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MANDU'BII (Mavooilgloi), n Gnllic people whom Strnbo (iv. p. 19]) erroneously calls the neighbours of the Arverni. When Caesar (B. c. 52) was mswhing through the territory of the Lingoncs, with the intention of retreating through the Sequnni into the Provincis, he was attacked by the confederate Galli under Vercingetorix (B. G. vii. 68). The Galli were defeated, and Vercingetorix, with his men, took refuge in Alesis, a town of the Mundubii. The site of the battle is not indicated by Caesar, but the position of Alcsis is at Aline, or Alisa Saints Reine, as it is also called, in the department of the C620 11' Or. The railroad from Paris to Dijon crosses the hills of the cm d'Or,of which Alesia and the heights around it are a part. The Mandubii were a. small people who fed their flocks and cattle on the grassy hills of the C614: d'Or, and cultivated the fertile land at the foot of Alesia. Befone the blockade was formed, they had driven a great quantity of their animals (pecus) within the walls. (B. G. vii. 71.)
The Mnndubii who had received their countrymen into the city, were turned out of it by them, with their wives and children, during Caear's blockade, in order that the scanty supply of previsions for the troops might last longer. The Romans refused to receive the Mundubii and give them food. The certain conclusion from Caesar's narrative is, that these unfortunate people died of hunger between their own walls and the Roman circumvallotion (B. G. vii. 78; Dion Cam. :1. 41). Caesar's description of Alexis is true; and the operations of his army about the place (B. G. vii. 69—90) are easily understood.
This plan of Alcsia and the surrounding country is taken from Cussini‘s large map of France. The city of the Mandubii, or Almia, was “ on the summit of a hill, in a very elevated position," as Caesar correctly describes it. This hill stands alone, and, except on the west side, where there is a plain, it is surrounded by hills of the some height, which are separated from Alesis by valleys. 1n the flat valley
on the north side of Alena, and in the narrower valley at the east end, is the railroad from Paris to Dijon. The nearest railway station to Alesia is Les Lacuna.
The summit of Alesis is not quite flat; but the in'egnlarities are inoonsiderable. The sides of the hill beneath the plateau are steep and rocky; and the upper part of the ascent to the summit is not easy. Below the plateau, and below this steep ascent, there is a narrow level piece of ground, which appears to have been widened a little by the labour of _ man; and below this level part there is another de~ scent, which in some parts is steep. The fine plain (planitics) at the western foot of Ales-in, which Caesar describes, is seen well from the western end of the level summit. This is the port which Caesar (c. 84) calls the “An! Alesiae." The surface of the plateau rises a little towards the western extremity, and then falls away abruptly, terminating in a rocky promontory, something like the head of a boat. A cross, with a small tree on each side of it, stands at the edge of the brow, and exactly marks the place from which Vercingetorix looked down on the plain of Alecia (c. 84). Beneath the Ar: Alasiae is the small town of Alike, on the western and south-western slope of the hill. It occupies a diti'erent place from the old town of the Mundubii, which was on the summit level. The hill is a mass of rock. The plateau has a thin soil, and the few parts which are not cultivated are covered with a short grass like that on the Brighton downs. It appears that the town of the Mandubii occupied all the large plateau, the length of which is shown by the scale, though we must assume that it was not all built on. The Arx, as already explained, was at the west end, commanding a view of the plain. The city wall seems to have been carried all round the margin of the plateau. Caesar says (B. G. vii. 69): “ under the wall, that part of the hill which looked towards the east, all this space the forces of the Galli had filled, and they .had formed in their front a ditch and a wall of stones (maceria) six feet high." This is the place marked A. in the plan, the only part of the hill of Alesia which is connected with the neighbouring heights. It is a small neck of land which separates the valleys of the I.on and the Lozerru'n. This is the part where the plateau of Alesia is ml at accessible, which Vercingetorix first occupied when he retired to Ale. sis, and where be constructed the wall of loose stones (maceriu). There are plenty of stones on the spot, to construct another such wall, if it were wanted.
At the eastern end of the plateau, just under the summit there is a source of water, which is now (‘th’l'ed over with a small building. The water is now carried in pipes round the hill, to supply the hospital of Alive. which is (F.) on the west side of the hill on the slope. Water is got at Alisa by digging wells in the small level below the plateau; and as the Galli held this part of the mountain during the blockade, they may have got water from wells, as they no doubt did from the spring on the plateau.
Caesar's lines were formed all round the hill of Alesis, and they massed the neck (A.) which can. nects this hill with another hill (13.) on the south. east side. The “ castra” of Caesar (cc. 69, 80) were on B. C. D. E., on all the heights around Ale. sia. These hills have a steep side turned to Alesis, and flat tops. They are so near to Ale-sis that Cw ssr could not be safe against an attack from the out,ide' unless he occupied them. The valleys between Alesia and B. C. D. are narrow. On the north and
! north-west side the valley is wider. There is a good source of water on the hill B.
The hill of Alesia is well defined on the north and the south by the valleys of the two streams which Caesar mentions (B. G. vii. 69), and on the west side by the plain in which these rivers meet. Caesar estimates the width of this plain from north to south at three Roman miles ; and it is that width at least even in the part which is only a little distance from the foot of the bill. It extends much further in a NW. direction on the road to Montbm-d. This plain is a perfect level, covered in summer with fine wheat. As we go from the foot of the hill of Alesia to Le: Laumea, the An: Alesiae is a conspicuous object.
Caesar made two lines of circumvsllation round Alesia. The circuit of the inner linu was eleven Roman miles; and we may infer from his words that this circumvallntiou was entirely in the plain and the valleys, except that it must have pasted over the small elevation or neck of land between A. and B. In making the outer lines, which were fourteen Roman miles in circuit, he followed the level as far as the ground allowed (c. 74); from which we conclude that some parts of the outer line were on the high ground: opposite to the hill of Alcsia; and the form of the surface shows that this must have been so. The upper part of the hill west of Crem'gny, part of which bill appears in the north-west angle of the plan, was Crossed by lht lincs ; and the camp of Reginus and Rebilus (c. 83) was on the slope of this bill which faces Alesia One of the ditches (fossae) of the interior lines was filled with water from the river (c. 72). Thu lines of eleven and fourteen miles in circuit are no exaggeration. No less circuit would enclose the hill and give the Romans the necessary space. The boldness of the undertaking may be easily couccired by the aid of numbers; but the sight of the work that was to be done before Verciugetorix and his troops, to the number of 80,000 men, could be shut in, can alone make as fully comprehend and admm the daring genius of the Roman proconsul. I
There was a cavalry fight in the grant Plfl"! before Caesar had completed his works. The Gall! were driven back from the plain to their camp under the east end of the hill, and took refuge with Alcsia. After this defeat Vercingetorix sent his cavalry away, and made preparation for holding out till the Gallic onnfedemtes should come to his Eli (3.6. 70, 71.) When the forces of the conl’edel'olti (vii. 75) came to raise the blockade of Alesis, they pested themselves on the hills where the name Mung appears; and in the battle which is (l!scribed in vii. 79, the Gallic cavalry filled the plain 0n the west side of the hill of Alain, while the infantry remained on the heights about Mil-My. The Gallic horse were beaten back to their camp (0. 80); but on the following night they renewed the attnfk on that part of the lines which crossed the plainThis attack also failed T he next night the Gnllw conferlerates sent 60,000 men under Verizosillofllll“ to the north, to the back of the hill (15.), on "1} south slope of which Reginus and Rebilus had lhflf vamp. Their orders were to fall on the Romans I! midday. The Galli got to the back of the hill at daybreak, and waited till near noon, when lb?! began their attack on the camp. At the same film? the cavalry of the confcdemlcs came against tlw lines in the plain ; and Vercingetorix descended from the heights of Alcsia to attack the lines firm the inside. The Galli failed to force the lines both on the inside and the outside. Brit the attack on the camp of Regiuua and ltcbilus was desperate, and Labienus was sent to support them. Neither ramparts nor ditches could stop the fierce assault of the enemy. Labienns summoned to his aid the soldiers from the nearest posts, and sent to tell Caesar what he thought ought to be done. His design was to sally out upon the enemy, as Caesar had ordered him to do, if he could not drive them off from the lines.
The place where the decisive struggle took place is usin seen from the Ar: Alesiae ; and it is accu
rater described by Caesar (8.6. 83, 85). This is the
hill (E) which slopes down to the plain of the Lou. The upper part of the slope opposite to the Ar; Alesiae is gentle, or “ leniter declivis" (c. 83); but the descent from the gentle slope to the plain of the Loan, in which the railway runs, is in some parts my steep. Caesar could draw his lines in such a way as to bring them along the gentle slope, and comprise the steep and lower slope within them. But there would still be a small slope downwards from the upper part of the hill to the Roman lines; and this is this gentle slope downward which he describes in c. 85, as giving a great advantage to the Gallic assailants under Vergasillaunus (“ Exiguum loci nd declivitatein t'astigium magnum hnbet momcntum ").
The mountain behind which Vargasillnunns hid himself after the night’s march is the port of the mountain west of Crusigny. The camp of Reginus Ind llcbilus being on the south fnoe turned to Alesia, "‘"Y could see nothing of Vergasillaunus and his men till they came over the hill top to attack the ham. Vercingetorix, from the Arx Alesiae (c. 84), could see the attack on licginus' camp, and all that “It! going on in the plain. He could see everything- Caesar’s position during the attack of Verge.sillauuus was one (idoncus locus) which gave him a View of the fight. He saw the plain, the “ superiors munitioues," or the lines on the mountain north-west of Alecia, the Arx Alesiao, and the ground beneath. lle stood therefore on the hill south of Alesia, and at the western end of it.
Caesar, hearing from Labienns how desperate was the attack on the upper lines, sent part of his fflvllry round the exterior lines to attack Vergemllaunua in the rear. The mvalry went round by the east end of Alesia. They could not go round the west end, for they would have crossed the Plain outside of the lines, and the plain was occupied by the Galli. Nor could they have got. up the hill on that side without some trouble; and they would not have come on the rear of the enemy. It is cerilm that they went by the east end, and upon the heights round Alexia, which would take a much 1""léer time than Caesar's rapid narrative would lmd as tosuppose, if we did not know the ground.
When Caesar sent the cavalry round Alesia, he went to the aid of Labienus with four cohorts and some cavalry. The men from the higher ground could see him as he came along the lower ground (“a 57, 33) He came from the hill on the south of Aloiia, between his lines along the plain, with the Ar: Alecia on his right, from which the men in the town "we looking down on the furious battle. The scarlet cloak of the proccnsul told his men and the "Wiles Who was coming. He was received with a limit from both sides, and the shout was wavered from the anomalous“ and all the lines. The
Roman soldier throws his pila zuide ; and the sword begins its work. All at once Caesar's cavalry appears in the rear of Verpasillaunus : “ other cohorts approach; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry meet the fugitives; there is a. great slaughter;" and the victory is won. The Galli who were on the outside of the fortifications dewrt their camp, and the next day Vercinpetorix surrenders Alesia. The fight of Alcsia was the last great eti'ort of the united Galli against Caesar. They never recovered from this defeat; and from this time the subjugation of Gallia, though not yet quite completed, was near and certain.
Alesia was a town during the Roman occupation of Gallia; but the plateau has long since been deserted, and there is not a trace of building upon it. Many medals and other antiquities have been found by grabbing on the plateau. A vignemn of Ali-re possesses many of these rare things, which he has found; a fine gold medal of Nero, some excellent bronze medals of Trojan and Faustina, and the Wellknown medal of Nemausus (Nt‘ma), called the “pied de biche.” lie has also a steelyard, keys, and a variety of other things.
The plan of Cassini is tolerably correct; correct enough to make the text of Caesar intelligible.[G.L.]
MANDUESSEDUM, a Ronmn station in Britain (ILAnI. p. 470), the site of which is supposed to be occupied by Moncectcr in Wanvickslrire. [C. R. 8.]
MANDU'RlA (Mubt'tplov, Steph. B. : Eth. Mav6vpiyos: Mamluria), an ancient city of Calabria, in the territory of the Salentines, situated at the distance of 24 mile: E. of anontum. Its name has obtained some celebrity from its being the sccne of the death of Archidaulus, king of Sparta, the son of Agesilaus, who had been invited to Italy by the Tarentines, to assist them against their neighbours the Messapians and Lucanians; but was defeated and slain in a battle under the walls of Mandarin, which was fought on the same day with the more celebrated battle of Chaeronea, 3rd Aug.,n. c. 338. (Flat. Ages. 3, who writes the name Muse-“av; Theopomp. up. Atltcn. xii. p. 536; Diod. xvi. 63,88; Pans. iii. lO.§ 5.) This is the first notice we find of the name of Manduria : it would appear to have been a Messspian (or rather perhaps a Salentinc) city, and apparently a place of considerable importance: but thc only other mention of it that occurs in history is in the Second Punic War, when it revolted to the Carthaginians, but was taken by assault by Fabius Maximus, just before he recovered Tarentum, 13.0. 209. (Liv. xxvii. 15.) We have no account of its late on this occasion, but it would seem certain that it was severely punished, and either destroyed or at least reduced to a. degraded condition; for we find no mention of it as a municipal town under the Romans; and Pliny omits its name in his list of towns in this part. of Italy, though he elsewhere (ii. 103. e. 106) incidentally notices it as “oppidum in Salentino." The name is again found in the Tabula, which places it. at the distance of 20 M. P. from anentum, an interval less than the truth, the actual distance being 20 geog. miles, or at. least 24 Roman miles. (Tab. Pent.)
The existing ruins are considerable, especially those of the ancient walls, great part of the circuit of which is still preserved: they are built of large rectangular blocks, but. composed of the sofl'. and porous stone of which the whole neighbouring country consists; and in their original state appear to have formed a double circuit of walls. with a broad street or way between the two, and a ditch on the outside. At present they are nowhere more than six feet in height. The modern town of Manduria (a flourishing place, with about 6000 inhabitants) does not occupy the site of the ancient city; the latter having been destroyed by the Saracens, the few remaining inhabitants settled at a place called Casal Nuooo, which appellation it retained till towards the close of the eighteenth century, when, having grown into in considerable town, it resumed, by royal license, its ancient name of Manduria. (Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. p. 222; Romanclli, vol. i. p. 53; Giustininni, Dir. Geogr. vol. v. p. 338.)
Pliny mentions the existence at Mandui-is of a well or spring of water, which Was always full to the brim, and could not be either increased or diminished in quantity. This nntuml curiosity is still shown by the inhabitants of Monduria, and has been described by several recent travellers; it is said that it preserves a constant equality in the level of its waters, notwithstanding any addition that may be made to them or any quantity that may be withdi-nwn,—s statement enactly coinciding with that of Pliny. (Plin. ii. 103. s. 106; Swinburne, Travels, Vol. i. p. 223; K. Craven, Travels, pp. 165—167.) The expression used by that author, who calls the basin or reservoir of the water “ locus,” has given rise to the erroneous notion that there existed a [aloe in the neighbourhood of Mnnduriu, for which there is no foundation in facL- (E. H.B.]
MANIMI, a tribe of the Lygii, in the north east of Germany (Tue. Germ 43). They occupied the country south of the Burgundiones, and appear to be the same as the Oinnnni ('Onnwai) of Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 18; Zeuss, Die Deutochen, p. 124). [L.S.]
MANI'TAE (Maui‘mi), an inland tribe of Arnbin Felix, situated west of the Thanuetuo, and south of the Salnpeni, north of the “inner Frunkincense" country (1‘7 (no: Inupvozpopoy, Ptol. vi. 7. §23). The
mm, and of Zamu Mons, together with the near resemblance of name, implies their being the same with the Mazeync of Burckhardt, the most eastern of the Hnrb tribes, situated on the borders of Kat-gm in the line of country between Medina and Derayell. (Forster, Geog. of Arabia, vol. ii. p. 249.) [(1. W.]
MA’NIUS SIN US (Ma'vior min-or, Scyl. p. 8), that. part of the sea off the coast of Dalmatia into which the river Naro discharged itself, and in which the Libumiun group of islands is situated. In modern times it bears no distinctive name. [E.B. J.]
MANLIA'NA) anAlaya. 'h MapM'avu, Ptol. iv. 2, §25), an inland town of Mauretania, upon the position of which there is a great disagreement between Ptolemy and the author of the Itinerary. The first places it 10’ to the W. of OPPXDUM. NOVUM, and the latter 18 M. P. to the E. of that place. The modem Miliana, on the slopes of the Lesser Atlas, preserving the ancient name, may be presumed to reprment the old town, both of Ptolemy and the Itinerary, in which a Christian community was established. (Augustin. Ep. ccxxxvi.; Moreelli, Africa Christiana, V01. i. p. 211.) Show (Tr-m Wk, pp. 62—64) found remains of Roman architecture, and n “ cippus" with an inscription which he refers to some of the descendants of Cu. Pompous (Barth. Wandemgefl- Pn 58,
E. B. J
, Lngdnnum throth ijectum (Utrecht) to Curt-o } [Cnnvu]. It is 15 M. P. from Trujectum to blan, naritiummnd 16 M. P. from Munnaritiutn to Cnrvo. l Mannuritium may be Moor-en. But other plants have been suggested. [6. L.] MANRALI (Mdupahoi, Ptol. v. 10. § 6), a people on the coast of Colchis, whose name has been truced in the modern Mingreh'a. [15.11. J.] MANTALA, a place in Gallin Narbonensis, on the road from Viennn( Vienna) to Dnrsntnsis (Moutiers en Tarenlm'se). It is the next station aft/er Lemincum [LEXINCUM], and 16 M. P. from it. The Antonino ltin. and the Table agree as to the pisition of Mnntaln. The site of the station Mantaln may be, as D’Anville suggests, at a place on the here, named Greut', which is commanded by an old building named Montaillcu. [0. L.] MANTIANA LACUS. [Austssiu] h1ANT1NEIA(an-riwtzn: E111. Mmu'rrirMsntinensis: Paledpoli), one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia, situated on the borders of Argolis, S. of Orchomenus, and N. of Te its territory was called bins-runes (Mu-m ). The city is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as Munvév, dparervly, and, according to tradition, it de rived its name from Mantineus, a son of Lycson(Hom. [1. ii. 607; Pol. ii. 56; Pans. viii. 8. §~l.) Mnntinein originally consisted of four or five distinct villages, the inhabitants of which were collected into one city. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. § 6, corp; Stab. viii. p. 337; Diod. xv. 5.) 1f Strubo is correct instnting that this incorporation was brought about by the Argives, we may conjecture, with Mr. Gmte, that the latter adopted this procealing as a means of provid: ing some chock upon their powerful neighbourva Togea. The political constitution of Mnntinciais mentioned by Polybius as one of the best in sunQuity; and the city had acquired so grent n reputation at an early period, that the Cyrensesnsil" the reign of Battns III. (5.0. 550—530), when weakened by internal seditious, were recommended to apply to the Mantineiuus, who sent to them Demons! to settle their constitution. (Pol. vi. 43; chid. if161.) Sometime before the Persian wnrs, Minunein, like the other Arcadian towns, hnd acknovtledged the Spartan supremacy; and accordinle '1“ Msntineinns fought against the Persians as the allies of Sparta. Five hundred of their citizens fought ut 'l‘hcrmopylae, but their contingent M'in on the field of Plataea immediately after the bottle (Herod. vii. 202, ix. 77.) In the Peloponneoilin War, Mantiueia was at first a member of the Peloponnesisn confederacy; but several causes tended estmnge her from the Spartan alliance. hlsntlllfli and Tegea. were, at this time, the two most important Arcadian states, and were frequently englgt'll in hostilities. In B. c. 423, they fought a blood! and indecisive battle, which is mentioned by Tl!“cydides (iv. 134). Tegea, being oligarchicnllf governed, was firmly attached to Sports; Where“ Mantineia, from her possessing a democratical N"stitution, us well as from her hatred to Togas, W" disposed to desert Sports on the first favourable opportnnity. In addition to this, the Mantineians had recently extended their dominion over the Punitisinns and had gnrrisoned a fortress at Cypsela, 9?" the site where Megnlopolis was afterwards built Well aware that the Lacedaemonians would not allow them to retain their recent acquisitions. wt was the policy of Sparta to prevent the increase?! any political power in the Peloponnesus, the Mannneians formed an alliance with Argos, Ella, and Athens, in 5.0. 421, and thus became involved in war with Sparta. (Thuc. v. 29, 33, 47.) This war was brought to a close by the decisive battle fought near Mantineia, in June, 418, in which the Argives, Mautineiaus, and Athenians were defeated by the Lacedaemouians under Agis. This battle was fought to the S. of Mantineia, between the city sud the frontiers of Tegea, and is the first of the fire great battles bearing the name of Mantineia. The Mantineians now concluded a peace with Sparta, renouncing their dominion over the districts in Arudis, which they had conquered. (Thuc. v. 65, leq., 81.)
Mantincia continued on unwilling ally of Sparta for the next 83 years; but in the second year after the peace of Antalcidas, which had restored to the Spartans a great part of their former power, they resolved to crush for ever this obnoxious city. Accordingly, they required the Mantineisus to raze their walls; and upon the refusal of the latter, they marched against the city with an army under the command of their king Agesipolis (a. c. 885), alleging that the truce for 30 years had expired, which had been concluded between the two states after the battle of 418. The Mantineisns were defeated in battle, and took refuge in their city, prepared to withstand a siege; but Agesipnlis having nised an embankment across the river Opbis, which flowed through llluntineia, forced back the waters of the river, and thus caused an inundation around the walls of the city. These walls, being built of nnbaked bricks, soon began to give way; and tho lllantineians, fearing that. the city would be taken by assault, were obliged to yield to the terms of the Spartans, who required that the inhabitants should quit the city, and be dispersed among the villages, from the coalescence of which the city had been originally formed. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. §§ 6, 7; Diod. xv. 5; Ephorus, ap. Horpocrut. I. v. Mil-910'in drums/4.6!; Pol. iv. 27; Pans. viii. 8. §7, seq.) ()f the forces of Mnntineiu shortly before this time wehave an account from the orator Lysias, who says that the military population or citizens of Mantiueia were not less than 3000, which will give 13,000 for the free population of the Mnutincian territory. (Lysias, op. Dionyl. p. 531; Clinton, I". ll. vol. ii. p. 416.)
The Mantiueians did not long remain in this dispersed condition. When the Spartan supremacy was overthrown by the battle of Leuctra in 3H, they again assembled together, and rebuilt their city. They took care to exclude the river from the new city, and to make the stone substruciions of the walls higher than they had been previously. (Xen. Hell. Vi. 5. § 3; Pans. viii. 8. § 10; Lenka, Maren, vol. iii- p. 73.) The Mantineians took an active part in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy, and in the foundation of Megalnpclis, which followed immodiztely after the restoration of their own city; and one of their own citizens, Lycomedes, Was the chief promoter of the scheme. But a few years~ afterwards the Mnntincians, for reasons which are not distinctly mentioned, quarrcllcd with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with their inveterate enemies the Spartans. In order to put down this new coalition, Epaminondtw marched into the Peloponnesus; and Mantineia was again the scene of another great battle (the second of the five alluded to above), in which the Spartans wcrc dctt-ited, but which was rendered still more inenio
rable by 'the death of Epaminondas. (Xen. HelL vii. 5; Diod. av. 84.) The site of this battle is described below. The third and fourth battles of Mantineia are only incidentally mentioned by the an_ cient writers; the third was fought in 295, when Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated Archidumus and tho Spartans (Plat. Demetr. 35) ; the fourth in 242, when Autos and the Achsenns defeated the Spurtans under Agis, the latter falling in the battle. (l’aus.viii. 10.§ 5, seq.)
Mantincia continued to be one of the most powerful towns of Arcadia down to the time of the Achaean League. It at first joined this league ; but it subsequently deserted it, and, together with Orchomenus and Tegea, became a member of the Aetolian confederacy. These three cities at a later time renounced their alliance with the Aetoliars, and entered into a close union with Sparta, about 8.0. 228. This step was the immediate cause of the war between the Acbaeans and the Spartans, usually called the Cleomenic War. In 226, Aratus surprised Montineia, and compelled the city to re~ orivo an Achaean garrison. The Mantineians soon afterwards expelled the Achneans, and again joined the Spartans ; but the city was taken a second time, in 222, by Antigonus Doson, whom the Achaeans had invited to their assistance. It was now treated with great. severity. It was abandoned to plunder, its citizens were sold as slaves, and its name changed to Antigoneia (‘Awr-yfiveta), in compliment to the Macedonian monarch (Pol. ii. 57, scq.; Plat. Amt. 45; Pans. viii. 8.§ ll). In 207, the plain of Mantineia was the scene of a fifth great battle, between the Achaean forces, commanded by Philopoemcn, and the Laccdnemonians, under the tyrant Machanidas, in which the latter was defeated and slain. An account of this battle is given by Polybius, from whom we learn that tho Achaean army occupied the entire breadth of the plain S. of the city, and that their light-armed troops occupied the hill to the E. of the city called Alesium by Pausanias. The Lacedaemouiaus were drawn up opposite to the Achaeans ; and the two armies thus occupied the same position as in the first battle of Mantineia, fought in the Peloponnesian War. (Pol. xi. it.) The Mantineians were the only Arcadian people who fought on the side of Augustus at the battle of Actium. (Pans. viii. 8. § 12.) The city continued to bear the name ofAntigoneia till the time of Hadrian, who restored to it its ancient appellation, and conferred upon it other marks of his favour, in honour of his favourite. Antinous, because the Bithynians, to whom Antinous belonged, claimed descent from the llIsntineians. (Pans. viii. 8. § l2, viii.9. § 7.)
The territory of biantineia was bounded on the W. by Mt. Maenalus, and on the E. by Mt. Artemisium, which separated it from Argolis. Its northern frontier was a low narrow ridge, separating it. from Orchomcnia ; its southern frontier, which divided it from Tegeatis, was formed by a narrow part of the valley, hemmed in by a projecting ridge from Mt. Maennlus on the one side, and by n similar ridge from Mt. Artemisius on the other. (See below.) The territory of Mantinciu forms part of the plain now called the plain of Tripoliled,from the modern town of this name, lying between the ancient Mantiucia and Tegeu, and which is the principal place in the district. This plain is about 25 English miles in length, with n breadth varying from 1 to 8, and includes, besides the territory of Mnntinciu, that ul