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MA'RATHON (anuOrév: Elli. Mapaflévros), a small plain in the NE. of Attica, containing four placarnsmed Mann‘uos, lr‘nonaurrruos ("pacifAiveos: Elli. l'lpogahlmos), Trticonv'mns (Tpuropvdor, or Tpixopuvflos. Tpurdprwflar: Elli. Tpuropriam), and Onxon (Oiwti'n: Eth. Oivaios), which originally formed the Tetrapolis. one of the 12 distrit‘ts into which Attica was divided before the time of Theseus. Here Xuthus, who married the daughter of Ereelitheus, is said to have reigned; and here the Heracleidae took refuge when driven out of Peloponnesns, and defeated Enrystheus. (Strah. viii. p. 383; Steph. B. a. v. Te-rpdroMr.) The Marathonii claimed to he the first people in Greece who paid divine honours to Hercules, who ~ a sanctuary in the plain, of which we shall speak presently. (Pans. i. l5. §3, i. 35. §4.) Marathon is also celebrated in the legends of Theseus, who conquered the ferocious bull, which used to devastate the plain. (Plut. TIICJ. l4; Stnb. ix. p. 399; Pans. i. 27. §10.) Marathon is mentioned in the Homeric poems in a way that implies that it was then a place of importance. (0d. iii. 80.) Its name was derived from an eponymous hero Marathon, who is described by l’snsanias as a 51in of Epopens, king of Sicyon, who fled into Attica in consequence of the cruelty of his father (Pausii 1.51, ii. 6. § 5, i. 15. §a, i. 32. § 4). PhiLmh calls him an Arcadian, who accompanied the Direcnri in their expedition into Attics, and colonurily devoted himself to death before the battle. (Thu. 32.)

After Theseus united the 12 independent districts of Aillcu into one state, the name of Tctrapolis liraidually fell into disuse; and the four places of which it consisted became Attic demi, —- Marsllwn. Tricorytlins. and Oenoe' belonging to the tribe Aenntis, and Probalinthus to the tribe Pandionis; but Marathon was so superior to the other three, mt“ llS name was applied to the whole district down to the latmt times. Hence Lucian speaks of “ the PM Of Marathon about Oeno'é" (Mupadiivos fli"Pl Ti?" Oivd'nv, Ioaro-Menip. 18).

Few places have Obtained such celebrity in the history of the world as Marathon, on account of the “cm? which the Athenians here gained over the PCI'Silns in n. c. 490. Hence it is necessary to give a detailed account of the topography of the plain, in which we shall follow the admirable description of Colonel Lenka, drawing a little additional information from Mr. F inlay and other writer!!

The plain of Marathon in open to a bay of the sea on the east. and is shut in on the opposite side by the heights of Brilessus (subsequently called Penteltcm) and Dincria, which send forth roots extending to the sea. and bounding the plain to the north and south. The principal shelter of the bay is afforded by -'\ lung rocky promontory to the north, anciently called Uvsosuna (Kuvdaovpa, Hcsych., Phot., 3. v.) and now Stoma'. The plain is about 6 miles in length "111 half that breadth in its broadest part. It is mewhat in the form of a half-moon, the inner curve of which is bounded by the bay,-and the outer by the range of mountains already described. The Plain, described by Aristophanes as the “ pleasant "lead of Marathon" (Anytime. #2» @p6evra Hope, 0'7"", Am, 246), is a level green expanse. The

_ll,Wliich shut- in the plain. were covered in ancient times with olive; and vines (Norm. Dionys. Kill; 84, xlviii. 18). The plain is bounded at at It! southern and northern extremities by Mo marshes, of which the southern is not We“ ““d

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is almost dry at the conclusion of the great heats; while the northern, which is much larger, ofi'ers several parts which are at all seasons impassable. Both, however, have a broad, firm, sandy beach between them and the sea. A river, now called the river of Marat/tom, flows through the centre of the plain into the sea.

There are four roads leading out of the plain. 1. One runs along the must by the south-western extremity of the plain. (Plan, Here the plain of Marathon opens into a narrow maritime plain three miles in length, where the mountains fall so gradually towards the sea as to present no very defensible impediment to the communication between the Marnthonia and the Mesogaea. The road afterwards passes through the valley between Pentelicus and Hymettus, through the ancient demus of Pallene. This is the mist level road to Athens, and the only one practicable for carriages. It was the one by which Peisistratns marched to Athens after landing at Marathon. (Herod. i. 62.) 2. The second road runs through the pass of and, so called from a small village of this name, situated in the southern of the two valleys, which branch off from the interior of the plain. (Plan, bb.) This road leads through Cephisia into the northern part of the plain of Athens. 8. The third road follows the vale of Maralho'na, the northern of the two valleys already named, in which lies the village of the same name, the largest in the district. (Plan, cc.) The two valleys are separated from one another by a hill called Katrém' (Plan, 3), very rugged,but of no great height. This third mud leads to Aphidna, from which the plain of Athens may also be reached. 4. The fourth road leaves the plain on the north-east by a narrow pass (Plan, dd) between the northern marsh and a round naked rocky height called Mt. Kordki or Stavrokora'ki. (Plan, 4.) it leads to Rhamnus; and at the entrance of the pass stands the village of Lower Saili. (Plan, 12.)

Three places in the Mnrathonian district particularly retain vestiges of ancient demi. l. Vran-fi, which Leake supposes to be the site of the demns of Marathon. It lies upon a height fortified by the ravine of a torrent, which descends into the plain after flowing between .Mts. Argalih' and Aforimo, which are parts of Mt. Brilessus or Pentelicus. (Plan, 1, 2.) A little below mei are seen fonr artificial tumuli of earth, one considerably larger than the others; and in a pass at the back of the hill of Kolriim', which leads from the vale of Vramt into that of Marat/161m, there are some remains of an ancient gate. Near the gate are the foundations of a wide wall, 5 feet in thickness, which are traced for nearly 3 miles in circumference, enclosing all the npper part of the valley of ani Thais ruins are now known by the name of 1'1 pa'vdpa rfis 7palur (the old woman's sheepfold). Near the ruined gate Leaks observed the remains of three statues, probably those which were erected by Herodes Atticus to three favourite servants. (Philostr. Soph. ii. 1. 10.) Marathon was the demus of Herodes, who also died there. The wall mentioned above was probably built by Her-odes, to enclose his property; for it Would seem from Pliny that Marathon no longer existed as a town or village a century before the time of Herodes. (“Rharnnus pagns, locus Marathon," I‘lin. iv. 7. :4. ll.) The early disappearance of the ancient town of Marathon would easily cause its nauno to no transferred to another site: and it was natural that the celebrated name should be given to the principal place in the district. Three-quarters of a mile to the south-east of the tumuli of ana' there is a rising ground, upon which are the traces of a Hellenic wall, apparently the peribolus of a temple. This was probably the temple of Hercules (Plan, 10), in whose sacred enclosure the Athenians were encamped before the battle of Mnrat-hon. (Herod. vi. 108.) seized what they considered a fnvoumble opportunity for the destruction of the people of Marathon, sent privately to Ammonius, prime minister of Alexander Balas, the king of Syria, and bribed him with the otfer of 300 talents to deliver up Marathus to them. The unfortunate inhabitants of the devoted city attempted in vain to appease their enemies. The Aradinus violated the common laws of suppliants, broke the very ancient images of the local deities, -which the Murat-heni had brought to add solemnity to their embassy,--stoned the ambassadors, and cast them into prison: according to another account, they murdered some, and forged letters in their names, which they sealed with their seals, promising succour to Mnrathus, with a view of introducing their troops into the city under this pretence. But discovering that the citizens of Marathus were informed of their design, they dcsisted from the attempt. The facts of its final subjugation to Aradus are not preserved. Pliny (v. 20) places Mamthns opposite to the island of Aradus, which he says was 200 passus (= 1000 Roman feet) from the coast. Diodorus (l. 0.) state; the distance between Aradus and Marnthus to be 8 stadia; which need not be inconsistcnt with the statement of Pliny, as the latter may be supposed to measure to the point on the mainland nearest to Aradus, the former the distance between that island and the town of Marnthus. The fact, however, is, that even the statement of Diodorus is too short for the nearest point on the coast; for this island is, according to Maundrell (March 7, p. 19), “ about a league distant from the shore.” And l’ococke, who crossed the strait, says “ it is reckoned to be about two miles from the continent. (Observations on Syria, p. 201.) The 20 stadia of Strabo is therefore much more correct than either of the other authorities. He says that the island lay 06' an exposed coast (pa-Xm’rbovs Kai dAmévou), between its port(Carnnus lcge Games) and Marathus: and what was the respective situation ofthese towns he intimates in anothcr passage, where, reckoning from the north, he enumerates Balannen, Caruos, Enydm, Marathus. l’ococlro takes Tortosa to be “ without doubt Caranus (Games) the port of Aradus on the continent;" and as this is two miles north of Arsdus, be properly looks for Mamtlms to the south,—idcntifying Enydrn with Eirecl-Ilye (the Serpent) Founwin), “ directly opposite to Aradus (p. 203), and suggesting that some ruins which he observed on a raised ground, at the northern extremity of a plain, about 7 miles south of Tortom, “ might possibly be Marsthus" (p. 204). These conjectures may be admitted with some slight modifications. Thus, 0. g., instead of identifying Tortosa with Carnos, this naval arsenal of the Arvndites must be placed about 2% miles north of Tortusa, where a late traveller has discovered “ extensive ruins, called by the Arab pemnts Car-mum, _.-the site, doubtless, of the Carnos or Curanus of the ancients. The people from Arvad still quarry stones from these ruins; and below it, on the north, is a small harbour, which appears to have been forti. [had like that of Tomaso." (Thompson, in Bibliothem Sacra, vol. v. p. 254.) A fresh-water spring in the sea, is mentioned by Strabo; and a mile to the south, between Carnoos and Tortosa, “ a few rods from the shore, an immense fountain, called 'A in Ibrahim (A braham'l fountain), boils up from the bottom." Tortosa, then, will be, as many inc. dinevul writers maintained. Antnradus, which "Arabic geographers write Antartfls and Antarsils ; whence

2. There are several fragments of antiquity situated at the head of the valley of Marat/tuna at a spot called Ino'i, which is no doubt the site of the ancient Onxou, one of the four demi of the district. The retired situation of Oenoe accounts for its omission by Strabo in his enumeration of the demi situated near the coast (ix. p. 399).

3. There are also evident remains of an ancient dainus situated upon an insulated height in the plain of Silli, near the entrance of the pass leading out of the lllarathonian plain to Siili. These ruins are probably those of THICORYTHL'S, the situation of which agrees with the order of the maritime demi in Strnbo, where Tricorythus immediately precedes Rhnmnus. We learn from Aristophanes and Suidas that Tricorythus was tormented by gusts from a neighbouring marsh (elixir @cr-ny #7511 Tpmopuala, Aristoph. Lyeistr. 1032; Suldas, a. 12. that's); and at the present day the inhabitants of Lower Saili in the summer are driven by this plague and the bad air into the upper village of the same name. The town was probably culled Tricorythus from the triple peak on which its citadel was built.

The site of Pnoumrnna is uncertain, but it should probably be placed at the south-west extremity of the Mnrathonian plain. This might be inferred from Strabo's enumeration, who mentions first Probalinthus, then Marathon, and lastly T ri. corythns. Between the southern marsh and Mt, Argalt'lci there are foundations of buildings at a place called anan', which is, perhaps, a corruption of Prubulintllus. Close to the sea, upon a. rising ground in the marsh, there ure some ancient remains, which may, perhaps, be those of the temple of Athena Hellotia (l’lun, ll), which epithet the giddess is said tohave derived from the marsh of Marathon, where the temple was built. (Schol. ad Pirul. OI. xiii. 56 ; Etym, M. a. v. 'l-ZMmis.)

The principal monument in the Marathonian plain was the tumnlus erectcd to the 192 Athenians who were slain in the battle, and whose homes were inscribed upon ten pillars, one for each tribe, placed upon the tomb. There was also a second tumulus for the Plntueins and slaves, and a scpnrate monument to Miltiades. All three monuments were seen by Pausanias 600 years after the battle (i. 32. §3). The tumulns of the Athenians still exists. It stands in the centre of the plain, about half smile from the sea-shore, and is known by the name of 801-6 (6 Iopds), the tomb. (Plan, 13.) It is about 30 feet high, and 200 yards in circumference, composed of a light mould mixed with sand, amidst which have been found many brazen heads of arrows, about an inch in length, of u trilatcral form, and pierced at the top with a round hole for the reception of the shaft. There are also found, in still greater numbers, fragments of black flint, rudely shaped by art, which have been usually considered fragments of the urmw-hcnds used by the Pension archers; but this opinion cannot be received, as hints of the some

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kind abound in other parts of Greece, where no Persian is reputed to have set his foot; and, on the other hand, none have been found either at Thorntopylue or Plataea. At a. Very small distance from this tumulus Leake noticed a small heap of earth and stones, which is, perhaps, the tomb of Platseans and Athenian slaves. At 500 yards north of the great tnmulus is a ruin culled Pyrgo (rhinos), consisting of the foundation of a square monument, constructed of large blocks of white marble; itis apparently the monument erected in honour of Miltisdes. (Plan, 14.)

We learn from Philochorns that there was a temple of the Pythian Apollo at Marathon (up. Schehod Sopk. Oed. Col. 1047); and Demosthenes relates that the sacred vessel was kept on this cmst,md that gnce it was carried 05 by Philip. (Plait p. 49.

Pausanias (i. 32. § 3, seq.) mentions in the plain several natural objects, some of which have been noticed already. The lake at the northern extremity of the plain he describes “ as for the [not part marshy, into which the flying barbarians fell through their ignorance of the ways; and here it is said that the principal slaughter of them oocnmzd. Beyond the lake (i‘mip 'rlp' Alp-11v) are seen the stables of stone for the horses of Artsphemes, together with vestiges of a tent upon the rock. A river flows out of the lake which, within the lake, atl'ords water fit for cattle to drink; but, towards the place where it enters the sea, becomes salt and full of sea-fishes. At a little distance from the plain is a mountain of Pan, and o cavern worthy of inspection: the entrance is narrow; but within an! apartments and baths, and that which is culled the goat-stand (aiiréhiov) of Pan, together with rocks very much resembling goats." Leaks observes that the marshy lake, and the river, which, becoming salt towards the mouth, produces sea-fishes. 11"” precisely as Psusanias describes them. The mnoh is deepest towards the foot of Mt. Kora'ki, will" several springs issue from the foot of the rocks on the right side of the row leading from the gm!plnin to Lower Salli. These springs are apparently the fountain Mac/mu (Plan, 8), which l’anssma! mentions just before his description of the marsh It derived its name from Macaris, a daughteroi Hercules, who devoted herself to death in behalf of the Heraclidae before the victory which they gmflffl over the Argives in the plain. (Comp. Strabfurp. 377.) A small stream, which has its {Win in these springs, is traced through the marsh into a small salt lake (Plan, 9), supplied by subtermllflffli sources, and situated on the south-eastern extremill' of the marsh, under a rocky ridge, the continuation of C. Sto'mi. Both the ridge and salt hike 1"“ known by the name of Dllrakonério (r3 NM?" ve'pm, i. e. the monster-waters, so called from Its size, since bpdno is a common expression among the modern Greeks for any manellous object). 911 ll"? eastern side of the great marsh Leake noticed l small cavern in the side of Mt. Dhralwnério, Wind! is perhaps the place called by Pausanins “the stables of Artuphcmes." Lmlre supposes that the Persian commanders were encamped in the inhom— ing plain of Tricorythus. The mountain and care"! of Pan have not yet been discovered. They would appear, from the description of Pans-miss, to but" been a little further remr'iled from the plain than ill“ marsh and salt lake. Llcucc they may be phw'ldl" Mt. Kurdki.

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The exact ground occupied by the Greek and Persian armies at the battle of Marathon can only he a matter of conjecture. Col. Leake, whose account is both probable and consistent, though Mr. Finlay ditl‘ers from him, supposes that the. Athenian camp was in the valley of Vrnmi near its openin: into the plain; that on the day of battle the Athenian line extended from a little in front of the Heracleium, at the foot of Mt. Argalila', to the bend of the river of MarntMna, below the village of Sefén' ; and that the Persians, who were 8 studia in front of them, had their right resting on MLKor-éki. and their left extending to the southern marsh, which prevented them from having a front much greater than that of the Athenians. (See Plan, AA, BB.) When the Persians defeated the Athenian centre, they pursued the latter up one or both of the two valleys on either side of Mt.

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Kotrém', since Herodotus says that the pursuit continued quite into the interior (Er 'r'hv Incubator). Nearly at the same time the Persian left and right were defeated; but instead of pursuing them. the Athenians returned towards the field to the aid of their own centre. The Persian right fled towards the narrow pass leading into the plain of Tricorythus: and here numbers were forced into the marsh, as Pauszmias relates.

(Leake, The Derm' of A Nico, vol. ii. pp. 77, 203, originally published in T rumacliom oft/ta Roon Society of Literature, 1829, vol. ii.; Finlay, Ibid. vol. iii. p. 363; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, p. 44; Mure, Journal qfa Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. lOl; Thirlwall, Hint. of Greece. vol. ii. p. 239.; Grate, llist. of Greece, VOl. ii. p. 466; Mare, Hist. QfGreek Literature, vol. iv. pp. 510, 549, 550; Blakesley's Herodotus, vol. ii. p. "2.)

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the common Arabic name Tar-his, in Italian Tor-mo“ (I. c. p.247, n. 1). ’At'n-eI-Hiyeh, written by Poooch Ein-el-Hye, is certainly the Enydra of Stmbo; the geographer, or his informant, having in this, as in so many other instances, retained the first half of the native name, and translated the letter half,—En being the usual Greek and Latin equivalent for the Semetic ’A yn= fountain, and the hydro n sufliriently close representative of the Semetic nyeh=|evpent South of this fountain are very extensive quarries, fire or six miles to the south of Torlosa. “This neighbourhood is called by the Arabs Amreed or Alcohol Amreet ‘ the time of Amreet.’ This name the Greeks probably changed into Marathus, and the old vaults, foundations, sarcophagi, &c., our 'Aiwd-Hiy]! (Serpent? Fountain), may mark the precise locality of ancient Marathus.” (Thompson, 1. c. p. 250.) Pococke describes here a rock-hewn temple, and monolithic house and chambers; besides a kind of semicircle, which he thinks “might serve for some sports to divert the people of Aradus and Antaradus, or of the ancient Marathus, if that was near. It was probably a circus " (p. 203).

It was the more necessary to identify these 811% as D'Anville placed the ancient Marathus at the modern Momkiah, which is, doubtless, the representative of “ Mutatio Marach " of the Jerusalem Itinerary, on the confines of Syria and Phoenio‘. 13 M. P. south of Bulam'ns (now Boom), and 10 MP. n0rth of Antamdus: and this error is perpetuated in Arrowsmith's map. [G W-]_

MARATHUS (Mdpador). 1. A small town in Phocis, near Anticym, mentioned only by Strobe (ix. p. 423). Perhaps represented by the remain! at SWiiro-Mflhid. (Lenka, Northern Gm". vol. ii. p. 549.)

2. A town of Acarnsnia, of unknown size, "'"n' tioned only by Stephanns B. (s. o.) _

MARATHUSA, an inland city of Crammeniloflfil by Pliny (iv. 12; comp. 'l‘zschucke, ad Pomp. Meiii. 7. § 13; thick, Kreta, vol. i. p. 484.) [E.B.J.]

MARATHUSSA (Mapdflovmm), a small island of the Aegaean sea, of? the coast of lonia, near Clazomenne. (Thnc. viii. 31 ; Plin. v. 31. s. 38.)

MARCI, a place mentioned in the Not. lmp. nsOfl the Saxon shore, and as a station of some Dalmanan cavalry under the command of the general of Belglm Secunda. D'Anville supposes, with De “dots. that it may be Mark between Calais and Grbreliflm but the site is uncertain. 56- L]

MARCIAE. monomers, p. 934. b.

MARCIA'NA SILVA, a mountain forest in thi‘ south-west of Germany, probably the whole or o portion of .what is now called the Black For?! (Amm. Marc. mi. 8; Tab. Feeling.) The 0112‘“ of the name is not known, Cluver regarding Marciano as a corruption of salmon, and others OOMGCllllg it with marsh and march, which is still used in the Black Forest as a name for a moor. [L- 5]

MARCIANO'POLIS (Mapxiamérohs, Prompde Aod. iv. 7), a city of Moesia, 18 M. P. from Odessus( Vama) (Ilia. Anton. ;Peul.Tnb.; Hil‘mldwhich derived its name from Marciano, sister of Trajan. (Amm. Marc. xxvii. 6. § 12; Jornand. 114 Reb. Get. 16.) Claudius ll. signally defeated the Goths in several battles near this town. (TNMIPoll. Cloud. 9 ; Zozim. i. 42.) Gibbon (and; mm? Le Beau, Baa Empire, vol. iv. p. 106; Greenwood. History of die Germans, London, 1836, p. 329

I Art do Vér. lee Dates, vol. i. p. 358) has told the

story of the accidental quarrel between the Visigolh Fritigerri and the Roman governor of Mamienopolie, Lupiuinus,—which became the signal of a long and destructive war. (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 5. §4, Zozim. iv. 10, ll.) Marcianopolia afterwards became l'eristhlnva or Presthluva(l'1epro'0)td€a), the capital of the Bulgarian kingdom, which was taken A. D. 971 by Swiatoslafl' the Russian, and again reduced by John Zimisoes, when 8500 Russians were put to the sword, and the sons of the Bulgarian king racued from an iguominious prison, and invested with a nominal diadem. (Gibbon, c. lv.; Schafarik, Slm’. All. vol. ii. pp. 187, foil. 216; Finlay, Byzantine Empire, pp. 408—413.) The site of the ancient term must be sought for in the neighbourhood ofPramdi. For coins of Marcianopolis, both autonomous and imperial,seo Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 15. B. J.] MARCILIA'NA, a station on the Via Popillia, in Lucania, where, according to the Tabula, that road (which led directly S. from Campania into Bruttium) was joined by a branch from Potentia. The name is corrupted both in the Tabula and in the Anlonine Itinerary; but there can be no doubt that the place meant is the same called by Cassiodorus “ Marcilianum,‘ which was a kind of suburb of the town of Consilinum, where a great fair was annually held. (Ilia/int. p. 110; Tab. Peat; Cassiod. I'm-r. \'iii. 33.) The site is still called Marcilionu, in the Valley of the Tanagro, between La Solo and Padula. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 405.) [151. H. 3.] MABCl'NA (Mupkfm), a town of Campania, in the district of the I’iccntini, situated on the N. shore of the gulf of Posidonia, between the Sireunsae Insulac and the month of the bilarus. (Strah. v. p. 251.) ll is mentioned by no writer except Strubo, who tells us that it was a colony founded by the Tyrrhcnians, but subsequently occupied, and in his day still inhabited, by the Samnites. As he adds that the distance from thence through Nuceria to Pompeii was not more than 120 stadia (15 Roman miles), he lppuus to have regarded this as the point from whence the passage of the isthmus (as he calls it) between the two bays begun ; and it may therefore be placed with some plausibility at l'r'elrr'. (Cluvcr, Ila]. p. 1190; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 614.) &me ancient remains have been discovered there, though these may seem to indicate the site of Roman villas rather than of a town. [15. H. 13.] MA'RCIUS MONS (rb Mdpmov 5pm) was, according to Plutareh, the name of the place which was the scene of a great defeat of the Volscinns and L-itins by Cumilluzl in the year after the taking of Home by the Gimp; 3, c. 339. (Flat. Camill- 33, 34) Diorlorus, who calls it simply Marcius or Maroiurn (1b xaAor'mrwov Mdprrwv, xiv. 107), tells usit was 200 studio. from Rome; and Liv)" "’10 writes the name “ad Mecium," says it was near Lnnurium. (Liv. vi. 2.) The exact site cannot be determined. Some of the older topographers speak of a hill called Calla Marzo, but no such place is found on modern maps; and Gell suggests the 00114

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Roar. The Frank kings are said to have had a palace there, named Duria Villa or Dura. [G. L] MARCOMAGUS, a place in North Gnllin on a road from Augusta Trevirorum (Tréres) to Agrippins Civitas (Cologne). It. appears both in the Antonine Itin. and in the Table. Marcomngus is liarmagen. It is 28 or 31 M. P. from Cologne, for the numbers are not certain. [G. L.] MARCOMANNI (Mupxouaiwor, Maplroupduor, or MGPKOWOi), a name frequently occurring in the ancient history of Germany, sometimes as a mere appellative, and sometimes as a proper name of a distinct nation. Its meaning is border-men or march-men, and as such it might be applied to any tribe or tribes inhabiting and defending a border country. Hence we must be prepared to find Marcomanni both on the western and southern frontiers of Germany; and they might alsohave existed in the east, or on any other frontier. llarcomanni are first mentioned in history among.7 the tribes with which Ariovistul had invaded Gaul, and which were defeated and driven back names the Rhine by J. Caesar, n. c. 58 (Cues. Bell. Gall. i. 51). These Marcomanni, therefore, appear to have been the murchmeu on the Rheuish frontier, perhaps about the lovver part of the Main. They are again mentioned during the campaigns of Drusus in Germany, from 3.0. 12 to 9, by Florus (iv. 12), who seems to place them somewhat further in the interior. Only a few years later, we hear of a powerful Marcomaunian kingdom in Boiohemum or Bohemia, governed by Maroboduus; and we might be inclined to regard these Marcomrmni as quite a different people from those on the Rhine and Main,— that is, as the marchmcn on the southern frontier,— were it not that we are expressly told by Tacitus (Germ. 42), Paterculus (ii. 108), and Strabo (vii. p. 290), that their king,' Mamboduus had emigrated with them from the west, and that, after expelling the Celtic Boii from Bohemia, he established himself and his Marcomanni in that country. (Comp. Ptol. ii. 11. 2:3.) If we remember that the kingdom of the Murcomanni in Bohemia was fully organised as early as A. n. 6, when Tiberius was preparing for an expedition against it, it must be owned tlmt Mnroboduus, whose work it. was, must have been a man of unusual ability and energy. Henceforth the name of the Murcomunni appears in history as a national name, though ethnologically it was not peculiar to any particular tribe, brrt was given to all the different tribes which the Murcomnnnian conqueror had united under his rule. The neighbouring nations whom it was imlmssiblc to subdue were secured by treaties, and thus was formed what may be termed the great Mnrcomnnnic oonfederacy, the object of which was to defend Germany agth the Romans in Pannonia. But the Marcomanui soon also mme into collision with another German confederation, that of the Cheruaci, who regarded the powerful empire of Marobodnus aa

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