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in the W. 'part of the island agrees very well with the supposition that its site was on the spot now called Ha'ghi'o 1mm. This place occupies a small hollow of the hills facing the sea. like a theatre. Nmr the church of the Panaght'a are what appear to be vestiges of an ancient temple, consisting of granite columns, and white marble fragments, architraves, and pediments. Further on, appears to have been another temple, and a theatre. The tombs are on the SW. side of the plain. They are worked independent of the rock, with arched roofs. There are perhaps fifty of them. (Pashley, Trav. vol. ii. p.88; Mus. Clan. Ant. vol. ii. p. 298.)

Of all the towns which existed on this part of the out, Lissus alone seems to have struck mine, a fact which agrees very well with the evidence supplied by its situation, of its having been a place of some trading importance. The harbour is mentioned by Scylax (p. 18), and the types of the coins are either maritime, or indicative of the worship of Dictynna, as might have been expected on this part of the island The obverse of one coin bears the impms of the caps and stars of the Dioscuri, and its reverse a quiver and arrow. 0n the second coin the caps and stars are replaced by a dolphin, and instead of the quiver a female head, probably that of Artemis or Dictynna. (Comp. Eckhel, vol. ii. p.315.) [15. B.J.]

LlSSUS (Moves, Strab. vii. p. 816; Ptol. ii. 16. § 5 : Steph. 8.; Hierocles; Pout. Tub.), a town of lllyricum, at the mouth of the river Drilo. Dionysius the elder, in his schemes for establishing settlements among the Illyrian tribes, founded Lissus. (Diod. av. 13.) It was afterwards in the hands of the Illy'rians, who, after they had been defeated by the Romans, retained this port, beyond which their vessels were not allowed to sail. (Polyb. ii. 12.) a. c. 211, Philip of Macedon, having surprised the citadel Acrolisaus, compelled the town to sur"Ildcr. (Polyb. viii. 15.) Gentius, the lllyrian king, collected his forces here for the war against Rome. (Liv. xliv. 30.) A body of Roman citizens was stationed there by Caesar (B. C. iii. 26—29) to defend the town; and Pliny (iii. 26), who says that it was 100 LLP. from Epidsnrus, describes it Is “oppidnm'civium Romanorum." Constantine Pfll'phyrogeneta (tie Adm. Imp. c. 30) calls it 'EAw“6" and it now bears the name of Leadi- (Leake, Nor-them Grace, vol. iii. p.477; Schafarik, Slac. AIL vol. ii. p. 275.) [5. B J.]

LlSTA (Alarm), a very ancient city of Central lle- Which, according to Varro (up. Dion. Hal. l' H), '18 the metropolis of the Aborigines, when "m people still dwelt in the mountain valleys l-round Reatc. It was surprised by the Sabiuos by ' “isle attack from Amitcrnum; and the inhabitants toolt refuge in Reate, from whence they made itva fruitless attempts to recover possession of their city; but failing in this, they declared it, with ll“ Surrounding territory, sacred to the gods, and Impmatcd curses on all who should occupy it. This circumstance probably accounts for the absence of all other mention of it; though it would seem that its ruins still mmined in the time of Varro, 0" It least that its site was clearly known. This has been in modern times a subject of much dispute. docording to the present test of Dionysius, it was situated 24 stadia from Tiers, the ruins of which are Whobly those at Gaston: ncar Sta. Anatolia, in "'8 "PW valley at the Salk), as miles from Ron. Bunsen accordingly places it at Sta. Anatolia itself,


where there are some remains of an ancient city. But Holstcuiua long ago pointh out a site about 3 miles from Rests itself, on the road from thence to Civita Duoule, still called Monte ds' Leela, where there still exist, according to a local antiquarian, Martelli, and Sir W. Gell, the remains of an ancient city,with walls of polygonal construction, and a site of considerable strength. The situation of these ruins would certainly be a more probable position for the capital of the Aborigines than one so far removed as Sta. Anatolia from their other settlements, and would accord better with the natural line of advance of the Sahines from Amiteruum, which must have been by the pass of Antmdoco and the valley of the Velino. In this case we must understand the distance of 24 stadia (3 miles), as stated by Dionysius (or rather by Varro, whom he cites). as having reference to Rests itself, not to Tiora. (Bunsen, Antichi Stabilimenti ltalici, in Ann. 11. [ml- Arch. vol. vi. p. 137; Gell's T0110— graplty of Rome, p. 472; Holsten. Not. in Clover.

114. E. H. 3.]

LISTRON (Att‘r‘rpe'iv), a place in hpirus Nova, mentioned by Hiemclts with a fortress Aus'rnus ('AM’orpor, Procop. de Aed. iv. 4). It is probably represented by the village and castle of Kla'nira, situated on the river Aous (Vs'dsa), which is mentioned by Cantacuzsnus (KMwaflpa, ii. 32; comp. Anna Comnena, xiii. p. 390) in the fourteenth century, together with other places which are still to be recognised as having been the chief strongholds in this part of Greece. [Aoua] (Leaks, Northern Greece, “11. i. p. 383.) [15. B. J.]

LITA'BRUM. [Vaccaar].

LITANA SILVA, a forest in the territory of the Boians in Gallia Cispadana, memorable for the de' feat of the Roman consul L. Postumius, in B. C. 216. On this disastrous occasion the consul himself perished, with his whole army, consisting of two Roman legions, augmented by auxiliaries to the amount of 25,000 men. (Liv. xxiii. 24; Frontin. Strut. i. 6. §4.) At a later period it witnessed, on the other hand, a defeat of the Boiana by the Roman consul L. Valerins Fluccus, B. c. 195. (Liv. xxxiv. ‘22.) The forest. in question appears to have been situated somewhere between Boncnia and Placentia, but its name is never mentioned after the reduction of Cisalpino Gaul, and its exact site cannot be determined. It is probable, indeed, that a great part of the tract between the Apennines and the marshy ground on the banks of the Padus was at this time covered with forest. [K H. ii]

LITANOBRIGA, in Gallia, is placed by the Antonino ltin. between Caesnromagus (Beauoaia) and Augustomagus, which D‘Anville supposes to he Senlt'a. According to his reading, the ltin. makes it xviii. Gallic leagues from Camaromagus to Litanohriga, and iiii. from Litanobriga to Augustomagus. Walckenur (Geog. do, vol. iii. p. 55) makes the first distance xvi., and the second iiii.; and he places Caesaromagus at Verberie, near the river Autonc. The Table mentions no place between Caesaromagus and Augustomagus, but it makes the whole distance xxii. We may assume that Litanobriga was situated at a ford or bridge over a river, and this river is the Oils. D'Anville first thought that Litanobriga might be Poul-Sainte-Mazencc, for a Roman road from Beauvuil, called Bruaelmut, passes by Clcr~ went, and joins a road from Pont-Sainto-Muzenee. But the numbers in the hints. fall short of the distance between Beam-air and Scnlis; and accordingly D‘Anville gave up Font-Sainw-Maxencs, and fixed Litunobriga at Creil on the 0‘86, and along this line the distances of the Table agree pretty well with the real distances. Wnlckcnacr fixrm Litanohriza at PontSainte-ance. The solution of this ditiicnlty depends on the position of Angustomagus; or if we are content with the evidence for fixing Litanobrign at Pont-Sainte-ance, We cannot, place Augustornagus at Senlic. [Auons'rosucua] [(3. LI]

LITERNUM (Airepwov, Strab. ; Aeiflpvuv, Ptol. : Eth. Literninus : Tor di' Patric), a town on the sea-coast of Campania, between the mouth of the Vulturnus and Gamma." It was situated at the mouth of a river of the same name (Strab. v. p. 2-83: Liv. xxxii. 29), which assumed a stagnant character as it approached the sea, so as to form a considerable marshy pool or lagoon, called the eranna Paws (Sil. ital. vii. 278; Stat. Silo. iv. 3. 66), and bordered on either side by more extensive marshes. It is not quite clear whether there was a town there at all before the establishment of the Roman colony: Livy‘s expression (1. c.) that that colony was sent “ ad ostia Literni fiuminia," would seem to imply the contrary; and though the name of Litcrnum is mentioned in the Second Panic War, it is in a manner that does not clearly prove there was then a town there. (Liv. xxiii. 35.) But the notice in Festus (v.1’1'aefictume), who mentions Liternum, with Capaa, Cumae, and other Campanian towns, among the Prnet'ccturae, must probably refer to a period earlier than the Roman settlement.

It. was not till the year 3. c. 194 that a colony of Roman citizens was settled at Liternnm at the some time with one at V ulturnnm ; they were both of the class called “coloniae maritimae civium,” but were not numerous, only 300 colonists being sent to each. (Liv. xxxii. 29, xxxiv. 45.) The situation of Liternum also was badly chosen : the marshy character of the neighbourth rendered it unhealthy, while the adjoining tract on the sea-coast was sandy and barren; hence, it. never seems to have risen to be a place of any importance, and is chiefly noted from the circumstance that it was the place which Scipio Africanne chose for his retirement, when he withdrew in disgust from public life, and where he ended his days in a kind of Voluntary exile. (Liv. xxaviii. 52, 53; Seneca, Ep. 86; Val. Max. v. 3. § 1; Oros. iv. 20.) At a later period, however, Augustus settled a fresh colony at Litemurn (Lr'b. Colon. p. 235), and the construction by Domitian of the road leading along the sea-coast from Sinuessn to Cnmae must have tended to render itmorefrequcntcd. But it evidently never rose to be a considerable place: under the Roman Empire its name is men. tioned only by the geographers, and in the Itineraries in connection with the Via Domitiana already noticed. (Strab. v. p. 243; Mel. ii. 4. 9; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Ptol. iii. 1. §6; Ilia. Ant. p. 122; Tab. Pent.) We learn, however, that it still existed as a “ civitaa" as late as the reign of Valentinian ll. (Symmach. Ep. vi 5) ; and it was probably destroyed by the Vandals in the fifth century.

The villa of Scipio, where he spent the latter

[graphic][graphic][merged small]

years of his life, was still extant in the days of Seneca, who has left us a detailed dscription of it, and strongly contrasts the simplicity of its arrangements with the luxury and splendour of those of his own time. (5]). 86.) Pliny also tells us, that some of the olive trees and myrtleo planted by the hands of Scipio himself were still visible there. (Plin. xvi. 44. s. 85.) It is certain that his tomb also was shown at Litemum in the days of Strabo and Livy, though it would appear that. there was great doubt whether he was really buried there. The well-known epitaph which, according to Valeria: Mnximus, he caused to be engraved on his tomb,— “ Ingram patria, ne om quidem mea habes,“—ooald certainly not have been extant. in the time of Selena, who treats the question as one of mere conjecture, though he inclines to the belief that Africanus WM really buried there, and not in the tomb of the Scipios at Rome. (Seneca, 1. 0.; Val. Max. v. 3. § 1 ; Strnb. l. 0.; Liv. xxxviii. 56.)

The site of Liternum is now marked by a watchtower called Tor di Fairfax, and a miserable village of the same name; the adjoining Logo diPotriu is unquestionably the Literna Palus, and hence the river Liternus can be no other than the srrull and sluggish stream which forms the outlet- of this lake to the sea. At. the present day the Logodi Patn'a communicates with the river Claniul or Lagno, and is formed by one of the nuns of that stream. It is not improbable that this was the casein ancient times also, for we have no account of the mouth of the Clanius, while the Literan is mentioned only in connection with the town at its mouth. [CL.-\Nll'8.] The modern name of Pan-in must certainly have been derived from some tradition of the epitaph of Scipio already noticed, though we cannot explain the mode in which it arose; but the name may be traced back as far as the eighth century. There are scarcely any ruins on the site of Litemum, but the remains of the ancient bridge by which the Via Domitiana here crossed the river are still extant, and the road itself may be traced from thence the whole way to Cumae. H. B.]

LITHRUS (AlOpos), the name of the northern branch of Mount Paryatlres in Pontus, Which, to' gether with Mount Ophelimus in the north-West 0f Amasia, enclosed the extensive and fertile plain of Phanaruca. (Strab. xii. p. 556.) Hamilton (36searcku, vol. i. p. 349) believes that thew "'0 ancient hills answer to the modern Kmfl' Build and Oktap Dngh. [L- 3-]

LIVIANA, in Gallia Narbonenais, is plmd by the Table and the Jerusalem ltin. between Caruso (Carcassonne) and Narbo (Nnrbonne). It is the am station to Carcaso, and xii. from it: the station that follows Liviana is Usuerra, or Usuerua, or Hosncrln. The site is uncertain. 6- 1"]

LIX, LIXUS. [Mauna'ranra].


LOBETA’NI (Amimru'ol), one of the lrshtf peoples in the NE. part of Hispania 'l'arraconcnSI$ 'l‘heir position was SE. of the CKLTIBKRI, and N. of the Basra'ranr, in the SW. of Afi'agrm. The Only city mentioned as belonging to them was Lonmml (Aéignruv), which D'Anville idcntifiw with but Ukert with Aflmrmcm.‘ (Ptol. ii. 6. §60; Conn up. Sostini, p. 169; Ukcrt, vol. ii. pt- l, PP_3221 464.) [1b~]

LOBE'TUM. [Lonn'raxr] I

LOCORITUM (Auxdpmw), a town on the "Y"? Milli! in Germany, and probably the same as film modern Lohr. (Ptol. ii. ll. §29.) Its name seems to be of Celtic origin. (Comp. Steiner, bus Maingebkl, p. 125.) [L. S ]

LOCRAS. [Comm/i, p. 691, n.]

LOCRl EPICNEMI'DlI, Ol’U'N'l‘lI. [Locals]


LOCRI (Amrpof), sometimes called, for distinction's sake, LOCRI EPIZEPHY'RII (Aaxpol 'Eil‘l((WflwcThch'ii. l; Pind.01.xi.15; Strab.: Steph. IL: Elli. onpds, Locrensis: Ruins near Gerace), a city on the SE. coast of the Bi‘uttian peninsula, not far from its southern extremity, and one of the most celebrated of the Greek colonies in this part of Italy. It was a colony, as its name obviously implies, of the Locrians in Greece, but there is much discrepancy as to the tribe of that nation from which it derived its origin. Strabo affirms that it was founded by the Lorri Ozolae. under a leader named Euanthes, and reasons Ephorus for ascribing it. to the Locri Opuntii; but this last opinion seems to have been the one generally prevalent. Scymnua Chins mentions both opinions, but seems to incline to the latter; and it is adopted without question by Pausanias, as well as by the poets and later Latin authors, whence we may probably infer that it was the tradition adopted by the Locrians themselves. (Strab. vi. p. 259; Scyrnn.Ch.3l3—317; Pans. iii. 19. § 12; \'irg. Aen. ii. 399.) Unfortunately l‘olybius, who had informed himself particularly as to the history and institutions of the Locrians, docs not give any statement upon this point. But we learn from him that the origin of the colony was ascribed by the tradition current among the Locrians themselves, and sanctioned by the authority of Aristotle, to a body of fugitive slaves, who had carried 08" their mistresses, with whom they had previously carried on an illicit intercourse. (Pol. xi. 5. 6. 10-12.) The same story is alluded to by Dionysius Periegetee (355—367). Pansanias would seem to refer to a wholly different tale where he says that the Lacedaeaiouians sent a colony to the Epizephyrian Loci-i, It the same time with one to Cmtona. (l’aus. iii. 3. § 1.) These were, however, in both cases, probably "my additional bands of colonists, us Lacedaemon Was never regarded as the founder of either city. The can of the foundation of Locri is equally “nverlain. Strnbo (I. 0.) places it a little after that of Crotona and Syracuse, which be regarded as nearly contemporary, but he is probably mistaken in this 1"" °Pinion. [Cum-oan Eusebins, on the contrary. brings it down toso late a date as B. C. 673 ("humming to Hieronymus, 683); but there seems Rood meson to believe that this is much too late, and We may venture to adopt Strabo's statement that. it was founded soon after Crutona, if the latter be lllacvd about 710 n. 0. (Bosch. Ann. p. 105; Clinton RH. vol. i. p. 186, vol. ii. p. 410.) The traditions adopted by Aristotle and l‘olybius represented the first settlers as gaining possession of the soil from the native Oenotrians (whom they called Siculi), by a fraud not unlike those related in many similarlegenda. (Pol. xi. 6.) The that stated by Strobe that they first established themselves on Cape [Pl'hi'n'um (Capo di' Bruzmno), and subsequently rcmoved from thence to the site which they ultimately occupied, about 15 miles further N., is suphorlctl by the evidence of their distinctive appellayouS and may be depended on m accurate. (s'Lrub. .c.

_ As in the case of most of the other Greek Colonivs ‘ In Italy, we have very want y and imperfect in


formation conccniing the early history of Locri. The first event in its annals that has been transmitted to us, and one of those to which it owes its chief celebrity, is the legislation of Zaleucus. This was said to be the most ancient written code of laws that had been given to any Greek state; and though the his~ tory of Zaleucus himself was involved in great obscurity, and mixed up with much of table [Zamsucus, Biogr. DicL], there is ccrtainly no doubt that the Locrians possessed a written code, which passed under his name, and which continued down to a late period to be in force in their city. Even in the days of l’indar and of Demosthenes. Locri was regarded as a model of good govemmrnt and order; and its inhabitants were distinguished for their adherence to established laws and their aversion to all innovation. (l’ind. 0L 1. l7; Schol. ad 100.; Strab. vi. p. 260; Demosth. adv. Timocrat. p. 743; Diod. aii. 20.21.)

The period of the legislation of Zaleucus cannot be determined with certainty: but the date given by Eusebiua of 01. 30, or a. c. 660, may be receide as approximately correct. (Euseb. Ann. p. 105; Clinton, vol. i. p. 193.) Of its principles We know but little; and the quotations from his laws, even if we could depend upon their authenticity, have no reference to the political institutions of the state. It appears, however, that the government of Locri was an aristocracy. in which certain select families, called the Hundred Houses, enjoyed superior privileges: these were considered to be derived from the original settlers, and in accordance with the legend concerning their origin. were regarded as deriving their nobility from the female side. (Pol. xii. 5.)

The next event in the history of' Locri, of which we have any account, is the memorable battle of the Sagras, in which it was said that a force of 10,000 Locrians, with a small body of auxiliaries from lthegium, totally defeated an army of 130,000 Crotoniats, with vast slaughter. (Strab. vi. 1). 26l; Cic. dc NJ). ii. 2; Justin. xx. 2, 3.) The extraordinary character of' this victory, and the exaggerated and fabulous accounts of" it which appear to have been circulated, rendered it proverbial among the Greeks (baifl‘anpa. 16w éirl Zdypq, Suid. s. v.) Yet we have no means of assigning its correct- place in history, its date being extremely uncertain, some accounts placing it after the fall of Sybaris (n. c. 510), while Othch would carry it bad: nearly 50 years earlier. [Cnorornu]

The small number of troops which the Locrians are represented as bringing into the field upon this occasion, as compared with those of Crotcna, would seem to prove that the city was not at this time a very powerful one; at least it is clear that it was not to compare with the great republics of Sybaris and Crotona. But. it seems to have been in a flourishing condition; and it must in all probability be to this period that we must refer the establishment of its colonies of Hipponium and Mcdms, on the opposite side of' the Bruttian peninsula. (Scymn. Ch.. 308; Strab. vi. p. 256.) Locri is mentioned by Herodotus in 5.0.493, When the Szunian colonists, who were on their way to Sicily, touched there (llemdmi. 23); and it appears to have been in a state of great prosperity when its praises were sung by Pindar, in B. C. 484. (Find. 01. x., xi.) The Locrians, from their position, were naturally led to maintain a close comiection with the Greek cities of Sicily, pccinlly with Syracuse, their friendship with which would from the period of their very foundation. (Strab. vi. p. 259.) On the other hand, they were almost constantly on terms of hostility with their neighbours of Rhegium, and, during the rule of Anuxilns, in the latter city, were threatened with complete destruction by that despot, from which they were saved by the intervention of Hieron of Syracuse. (Pind. Pyflt. ii. 35 ; and Schol. ad In like manner we find them, at the period of the Athenian expeditions to Sicily, in close alliance with Syracuse, and on terms of open enmity with Bhegium. Hence they at first engaged in actual hostilities with the Athenians under Laches ; and though they subsequently concluded a treaty of peacewith them, they still refused to admit the great Athenian armament, in 3.0. 4] 5, even to anchor on their coasts. (T hue. iii. 99, 115, iv. 1, 24, v. 5, vi. 44, vii. l; Diod. xii. 54. xiii. 3.) At a later period of the Peloponnesinn War they were among the few Italian cities that sent auxiliary ships to the Lacednemonians. (Thur. viii. 91.)

I seem to have dated, according to some accounts,

During the reign of the elder Dionysius at Symcnse, the bonds of amity between the two cities were strengthened by the personal alliance of that monarch. who married Doris, the daughter of Xenetus, one of the most eminent of the citizens of Locri. (Died. xiv. 44.) He subsequently adhered steadfastly to this alliance, which secured him a footing in Italy, from which he derived great advantage in his wars against the Rhegians and other states of Magus Gruecia. In return for this, as well as to secure the continuance of their support, he conferred great benefits upon the Locrians, to whom he gave the whole territory of Caulonia, after the destruction of that city in n.c. 389; to which he added that of Hipponium in the following year, and a part of that of Scylletium. (DlOll. aiv. 100, 106, 107; Strab. p. 261.) Hipponium was, however, again wrested from them by the Carthsginians in n.('. 379. (Id. xv. 24.) The same intimate relations with Syracuse continued under the younger Dionysius, when they bet‘alllle the source of great misfortunes to the city: for that despot, after his expulsion from Syracuse (u.c. 356), withdrew to Locri, where be seized on the citadel, and established himself in the possession of despotic power. His rnle here is described as extremely arbitrary and oppressive, and stained at once by the most excessive avarice and unbridled licentiousneas. At length, after a period of six years, the Unrians took advantage of the absence of Dionysius, and drove out his garrison ; while they exercised a cruel vengeance upon his unfortunate wife and daughters, who had fallen into their hands. (Justin, xxi. 2,3 ; Strah. vi. p. 259; Arist. Pol. v. 7; Clearch. up, Athen . xii. 541.)

The Locrinna are said to have sud'ered severely from the oppressions of this tyrant; but it is probable that they sustained still greater injury from the increasing power of the Bruttians, who were now become most formidable neighbours to all the Greek cities in this part- of Italy. The Locrians never appear to have fallen under the yoke of the bar. bark”, but it is certain that their city declined greatly from its former prosperity. It is not again mentioned till the wars of Pyrrhns. At that period it appears that Locri, as well as Rhegium and other Greek cities, had placed itself under the protection of Rome, and even admitted a Roman gar. rison into its walls. On the approach of Pyfi'hus they expelled this garrison, and declared themselves in favour of that monarch (Justin, xviii. l); but they had soon cause to regret the change; for the

gan-ison left there by the king, during his absence in Sicily, conducted itself so ill, that the Inerimu rose against them and expelled them from their city. On this account they were severely punished by Pyrrhus on his return from Sicily; and, not enutent with emotions from the inhabitants, he carried off a great part of the mred treasures from the temple of Proserpine, the most celebrated sanctuary at Locri. A violent storm is said to have punished his impiety, and compelled him to restore the treasures. (Appisn, Smnn. iii. 12; Liv. axis. 18; Val. Max. i. 1, Ext. § 1.)

After the departure of Pyrrbus, the Locriam seem to have submitted again to Rome, and con— tinued so till the Second Punic War, when they were among the states that threw off the Roman alliance and declared in favour of the Carthaginiane, after the battle of Cannse, no. 216. (Liv. “ii. 61, xxiii. 30.) They soon after received a Caninginian force within their walls, though at the same time their liberties were guaranteed by a treaty of alliance on equal terms. (Liv. xxiv. 1.) When the fortune of the war began to turn against Carthage, Locri was besieged by the Roman consul Crispinus. but without success ; and the approach of Hannibal compelled him to raise the siege, 8.0. ‘208. (Id. xxvii. 25, 28.) It, was not till 8-0. 205, ii!!! Scipio, when on the point of sailing for Afrim, was enabled, by the treachery of some of the citizens, to surprise one of the forts which commanded the town; an advantage that soon led to the surrender of the other citadel and the city itself. (ld. axis. 6—8.) Scipio confided the charge of the city and the command of the garrison to his legato, Q. Pleminius ; but that officer conducted himself with such cruelty and rapacity towards the unfortunate Locrinns, that they rose in tumult against him, and I violent sedition took place, which was only sppmfll by the intervention of Scipio himself. That general, however, took the part of Pleminius, whom he continued in his command; and the Inerinns were expused anew to his exactions and cruelties, till they at length took courage to appeal to the Roman scnate. Notwithstanding vehement opposition on the part of the friends of Scipio, the senate pronouan in favour of the Locrians, condemned Pleminiiw, and restored to the Locrinns their liberty and the enjoyment of their own laws. (Liv. mix. 8, 16-.— 22; Diod. xxrii. 4; Appian, Anm'b, 55.) Plt‘ll'tlnius had, on this occasion, follovved the example of Pyrrhus in plundering the temple of Proserpine; but the senate caused restitution to be made, ml the impiety to be expisted at the public east (Died. 1. c.)

From this time we bear little of Locri. Net. withstanding the privileged condition conceded toil. by the senate, it seems to have sunk into arery Subordinate position. Polyhins, however, speak! 01‘ as in his day still a considerable town, which “118 bound by treaty to furnish a certain amount of 118"] auxiliaries to the Romans. (Pol. xii. 5.) The Loerians were under particular obligations to that historian (1b.) ; and at a later period we find them enjoying the special patronage of Cicero (Cred: Leg. ii. 6), but we do not know the origin of their connection with the great oramr. From Strobo's account it is obvious that Locri still subsisted asn tow" in his day. and it. is noticed in like manner by Pliny and Ptolemy (Strab. vi. p. 259 ; Plin. iii. 5. s. 101 Pm]. iii. 1. 10). Its name is not found in the


Itineraries, though they describe this coast in 0011aidcmble detail; but Procopiua seems to attest its continued existence in the 6th century (8. G. i. 15), and it is probable that it owed its complete destruction to the Saracens. Its very name was forgotten in the middle ages, and its site became a matter of dispute. This has however been completely established by the researches of modern travellers, who have found the remains of the ancient city on the sea-coast, near the modern town oi Germ. (Clover, Ital. p. 1301; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 152; Cramer, vol. ii. p. 411; Riedesel, Voyage dons lo Grande Gréce, p. 148.)


The few ruins that rtill remain have been carefully examined and described by the Due de Luynes. (Ann. 41. Int. Arch. vol. ii. pp. 3—12.) The site of the ancient city, which may be distinctly traced by the vestiges of the walls, occupied a space of near two miles in length, by less than a mile in breadth, extending from the sea-crust at Torre di Ger-ace (on the left bank of a small stream called the flame di S. Ilarz'o), to the first heights of ridges of the Apcnnlncs. It is evidently to these heinhts that Strnbo gives the name of Mount Esopis (50611:), on which he places the first foundation of the city. (Strab. vi. p. 259.) The same heights Ire separated by deep ravines, sons to constitute two separate summits, both of them retaining the traces of ancient flirtitications, and evidently the “ter citadela not liar distant from each other " noticed by Livy in his account of the capture of the city by Scipio. (Liv. xxix. 6.) The city extended from hence down the slopes of the hills towards the sea, and had unquestionably its port at the mouth of the little river S. Ilario, though there could never have been a harbour there in the modern sense of the term. Numerous fragments of ancient masonry are scattered over the site, but the only distinct vestiges of any ancient edifice are those of a Doric temple, of which the basement alone now remains, but several columns were standing down to a recent period. It is occupied by a farm-house, called the Casino dell’ lmperalore, about a mile from the sea, and appears to have stood without the ancient walls,ao that it is not improbable the ruins may be the remains of the (‘Plebrated temple of Proserpine, which we know to have occupied a similar position. (Liv. nix. 18.) The ruins of Locri are about five miles distant fruit! the modern town of Gerace, which was previously "IPXKMd to occupy the site of the ancient city (Clover, l. 0.; Barr. de Sit. Calabr. iii. 7). and 15 miles from the Capo dt' Brazum, the Zephyrian promontory.

The Locrians are celebrated by Pindar (0!. x. 18, xi. IQ) for their devotion to the Muses as well as for their skill and courage in war. in accordance with this character we find mention of Xenocritus and Erallppns, both of them natives of Locri, as poets of wmo note; the lyric poetess Theano waa probably also a native of the Epilephyrian Locri. (Schol. ad PM 0!. xi. 17; Bocckh, ad 01. x. p. 197.) The Pythagomn philosophy also was warmly taken up and cultivated there, though the authorities had "fitted to admit any of the political innovations of that philosopher. (Porphyr. Vit. Pylb. 56.) But among his followers and disciples several ware natives of Locri (lambl. Vit. film. 267), the most eminent of whom were Tinnteus, Echecrates. and Acrion, from whom Plato is said to have imbibed his knowledge of the Pythagmcan tenets. (Cic. do Fin. v. 29.) Nor was the cultivation of other arts neglwted. Eunomus, a Loctian citizen, was cxle.


brated for his slrill on the citliant; and the athlete Enthymua of Locri, who gained several prizes at Olympia, was scarcely less renowned than Milo of Crotona. (Strab. vi. pp. 255, 260; Pans. vi. 6. §§ 4—11.)

The territory of Locri, during the flourishing period of the city, was certainly of considerable extent. Its great augmentation by Dionysius of Syracuse has been already mentioned. But previous to that time, it was separated from that of Rhcginin on the SW. by the river Halex or Alice, while its northern limit towards Caulonia was probably the Sagraa. generally identified with the Alaro. The river Buthrotus of Livy (mix. 7), which appears to have been but a short. distance from the town, was probably the Novito, about six miles to the N. Thucydides mentions two other colonies of Locri (besides Hipponium and Medma already noticed), to which he gives the names of Itone and Mellie, but no other trace is found of either the one or the other. (Thuc. v. 5.) [5. H. 13.]

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LOCRlS (onpls: EM. onp01; in Latin also Locri, but sometimes Locrensos). The Locri were an ancient people in Greece. and were said to have been descended from the Leleges. This was the opinion of Aristotle; and other writers supposed the name of the Locrians to be derived from Locrus, an ancitnt king of the Lcleges. (AristoL; Hes. up. Slrab. vii. p. 322; Scymnus Ch. 590; Dicaearch. 71; Plin. iv. 7. 5.12.) The Locrinns, however, must at a very early period have become intermingled with the Hellenes. In the Homeric poems they always appear as Hellenes; and, according to some traditions, even Dencslion, the founder of the Hellenic race, is said to have lived in the Locrian town of Opus or Cynns. (Pind. 0L ix. 63, amp; Strab. ix. p. 425.) In historical times the Locrians were divided into two distinct tribes, difi'ering from one another in customs, habits, and civilisation. Of these the eastern Locrians, called the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, dwelt upon the eastern coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea; while the western Locrisns dwelt upon the Corinthian gulf, and were separated from the former by Mount Parnassus and the whole of Doris and Phocis. (Strab. ix. p. 425.) The eastern Locriaus are alone mentioned by Homer; they were the more ancient and the more civilised: the western Locriana, who are said to have been a colony of the former, are not mentioned in history till the time of the Peloponnesian War, and are even then represented as a semi-barbarous people. ('l'huc. i. 5.) We may conjecture that the Locrians at one time extended from sea to sea, and were torn asunder by the immigration of the l’liocians and Dorians. (Niebuhr, Lecture; on Ancient Edmograpbg, vol. i. p. 123.)

1. Loom l-chasmmr and Orus'ru (“I-Innmuslin", 'Olrot'Iv-noi), inhabited a narrow slip upon the cantcm coast of Greece, from the pass of Thermopylae to the mouth of the river Cephissua

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