« السابقةمتابعة »
Orchomenus and Caphyne on the N., and that of Tegea and Pallantium on the S. The distance be‘ tween Mautineia and Tegca is about 10 English miles in a direct line. The height of the plain where Mantiueia stood is 2067 feet above the level of the sen. Owing to its situation, Mantineia was a place of great military importance, and its territory was the scene of many important battles, as has been already related. 1t stood upon the river Ophis, nearly in the centre of the plain of Tripolitza' as to length, and in one of the narrowest parts as to breadth. It was enclosed between two ranges of hills, on the E. and the W., running parallel to bits. Artemisium and Maenalus respectively. The eastern hill was called ALEBIUM (’Mfio'mv, Pans. viii. 10. § 1), and between it and Artemisium lay the plain called by Pausanial (viii. 7. § 1) 121 647be webr’ar, or the “Uncultivated Plain.” (viii. 8. § 1.) The range of hills on the W. had no distinct nnme: between them and Mt. Muennlus there was also a plain called Alcitnedon ('Mxnaédwv, Pans. 12. ' 2.)
s Muntineia Was not only situated entirely in the plain, but nearly in its lowest port, as appears by the course of the waters. In the regularity of its fortifications it differs from almost all other Greek cities of which there are remains, since very few other Greek cities stood so completely in n plain. It is now called Pulw'poli. The circuit of the walls is entire, with the exception of a small space on the N. and W. sides. In no place are there more than three courses of masonry existing above ground, and the height is so uniform that we may conclude that the remainder of the walls was constructed of tmbaltcd bricks. The city had 9 or 10 gates, the approach to which was carefully defended. Along the walls there were towers at regular distances. Leake reckoned 118 towers, and says that the city was about 2} miles in circumference; but Ross makes the city considerably larger, giving 129 or 130 as the number of the towers, and from 28 to 30 studia, or about 3; English milcs, as the cir. cuit of the city. The walls of the city are surrounded by a ditch, through which the river Ophis flows. This stream is composed of several rivulets, of which the most important rises on Mr. Alesium, on the E. side of the city : the different rivulets unite on the NW. side of the term, and flow westward into a kntarothra. Before the capture of Muntineia by Agesipolis, the Ophis was made to flow through the city ; and it is probable that all the Witter-CURTSPS of tho surrounding plain Were then collected into one channel above the city. Of the buildings in the interior of the city, described by Pausanias, few remains are left. Nearly in the centre of the city are the ruins of the theatre, of which the diameter was about 240 fun; and west of the theatre, Ross observed the foundations of the temple of Aphrodite Symmachia, which the Mnntineians erected to com. memorate the share they had taken in the bottle of Actiutn. (Pans. viii. 9. § 6.)
The territory of Mantineiu is frequently described by the ancient writers, from its having been so often the seat of war; but it is difficult, and almost impossible, to identify any of the localities of which we find mention, from the disappearance of the sanctuaries and monuments by which spots are indicated, and also from the nature of the plain, “19 topography of which must have been frequently altered by the change of the water-courses. On the latter subject a few words are necessary. The plain of Tripolitzd,
of which Mantiuicc formed part, is one of those valleys in Arcadia, which is so completely shut in by mountains, that the streams which flow into it have no outlet except through the chasms in the moontains, called katavorhra. [Aucanuu] The part of the plain, which formed the territory of Mantineia, is so complete a level, that there is not, in some parts, a suficient slope to carry ofl‘ the waters; and the land would be overflowed, unlm trenchu were made to assist the course of the waters towards some one or other of the katavothra which nature has provided for their discharge. (Pol. xi. ll.) Not only must the direction of these trenches have been sometimes changed, but even the course of the streams was sometimes altered, of which we have an interesting example in the history of the campaign of 418. It appears that the regulation of the mountain torrent on the frontiers of Mantinice and Togeatis was a frequent subject of dispute and even of war between the two states; and the one frequently inundated the territory of the other, as a means of annoyance. This was done in 418 by Agis, who let the water's over the plain of Mantineia (T hue. v. 65). This river can only be the one called Ophis by the Geographers of the French Commission. It rises I little N. of Tegea, and after flowing through Tegentis falls now into a katavothra north of the hill Scope. In general the whole plain of blantineia bears a very ditl‘crent aspect from what it presented in antiquity; instead of the wood of oaks and curbtrees, described by Pausnnias, there is now not a single tree to be found; and no poet would now think of giving the epithet of “ lovely" (ipfl‘rflv'h) to the naked plain. covered to a great extent with stagnant Water, and shut in by gray treeless rocks. (Ross, Reisen int Peloponnes, p. 128.)
About a mile N. of the ruins of Mantineia is no isolated hill called Gurtzrih'; north of which again, also at the distance of about a mile, is another hill. The latter was probably the site of the ancient hlnntineia, and was thercforc called Proms (rho/us) in the time of Pausanias (viii. 12. 7). This appears to have been one of the fire villages from the inhabitants of which the city on the plain was peflpltd:
There were several roads leading from MonticellTwo of these roads led north of the city to Orrhtuuw nus: the more easterly of the two passed by Ptolis,]ust mentioned, the fountain of Alulcomeneia, and a desetted village named Manna (Maipa), 30 stadis front Ptolis; the road on the west over Mt. Anchlsia, on the northern slope of which was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which formed the boundary between Mnntinice and Orchomenia. (Pans. riii. l9§§ 5—9, comp. viii. 5. § 11.)
A road led from Mantineia on the W. to Methydrium. It passed through the plain Alcirnedfmr which was 30 stadia from the city, above which was Mount Ostracinu; then by the fountain Creek, and, at the distance of 40 stadia from the fdllilillllr by the small place Psraosaca (1'1 Herpwdmlt which wm on the confines of the Mantineian and Megnlopolitnn territories. (Pans. viii. 12. 2-4)
Two roads led from Mnntincia southwanlsr'4h” 0118‘ SE. to Tegea, and the other SW. to Pollentium. On the left of the road to Tcgea, called Xssls (Ends) by Polybius (xi. 11. § 5), just outside the gates of Mantineia, was the hippodromtfllhd 1‘ little further on the stadium, above which met? Mount Alesium: at the spot where the mountrun (‘PasEli was the temple of Poseidon Hippins, wblrb Wits 7 studio from the city, as we learn from Poly
bius (xi. ll. § 4, compared with xi. 14. § 1). Here commenced the ditch, which is said by l’olybins to have led across the Mnntineian plain to the mountains bordering upon the district of the Elisphasii (1‘1 751v ’EMa'rPam'oiv xii-pa, Pol. xi. 11. § 6, comp. 15. § 7, xvii. 6)“ Beyond the temple of Poseidon was a forest of oaks, called Pnuous (fléha'yor), through which ran the road to Tegea. On taming out of the road to the left, at the temple 0f Poseidon, one found at the distance of 5 studio the tombs of the daughters of Feline. Twenty stadia further on was a place called PHOEZuN (outflow). This was the narrowest part of the plain between Tegca and Mantineia, the road being shortened by the hill Scope on the W. and a similar projecting rock on the E. Here was the tomb of Areilhous, who was said to have been slain in a narrow pass by Lycurgns (oi-sworn; Iv 66$, Hum. [1. vii. 143).‘]‘ This narrow valley, shut in by the two projecting ridges already mentioned, formed the natural frontier between the territories of Mantineiu and Tcgca. The boundary between the two states was marked by a round altar on the road, which was about four miles distant from Mantineia, and about six miles from Tegea. It was here that the Lacednemonian army was posted, over which Epaminondns gained his memorable victory. He had marched from Tcgea in a north-westerly direction, probably passing near the site of the modern Tripoliké, and then keeping along the side of Mt Macnnlus. He attacked the enemy on their right flank, near the projecting ridge of Mt. blaenalus, already described. It was called Scope (2min), now Myrtilra-a), because Epaminondns, al‘tcr ro~ ceiving his mortal wound, was carried to this height to view the battle. Here he expired, and his tomb, which Pausanias savv, was erected on the spot. (l‘aus. viii. ll. §§ 6, 7; for an account of the battle see Grote, vol. xi. p. 464, seq.)
The road from Mantinein to l’allantium rnn almost parallel to the road to Tegca till it reached the frontiers of Tegeatis. At the distance of one stadium was the temple of Zeus Charmon. (Pans. viii. 10, ii, 12. § 1.)
Two roads led from Mantineia eastwards to Argos,
" This ditch must have terminated in a hatevdthrn, probably in one of the katavothra on the W. side of the plain at the foot of tho Maenalian mountains. On the other side of these mountains in the village and river named Helisson; and as the Elia.
hasii are not mentioned in any other passage, it, has been proposed to read 'EAm'rrov-rlwy instead of ’5,\i0¢oolwv. (Rms, p. 127.) Leake has con. 'ecturcd, with some probability, that Elisphasii may be the corrupt ethnic of Eumra ('EAupJa), a place only mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. vi. 5. § 13), who places it on the confines of Orchomenus and Mantineia. Although Leake places Elymis at Lenidlli, on the NW. frontier of Mantinice, he con. 'ecmres that the whole plain of Alcimedon may have belonged to it. (Lcake, Peloponneaiaca, p. 38'? )Lcn-ke imagines that Phoezon was situated on a side road, leading from the tombs of the daughters ufPelias, But ltoss maintains that l’hoemn was on the high-mod to T ages, and tlir\t__l’ausaiiins 1|” oulv mentioned by anticipation, in vm. ll._§ l, the “Iriir forming the boundary between Mantmipe and Tegeufls' the more proper place for it being at the close of § 4
called Pnnws ("pin/as) and Cumax (Khlpofi), or the “Ladder,” respectively. (Pans. viii. 6. §4.) The latter was so called from the steps out ontof the rock in a part of the road; and the Prinns pmbnldy derived its name from passing by a lugs liolni-oak(1rpivos), or a small wood of helm-oaks; but the roads do not appear to have borne these names till they entered Montinice. There are only two passes through the mountains, which separate the Argive plain from Muntinice, of which the southern and the shorter one is along the course of the river Charadrus, the northern and the longu one along the valley of the Inachus. Both Rosa and Leake agree in making the Prinus the southern and the Climax the northern of these two roads, contrary to the conclusions of the French surveyorsBoth roads quitted Argos at the same gate, at the hill called Deiras, but then immediately parted in different directions. The l’mrws, after crossing the Chamdrus, passed by Oeno'c‘, and then ascended Mount Artemisium (Malero'a), on the summit of which, by the road-side, stood the temple of Anemia, and near it were the sources of the lnachus. Here were the boundaries of Mantinice and Argolis(Pans. ii. 25. 1—3.) On descending this mountain the road entered Mantinice, first crossing through the lowest and most marshy part of the “Argon.” or “Uncultivuted Plain," so called because the waters from the mountains collect in the plaiuaul render it unfit for cultivation, although there is l katat'dthra to carry them ofl'. On the left of the plain were the remains of the camp of Philip, son of Amyntas, and a village called an'raun (Need-"1), probably now the modern village of Tzrpimi Near this spot the waters of the plain entered the katardthra, and are said not to have made their exit till they reached the sea 0d" the coast of the Argein. Below Ncstnne was the “Dancingplace of Mnera" (Xopbs Malpas), which was only the southern arm of the Argon Plain, by means of which the latter was connected with the great NADtineian plain. The road then crossed over the foot of Mount Alesium, and entered the great Mantineian plain near the fountain Arne at the distance of 12 studio from the city. From thence it passed into the city by the south-eastern or Tegeatau gaw(Paus. viii. 6. § 6—viii. 8. § 4.)
The other road, called Cnmax, ran from Argos in a north-westerly direction along the course of!“ lnachus, first 60 stadia to Lyrceia, and again 60 stadia to Orneae, on the frontiers of Sicyonis and Phliasia. (Pans. ii. 25. §§ 4—6.) It then owl the mountain, on the descent of which into Mantinioi were the steps cut out of the rock. The road ehtercd Mantinico at the upper or northern corner of the Argon l’lain, near the modern village of SW9“lt then ran in a sonth-wcstcrly direction, along the western side of Mount Alcsium, to a place fill Menarmnm (1d Merysza), from which drinkingwater was conducted by an aqueduct to Mantineui, of which remains were observed by Ross. It corresponds to the modern village of Pilmm', which 18
said to signily in the Albanian language “ abounding in springs." The road next passed by the fountain of the Melinstnc (Meluao'vai), where were temples of Dionysus and of Aphrodite lllclaenis: this fountain was 7 stadia from the city, oppwite Ptolis 0r Old Mantineia. (Pans. viii. 6. 4, 5.) The preceding account is rendered clearer by the map on p. 263.
(For the geography of Mnntinice, see Leake, Moron, vol. i. p. 100, seq, vol. iii. p. 44, scq.; I’ehpormesiwa, p. 369, seq.; Ross, Reism fm Peloponner. vul. i. p. 12!, seq. ; Curtius, I’elqmnnesor, vol. i. p. 232, seq.)
MA'NTUA (Mail-routs: Edi. Mantuanus: Munlocn),n cily of Gisalpine Gaul, situated on the river hlincius, on an inland formed by its waters, about 12 miles above its confluence with the Padus. There seems no doubt that it was a very ancient city, and existh long before the establishment of the Genie in this part of Italy. Virgil, who was naturally well acquainted with the traditions of his native place, tells us that its population was a mixed race, but the bulk of the people were of Etruscan origin; and Pliny even says that it was the on]? city beyond the Padus which was still inhabited by an Etruscan people. (Virg. Aen. x. 20l —203; l’lin. iii. 19. a. 23.) Virgil does not tell us what We the other national elements of its population, and it is not easy to understand the exact meaning of his expression that it consisted of three “geiztes,” and that each gens comprised four “ populi ;" but it occurs certainly probable that this relates to the internal division of its own territory and population, and has no reference (as Miiller has supposed) to the twelve cities founded by the Etruscan: in the “Her of the Plains. (Miillcr, Etruslzr, wot. i. p. l-‘l7; Nicbuhr, vol. i. p. 296, note 757.) The Etruscan origin of Mantua is confirmed by its name, which was in all probability derived from that of the Etruscan divinity Mnntus, though another tradition, adopted by Virgil himself, seems to have deduced it from a prophetic nymph of the name of blame. (Serr. ad Aen. 1.0.; Schol. Veron. ad 10c. l7~ 103v ed- Kell.) According to one of the Oldest echoliasts on Virgil, both Verrins Flaccus and Cmina, in their Etruscan histories, ascribed the fimndnlion of Mantua to Tarchon himself, while Virgil represents Ocnus, the son of Manta, as its founder. (Virg. Aen. x. 200; Schol. Veron. 1.0.) The only historical fact that can be considered as ranking from all these statements is that Mnntua "3“! WM fln Etruscan settlement. and that for some reason (probably from its peculiar and inW'ccsaible situation) it retained much of its Etruscan character long after this had disapwwd ill the other cities of Cisalpine Gaul.
After the settlement of the Gnuls in Northern “all, llnntun was probably included in the territory olthe Cenotnani (Ptol. iii. 1. 3l); but we find no mention of its name in history, nor do we ltnow at what period it passed under the Roman dominion. From an incidental notice in Livy (xxiv. 10) during the Second Punic War, we may probably infer that it "as then on friendly terms with Home, as were the Ccnomani and Veneti ; and as its name is not menlioned during the subsequent wars of the Romans in Cinalpine Gaul, it is probable that it passed gradually, with the other towns of the Cenomnni, from name of alliance to one of dependence. and ultimately of subjection But even under the Roman dominion the name of Mantua scarcely appears in
history, and it is clear that it was far from pmscssing the same relative importance in ancient times that it did in the middle ages, and still retains. It was undoubtedly a municipal town, and is mentioned as such by all the geographers, as wcll as in inscriptions, but both Strobo and Martial speak of it as very inferior to the neighbouring city of Verona, in comparison with which the latter terms it “ parva Mouton." (Strab. v. p. 213; Plin. iii. l9. s. 23 ; Ptol. iii. 1. 31 ; Marlin], xiv. 195.) During the civil wars after the death of Cesar, Mantun suffered the hats of a part of'its territory, for Octavian having assigned to his discharged soldiers the lands of the neighbouring Cremona,and these having proved insufficient, a portion of the territory of Mantun was taken to make up the not essary amount. (Virg. Eel. ix. 28, Georg. ii. 198; Serv. ad 10c.) It was on this occasion that Virgil was expelled from his putrimoniul estate, which he however recovered by the favour of Augustus.
The chief celebrity of Mantua under the Roman Empire was undoubtedly owing to its having been the birthplace of Virgil, who has, in consequence, celebrated it in eevcrnl passages of his works; and its name is noticed on the same account by many of the later Roman poets. (Virg. Georgiii. l2; Ovid,Amor. iii. 15. 7 ; Stat. Silo. iv. 2. 9 ; 5il. ltal. viii. 595 ; Martial, i. 62. 2, xiv. 195.) According to Donatns, however, the actual birthplace of the poet was the village of Andes in the territory of Mantna, and not the city itself. (Donat. Vil. l'irg. l; Hieron. Citron. ad ann. 1947.)
After the fall of the Roman Empirc,l\lantnn appears to have become a place of importance from its great strength as a fortress, arising from its peculiar situation, surrounded on all sides by broad lakes or expanses of water, formed by the stagnation of the river hllucius. It, however, fell into the hands of the Lombard: under Agilqu (1’. Disc. iv. 29), and after the expulsion of that people was governed by independent counts. In the middle ages it became one of the most- important cities of the N. of Italy ; and is still a populous place, and one of the strongest fortresses in ltnly. It is still so completely surrounded by the stagnant waters of the Mincio, that it is accessible only by causewayu, the shortth of which is 1000 feet in length.
Muntna was distant from Verona 25 miles, so that l‘rocopius calls it a day's joumey from thence. (Procop. B. G. iii. 3.) It was situated on a line of road given in tho Tabitha which proceeded from lllcdiolnnmn, by Cremona and Bedriacum, to Months, and thence to Hostilia, where it crossed the Padus, and thence proceeded direct to Ravenna. (Tab. Pent.) Mantua was distant from Cremona by this road about 40 miles. It would appear from one of the minor poems ascribed to Virgil (Catakct. 8. 4), that this distance was frequently traversed by muleteers with light vehicles in a single day. [I]. H. 13.]
MANTZICIERT (Morrftmépv, Const. Porph. do Adm. Imp. c. 44), a fortress of great importance upon the Armenian frontier. In A. n. 1050, it offered so detertnincd a resistance to Togrul Bel, the founder of the Seljukian dynasty, that he had to give up all hope of breaking through the barrier of fortresses that defended the limits of the empire, and retired into l‘crsia. (Ccdreu. vol. ii. p. 780; Le Beau, Baa Empire, vol. xiv. p. 367; Finlay, Byzantine Empire, p. 523.) It is identified with Molasng 01' Mamuklwl't, situated to the NW. of lalte Vu'n, and tho remarkable volcanic cone of Sipéa Ta'gh. (St. Martin, Mém. sur I'Armem'e, vol. i. p. 105; Hitter, Erdkunde, vol. ix. p. 994.) [15. B. J.] MAOGAMALCHA (Ammian. xxiv. 4), a place in Mesopotamia, attacked and taken by Julian. It wns distant about 90 stadia from Ctesiphou. (Zosim. iii. 21.) It appears to have been strongly fortified and well defended. Zosimua evidently alludes to ' the same place (I. 0.), though he does not. mention ithy name. MAON (MM'W). a city of Judah, in the mountains, south of Hebron. It is joined with Carmel, and Ziph, and Juttah (Josh. xv. 55), known only as the residence of Nobel and Abigail (1 Sam. xxv. 2). “ The wilderness of Mean, in the plain on the south of Jeshiinon," is identical with or contiguous to the wilderness ot‘ Ziph, where David and his men hid themselves in the strongholds from the malice of Saul (xxiii. 14—25). It is placed by Ensebius in the east of Daroma (Onomaat. a. :1.) Its site is nmrlred by niins, still called .lfdin, situated between Carmel and Zuph, half an hour south of the former. [Cannons Vol. I. p. 521.] [6. W.] MAPHARITIS (Mwapivir), l district of Arabia Felix, lying about the city of Save (Zau'h), which is placed by Arrian'three days' journey from Muza, on the Red Sea. [MUZAJ He mentions the king‘s name, Cholaebus (XdMuG’os). (Periphu Mari: Eryrh. p. 13.) The Save of Arrian is probably identical with the Sapphara or Snpphar of Ptolemy (Ed-rm 31, Sumphp umpdwumr, vi. 7. §4l), the capital no doubt of a tribe named by him Sapphuritae (anpupiral), the Mapharitis of Arrian. They are distinct from the Marnonr'mr; 0f Ptolemy. [G, \V.] MAPHORI'TAE (Maoiopi'rm), a people of Arabia. Felix, placed by Ptolemy above, i. e. north of, the Rathini, and west of the outer Frankincense country (i; e’lr-rhs Zoupvoipopos), contiguous to the Chstramamititae (vi. 7. § 25). The similarity of name indicates a. connection between this tribe and the Maepha metropolis of the same geographer; the same as the “ Aphae metropolis'I of Arrian, which he places 9 days' journey east of his anhoritis regio, and therefore 12 days from the Red Sea. It was the capital of Charibne'l, the lnwful king of the Homeritae and their neighbours the Sebnitae, styled the friend of the Roman emperors, to whom he is said to have sent frequent embassies. [MAEI‘HA.] The district is probably that now known as Wady Mar 0, in the midst of which is situated the remarkable ruins now called Nalmb-eL liajar. which ure supposed to mark the site of the metropolis. This fruitful valley comincnces above the ruins in question and is well cultivated throughout. It is thus described by Lieut. Wellstcd, who traversed its southern part in 1833;__ H Nakab-el-Hajar (ancient Manna, q. u.) is situated north-west, and is distant 48 miles from the village of ‘Ain, which is marked on the chart in latitude 14° 2' north, and longitude 46° 30' east, nearly. It stands in the centre of a most extensive valley. called by the natives Wady Mei/hit, which, whether we regard its fertility, population, or extent, is the most interesting geographical feature we have yet discovered on the southern coast of Arabia. Taking its length from Where it opens out on the sea-coast to the town of 'A (thin, it is 4 days’ journey, or 75 miles. Beyond this point I could not exactly ascertain the extent of its prolongation; Various native autlwl'ilieB give it from 5 to 7 additional drive. Throughout the whole of this space it is thickly studded with villages, hamlets, and culti
vated grounds. In a journey of 15 miles, we counted more than thirty of the former, besides a great nuinbrr of single houscs." (Wellated, vaels inAmbiu, vol. i. p. 486.) [G. W.]
MAPONIS, in Britain, occurring in Geogr. Ravenn. among the diverse loco, without any clue to guide us to its locality. An inscription to a topical deity Mapon (Deo Mapono), discovered at Plumplm in Cumberland ; and another (Apollini Mcpono) at Ribclmter, in Lamashire, merely strengthen the probability of the existence of a place so called in Britain, without disclosing its situation. Maporiton also appears in Geogr. Raveun. among the towns in the north of Britain. [0. R. 5.]
MARA'BIUS (Ma-pdéior, Mapofreios, PtoL v. 9 § 2), a river of Sarmstia, which Reichard has identified with the Maayez, an aflluent of the Don, on the left. bank of that river. Some have considered the Kenya to represent the Acnannnus (’AxapBe'os), but Strabo (xi. p. 506) expressly says that the latter discharges itself into the Mseotis. (Schafarik, 5100. Alt. vol. i. pp. 60,500.) [a B. J.]
MARACANDA (Mapdlrudu, Strab. xi. p. 5l7; Arr'ian, iii. 30, iv. 5; Ptol. vi. 11. § 9), the capital of Sogdiana, now Samarcand. It is said by Strobe to have been one of the eight cities which were built in those parts by Alexander the Great. Ptoleny places it in Bactriana. Arrian (iii. 30) states that it contained the palace of the ruler of the Sogdiani, but does not apparently credit the story that Alexander had anything to do with the building of it. Curtius states that the city was 70 stadia in circumference, and surrounded by a wall, and that be had destined the province for his favourite. Clitus, when the unfortunate quarrel took place in which he was slain (viii. 1. § 20). Professor Wilson (Ariana, p. 165) considers that the name has been derived from the Sanscrit Samra-klmnda, “ the warlike province." In many of the old editions the word was written Parecanda, but there can be no doubt that Maracauda is the correct form. Sammmd has been in all ages a great entrepél for the com merce of Central Asia.
MABANI’TAE (Mopavi‘rcu, Strab. xvi. p. 776; Mapaveis), an ancient people on the W. coast of Arabia Felix, near the corner of the Aelaniticns Sinus, destroyed by the Garindaei.
MARAPHII (Mapdrpior, Herod. i. 125), one of the three tribes into which the highest class of the ancient Persians was divided, according to litmdotus. The other two were the Pusargadne and the Maspii. [v.] I
MA'RATHA (Mdpaea), a village of Arcadia, 111 the district Cynuria, between Buphagium and Gortys, perhaps represented by the ruin called the Caslle of Leddlwro. (Pans. viii. 28. § 1; Leaks, Marco, vol. ii. p. 66, Pehponmfiua, p. 232.)
MARATHE, a small island near Corcym, mentioned only by Pliny (iv. 12. s. 19).
MARATHE'SIUM (Muperio'rov: m. nonvimor), an Ionian town on the coast of Lydia, Mull! of Ephesus, and not far from the frontiers of Cane. whence Stephanus (s.v.) calls it a town of Cam(Scylax, p. 37; Plin. H. N. v. 31.) The town atone time belonged to the Samians; but they made such change, and, giving it up to the EphesisnSJele Neapolis in return. (Strab. xiv. p. 639.) Col. Lenka (Aria Mimr, p. 261) beliews that a few ancient ruins found at a place called Sit-alumna mark ll" site of Marathosium, though others regard tlwm *9 remninsof l’ygela. [L- 5-]