprised in our present subject. [E'rnunrm] The southern part, now known as the Campagrul di Roma, may be regarded as a broad exp'mse of undulatory plain, extending from the seacoast to the foot of the Apennincs, which rise from it abruptly like a gigantic wall to a height of from 3000 to 4000 feet, their highest summits even exceeding the latter elevation. The Monte Gennaro, (4285 English feet in height) is one of the loftiest summits of this range, and, from the boldness with which it rises from the aubjacent plain, and its advanced position, appears, when viewed from the Crrmpagna, the mast elevated of all; but, according to Sir W. Gall. it is exceeded in actual height both by the Monte I’ennecchio, a little to the NE. of it, and by the Monte di Guadagnolo, the central peak of the group of mountains which rise immediately above Pracneste or Paleotrirm. The citadel of Praencsto itself occupies a very elevated position, forming a kind of ontwork or advanced post of the chain of Apennines, which here trends away suddenly to the eastward, sweeping round by Genazzano, Olevano, and anate, till it mumes its general SE. direction, and is continued on by the lofty ranges of the Hernican mountains, which bound the valley of the Sacco on the E. and continue unbroken to the valley of the Liris.

Opposite to Pracmmtre, and separated from it by a breadth of nearly 5 miles of intervening plain, rises the isolated group of the Alban mountains, the form of which at once proves its volcanic origin. [ALBAHUQ Monti] It is a nearly circular mass, of about 40 miles in circumference; and may be conceived as forming a great crater, the outer ridge of which has been broken up into numerous more or less detached summits, several of which were crowned in ancient times by towns or fortresses, such as Tusculum, Corbin, 8m; while at a lower level it throws out detached offshoots, or outlying ridges, afi‘crding advantageons sites for towns, and which were accordingly occupied by those of Velitrae, Lanuvium, Alba Longs, 8w. The group of the Alban mountains is WhOlly detached on all sides: on the S. a strip of plain, of much the same breadth as that which separated it. from the ij'nnines of Pracncste, divides it l'rorn the subordinatc, but very lofty of moun


tnins, commonly known as the Monti chiui, or Volscian mountains. This group, which forms in outlying mass of the Apennines, sepamted from the main chain of those mountains by the broad valley of the Trerus or Sacco, rises in a bold and imposing mass from the level of the Pontine Marshes, which it borders throughout their whole extent, until it reaches the sea at Tarraciua, and from that place to the mouth of the Liris sends down a succession of mountain headlands to the sea, constituting a great natural barrier between the plains of Latium and those of Cnmpania. The highest summits of this group, which consists, like the more centrd Apeunines, wholly of limestone, attain an elevation of nearly 5000 feet above the sea: the whole mass fills up almost the entire space between the valley of the 'l‘rerus and the Pontiac Marshes, a breadth of from 12 to 16 miles; with a length of near 40 miles from filonle Fortino at its N. extremity to the sea at Tmacina : but the whole distance, from dlvnle For-lino to the end of the mountain chain near the mouth of the Liris, exceeds 60 miles. The greater part of this rugged mountain tract. belonged from a very early period to the Vulscians, but the Latins, as already mentioned, possessed several towns, as Signia, Cora, Norba, See, which were built on projecting points or underfalls of the will all}.

But though the plains of Lutium are thus strongly characterised, when compared with the groups 0i mountains just described, it must not be supposed that they constitute an unbroken plain, still less a level alluvial tract like those of Northern Indy. 'l‘hc Campayna. of Rome, as it is called at the present day, is a country of wholly diti‘erent character from the ancient Cnmpania. It is a broad undulating tract, never rising into considerable elevations, but presenting much more variety of ground than would be suspected from the general uniformity of its up pearance, and irregularly intersected in all directions by numerous streams, which have cut for theliYES deep channels or ravines through the soft volcanic tqu of which the soil is composed, leaving on each side steep and often precipitous banks. The height of these, and the depth of the valleys or ravines which are bounded by them, vary greatly in different parts of the Campagna ,- but besides these local and irregular fluctuations, there is a general rise (though so gradual as to be imperceptible to the eye) in the level of the plain towards the E. and SE.; so that, as it approaches Praeneste, it really attains to B considerable elevation, and the river courses WllK'll intersect the plain in nearly parallel limo between that city and the Ania become deep and MW ravines of the most formidable description. Even "1 the lower and more level parts of the CGMPW'" the sites of ancient cities will be generally found to occupy spaces bounded to a considerable extent— frequently on three sides out of four—by steep hull“ of tufo rock, affording natural means of dciemr which could be easily strengthened by the eufllllo expedient of cutting away the face of the rocky blnkr so as to render it altogether inaccessible. The F“ culiar configuration of the Cammna resulting in“? these causes is well represented on Sir W-Gf’lls map, the only one which gives at all a faithful also of the physical geography of Latiurn. _

The volcanic origin of the greater part of hum" has a material influence upon its physical charach and condition. The Alban mountains, as already mentioned, are unouestionably a great volcanic 11wIs which must at a distant period have been the centre of volcanic outbursts on a great scale. Besides the central or principal crater of this group, there are several minor craters, or crater-shaped hollows, at a much lower level around its ridges, which Were in all probability at different periods centres of emption. Some of these have been filled with water, and thus constitute the beautiful basin-shaped lakes of Album: and Nani, while others have been drained at periods more or less remote. Such is the case with the \lallis Aricina, which appeam to have at one time constituted a lake [ARICIA], as well as with the now dry basin of Comufelle, below Tusculum, supposed, with good reason, to be the ancient Lake Regillus, and with the somewhat more considerable Lago di Castiglitme, adjoining the nucient Gahii, which has been of late years either wholly or partially drained. Besides these distinct foci of volcanic action, there remain in several parts of the Campagna spots where sulphureous and other vapours are still evolved in considerable quantifies, so as to constitute deposits of sulphur available for economic purposes. Such are the Lago di Solfatara near T ivoli (the Aquae Albulae of the R0mans), and the Solfatara on the road to Arden, supposed to be the site of the ancient Oracle of l-‘zunus. Numerous allusions to these sulphureons and mephitic exhalatious are found in the ancient writers, and there is reason to suppose that they were in ancient times more numerous than at present. But the evidences of volcanic action are not confined to these local phenomena; the whole plain of the Campagna itself, as well as the portion of Southern Etruria which adjoins it, is a deposit of volcanic origin, consisting of the peculiar substance called by Italian geologists tufo,—an aggregate of volcanic materials, sand, small stones, and scoriae or ciuders, together with pumice, varying in consistency from an almost incoherent sand to a stone sntiiciently hard to be well adapted for building purpose. The hardest varieties are those now called pfpa-irw, to which belong the Lapis Gabinus and Lupis Albanus of the ancients. But even the common tufo was in many cases quarried for building Purim“, 15 at the Lapidicinae Rubrae, a few miles from the city near the bank of the Tiber, and many other spots in the immediate neighbourhood of Rome. (i'itruv. ii. 7.) Beds of true lava are rare, but by no means wanting: the most considerable are two itmms which have flowed from the foot of the Alban Mount; the one in the direction of Arden, the other on the line of the Appian Way (which runs along the ridge of it for many miles) extending ssfar as a spotcallod Capo di [fr/re, little more than two miles from the gates of Rome. It was extensively quarried by the Romans, who derived from thence their principal supplius of the hard basaltic lava (called by them tiles) with which they paved lln'ir high roads. Smaller beds of the same material occur near the Lago di Cmfiglrbne, and at other spots in the 01112sz (Concerning the Kutlngical phenomena of Latium see Daubeny 0n Volcanoes, pp. 162—173; and an Essay by Hot?nunn in tho Buchrerhung der Stall! Rom. voL i. pp. 45—81.)


The strip of country immediately adjoining the Most of Latium difl‘ers materially from the rest 0! the district. Between the borders of the volcanic dP-[mit just described and the sea there intervenes a broad strip of sandy plain, evidently formed merely by sumive accumulations of sand from the sea,


and constituting a barren tract, still covered, as it was in ancient times, almost wholly with wood. This broad belt of forest region extends without interruption from the mouth of the Tiber near Ostia to the promontory of Antium. The parts of it nearest the sea are rendered marshy by the stagnation of the streams that flow throuch it, the outlets of which to the sea are blocked up by the accumulations of sand. The headland of Antiuru is formed by a mass of limestone rock, forming a remarkable break in the otherwise uniform line of the coast, though itself of small elevation. A bay of about 8 miles across separates this headland from the low point or promontory of Astura: beyond which commences the far more extensive buy that stretches from the latter point to the mountain headland of Circeii. The whole of this line of coast from Aatura to Circeii is bordered by a narrow strip of sand-hills, within which the waters accumulate into stagnant pools or lagoors. Beyond this again is a broad sandy tract, covered with dense forest and brushwood, but almost perfectly level, and in many places marshy; while from thence to the foot of the Volscian mountains extends a tract of a still more marshy character, forming the celebrated district known as the Pontine Marshes, and noted in ancient as well as modern times for its insalubrity. The whole of this region, which, from its N. extremity at Cinema to the sea near Terracina,ie about 30 Roman miles in length, with an average breadth of 12 miles, is perfectly flat, and, from the stagnation of the waters which descend to it from the mountains on the PL, has been in all ages so marshy as to be almost uninhabitable. l’liny, indeed, records a tradition that there once existed no less than 24 cities on the site of what was in his days an unpeopled marsh, but a careful inspection of the locality is sufficient to prove that this must be a mere fable. (l’liu. iii. 5. s. 9.) The dry land adjoining the marshes was doubtless occupied in ancient times by the cities or towns of Satricum, Ulubrae, and Suessa Pometia; while on the mountain ridges overlooking them rose those of Cora, Norba, Setia and Priveruum; but not even the name of any town has been preserved to us as situated in the marshy region itself. Equally unfounded is the statement hastily adopted by Pliny, though obviously inconsistent with the last, that the whole of this alluvial tract had been formed within the historical period. a notion that appears to have arisen in consequence of the identification of the Mons Circeius with the island of Circe, described by Homer as situated in the midst of an open sea. This remarkable headland is indeed a perfectly insulated mountain, being separated from the Apennines near Terract'na by a strip of level sandy coat above 8 miles in breadth, fomiing the southern extremity of the plain of tho Pontine Marshes; but this alluvial deposit, which alone connects the two, must have been formed at a period long anterior to the historical age.

The Circeian promontory formed the southern limit of Latium iu the original sense. On the opposite side of the I’ontinc Marshes rises the lofty group of the Volscian mountains already described: and those are separated by the valley of the Trerus or Sacco from the ridges more immediately connected with the central Apennincs, which were inhabited by the Aequians and Hernicans. All these mountain districts, as well as those inhabited by the Volscians on the S. of the Liris, around Arpinum and Atina, Irirtuke of the same general character: they are occupied :diuust entirely by masscs‘and groups of limestone mountains, frequently rising to a grent height, and very nbruptly, while in other cases their sides are clothed with magnificent forests of oak and chestnut trees, and their lower slopes are well adapted for the growth of vines, olives, and corn. The broad valley of the Trerus, which extends from the foot of the hill of Praeneste to the valley of the Liris, is bordered on both sides by hills, covered with the richest vegetation, at the back of which rise the lofty ranges of the Volscian and Hernican mountains. This vnlley,which isfollowed throughout by the course of the Via Latino, forms a natural line of communica~ tion from the interior of Latium to the valley of thc Liris, and so to Csmprmis; the importance of which in n military point of view is apparent on many occa~ sions in Romnn history. The broad volley of the Liris itself opens on cosy and unbroken cotnmunica~ tion from the heart of the Apcnnincs near the Lake F ucinus with the plains of Campanin. On the other side, the Anio, which has its sources in the rucccd mountains near Traci, not far from those of the Liris, flows in 1; SW. direction, and nfter changing its course abruptly two or three times, emerges through the gorge at T 52:05 into the plain of the Roman Campay-na.

The greater part of Lstium is not (as compared with some other ports of Italy) a country of great natural fertility. On the other hand, the barren and desolate aspect which the Campogna now presents is apt to convey a very erroneous impression as to its character and resources. The grenter part of the volcanic plsin not only affords good pustnrnge for sheep and cattle, but is capable of producing considerable quantities of corn, while the slopes of the hills on all sides are well adapted to the growth of vines, olives, and other fruit-trees. The wine of the Albnn Hills was celebrated in the days of Horace (Her. Carm. iv. 11. 2, Sat. ii. 8. 16), while the figs of Tuscnlum, the hazel-nuts of l’rncneste, and the

rs of Crustuminm and Tibur were equally noted for their excellence. (Macrob. Sat. ii. l4, l5; Cato, R. R. 8.)

In the early ages of the Roman history the cultivation of com must, from the number of small towns scattered over the plain of Lstium, have been carried to a. far greater extent than we find it at. the present day; but under the Roman Empire. and even before the close of the Republic, there appears to have been a continually increasing tendency to diminish the amount of arable cultivation, and increase that of pasture. Nevertheless the attempts that have been made even in modern times to promote agriculture in the neighbourhood of Rome have sufficiently proved that its decline is more to be attributed to other causes than to the sterility of the soil itself. The tract near the son-coast alone is sandy and barren, and fully justifies the language 0f Fabius, who called it “ sgrum mmrrimnm, littorosissimumque " (Sen, ndAen. i. 3). On the other hand, the slopes of the Alban Hills are of great fertility, and are still studded, as they were in ancient times, with the villas of Roman nobles, and with gardens of the greatest richness.

The climate of Lntium was very for from being a. healthy one, even in the most flourishing times of Rome, though the greater amount of population and cultivation tended to diminish the effects of the malaria, which at the present day is the scourge of the district. Straho tells us that the territory of Arden, as well us the tract between Antium and Lnunvinin, and extending from thence to the l’untinc


Marshes, was marshy and unwholesome (v. p. 23l). The Poutinc plains themselves are described as “ gestiferous" (Sil. ltnl. viii. 379), and all the attempts made to drain them seem to have produced but little sheet. The unhealthiness of Arden is noticed both by Martial and Seneca as something proverbial (Man iv. 60 ; Seneca, Ep. 105): but, besides this, expressions occur which point to n much more general ditfusiou of malaria. Livy in one passage represents the Roman soldiers as complaining that they had to maintain a constant struggle "in nrido atque pestilenti, circa urbem, solo” (Liv. vii. 38); and Cicero, in a passage where there was much lac room for rhetorical exaggemtion, praises the choice of Romulus in fixing his city “in a healthy spot in the midst of s pestilcntial region." (“ Locum delecit inreyitme putilenti salubrem," Cic. dc Rep. ii. 6.) But we learn also, from abundant allusions in ancient writers, that it was only by comparison that Rome itself could be considered healthy; even in the city malaria fevers were of frequent occurrence in summer and autumn, and Horace speaks of the heats of summer a bringing in “fresh figs and funerals." (Hor. Ep. i. 7. 1—9.) Frontinus also extol! the increased supply of water as tending to remove the causes which had previously rendered Rome notorious for it: unhealthy climate (“can gnvioris coeli, quibus spud veteres urbis infamis nor fuit," Frontin. dc Aquaed. § 88). But the great wellmulntion of the population at Rome itself must hare operated as a powerful check ; for even at the present day malaria is unknown in the most densely populated parts of the city, though these are the lowmt in point of position, while the hills, which were the" thickly peopled, but are now almost uninhabited, are all subject to its ravages. In like manner in the Campagnn, wherever n considerable nucleus of population was once formed, with a certain extent of cultivation around it, this would in itself tend to keep down the mischief; and it is probable til-"v even in the most flourishing times of the Remap Empire, this evil was considerably greater that! It had been in the earlier ages, when the numerous free cities formed so many centres of population and agricultural industry. it is in accordance with this view that we find the malaria extending its rival!“ with frightful rapidity after the fall of the Roman Empim and the devastation of the Campognll; and a writer of the llth century speaks of the deadly climate of Rome in terms which at the present dll’ would appear greatly exaggerated. (Palms-Duminnns, cited by Bunsen.) The unheflllhmm arising from this cause is, however, entirely confined to the plains. It is found at the present day that an elevation of 350 or 400 feet above their level givm complete immunity; and hence Tibur, Th5culum, Aricia, Lsnnvium, and all the other cities that were built at a considerable height above the plain were perfectly healthy, and were MOM0 during the summer (in ancient as well as motllm times) by all who could atford to retreat from the city and its immediate ncighhonrhmd. (See OD'llllP subject Tonrnon, E'tudcs Slatirtiqua sur Rome, h"- {clmp. 9; Bunsen, Bess/troubling der- Stadt Rom. vol. 1pp 98—108.) IV. Ilis'roni'.

1- Origin and A flirtiries of the Latino—:4"

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