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This memorable siege has been thought woithy of special mention by Tacitus, and his lively abridginent, as it wonid appear, of Jusephus's detailed nanntive, must have served to raise his country~ men's ideas, both of the military prowess and of the powers of endurance of the Jews.

The city was wholly demolished except the three towers Hippicus, Phasaelus, and hiariamne, and so much of the western wall as would serve to protect the legion left there to garrison the place, and prevent any fresh insurrectionary movements among the Jews, who soon returned and occupied the rm'ns. The palace of Herod on Mount Sion was probably converted into a barrack for their accommodation, as it had been before used for the same purpose. (Bell. Jud.\'ii. l.§ 1, ii. 15. § 5, l7. 8. 9.)

Sixty years after its destruction, Jerusalem was visited by the emperor Hadrian, who then conceived the idea of rebuilding the city, and left his friend and kinstnnn Aquila there to superintend the work, so. 130. (Epiphanins, dc Pond. et Men-s. §§ 14, 15.) He had intended to onlonise it with ltoman veterans, but his project was defeated or suspended by the outbreak of the revolt headed by liarco~ chehus, his son Rufus, and his grandson Romulus. The insurgents first occupied the capital, and attempted to rebuild the Temple : they were speedily dislodged, and then held out in Bethar for nearly three years. [Barium] 0n the suppression of the revolt, the building of the city was proceeded with, and luxurious palaces, a theatre, and temples, with other public buildings, fitted it for a Roman population. The Chronicon Alexandrinum mentions 11‘: 660 51111-6610, Ital Tb fién'rpev Kill 115 rptxd— #rpov Ital 'rb 're'rpciwpnpov xal 'rb Bmoexdrvhov Th 1pr drauafiiaevov a'vafiaBu-ol ital Thu xédpar. A temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, from whom the city derived its new name, occupied the site of the Temple, and a tetrnstyle fane of Venus was raised over the site of the Holy Sepulchre. The ruined Temple and city furnished materials for these buildings. The city was divided into seven quarters (timber),th of which had its own warden (dimoEipxm). Part of Mount. Sion was excluded from the city, as at present, and was “ploughed as a field." (Micah, iii. 12; St. Jerome, Comment. in Lic.,~lti1m'arium Ilierosol. p. 592, ed. \Vesseling.) The history of Aelin Capitolina has been made the mhject of distinct treatises by C. E. Deyliug, “Aeline Capitelinae Originee et Histotin" (appended to his father's Ohm-maan Sncrae, vol. v. p. 433, &c.), and by Dr. Miinter, late Bishop of Copenhagen (translated by W. Wadden Turner, and published in Dr. Robinson's Bibliot/ieca Sacra, p. 393, &c.), who have collected all the scattered notices of it as I [axon city. In coins also belong to this period, and extend from the reign of Hadrian to Severus. UM 0f the former emperor (IMP. case. mums. tunmxva. Avo., which exhibits Jupiter in a letr-Astyie temple, with the leccnd COL. Ann. car.) tonfinns the account of Dion Cassius-(11k. 12), that atemple to Jupiter was erected on the site ofGod's temple (Erkhel, Doc-t. Nmn. Vet. pars i. tom. iii. p. 443); while one of Antoninus (AXTONINVS. AVG. rive. P. r. TIL P. cos. 11L, representing Venus in n unnlnr temple, with the legend C. A. c. or cot. ABL. C1m) no less distinctly confirms the Christian triv liltiun that a shrine of Venus was erected over the brpulchrc of our Lord. (Vaillant. Nmnl'tmalfl Aorta lower. in col. pt. i. p. 23'); lickhcl. l- c- M41)

Under the emperor Commutine, Jerusalem, which


had already become a favourite place of pilgrimage to the Christians, was furnished with new attractions by that emperor and his mother, and the erection of the )lartyry of the Rmurrection inaugurated as new sons of the Holy City, which now recovered its ancicnt name. after it had apparently fallen into complete oblivion among the government oficers in l’alaestine itself. (Euseb. dell/art. Palaeet. cap. The erection of his church was commenced the year after the Council of Nimfl, and occupied ten years. It was dedicated on the tricennalia of the emperor, A. D. 336. (Enseb. Vita Constantini, iii. 30—40, iv. 40—47.) Under the emperor Julian, the city again became an object of interest to the pagans, and the account of the defeat of Julian's attempt to rebuild the Temple is preserved by Ammianus Marcellinus, an nnexceptional witness 1: all the historical notices are collected by Bishop Warburton, in his work on the subject, entitled Julian.) In 451, the see of Jerusalem was erected into a patriarchate; and its subsequent history is chiefly occupied with the conflicting opinions of its incumbents on the subject of the heresies which troubled the church at that period. In the following century (cir. 532) the emperor Justinian emulated the zeal of his predecessor Constantine by the erection of churches and hospitals at Jerusalem, a complete account of which has been left by Procopius. (De Aed/I'jiciis Juslin am', v.6.) In A. D. 614, the city with all its sacred places was dcsohited by the Peiaians under Cliosrocs 11.. when, according to the contemporary records, 90,000 Christians, of both sexes and of all ages, fell victims to the relentless fury of the Jews, who, to the number of 26,000, had followed the Persians from Galilee to Jerusalem to gratify their hereditary malice by the massacre of the Christians. The churches were immediately restored by hlodestus; and the city wrw visited by Heraclins (A. n. 629) after his defeat. of the Persians. Five years later (A. n. 634) it was invested by the Saracens, and, after a defence of four months, capitulated to the kholif Omar in person; since which time it has followed the vicissitudes of the various dynasties that have swayed the destinies of Westem Asia.

It remains to add a few words concerning the modern city and its environs.

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El-Kotll‘, the modern representative of its most ancient name Kadeshah, or Cadytia, “ is surrounded by a high and strong cut-stone wall, built on the solid rock, 100p~holed throughout, varying from 25 to 60 feet in height, having no ditch." It was built by the sultan Sulimau (A. n. 1542), as is declared by many inscriptions on the wall and gates. It is in circuit about ‘2} miles, and has four gates facing the four cardinal points. 1. The Jedi: Gate, on the west, called by the natives Bab~el-Hallil, i. e. the Hebron Gate. 2. The Damascus Gate, on the north, Bab-el-‘Amud, the Gate of the Column. 3. The St. Stephen's Gate, on the east, Bab-SittiMiryam, St. Mary's Gate. 4. The Sion Gate, on the south, Bab-en-Nebi Datld, the Gate of the Prophet David. Afiflh gate, on the south, near the month of the Tympoeon, is sometimes opened to facilitate the introduction of the water from a neighbouring well. A line drawn from the Jada Gate to the Musk, along the course of the old Wu“, and another, cutting this at right angles, drawn from the Sion to the Dwioscus Gate, could divide the city into the four quarters by which it is usually distinguished. 30 IGLETES.

These four quarters are:—(l) The Armenian Quarter at the SW.; (2) the Jew's Quarter at the Sl'i.,—both these being on Mount Sion; (3) the Christian Quarter at the NW.; (4) the Mahometan Quarter, occupying the remainder of the city on the west and north of the great Haram-es-Sherif, the noble Sanctuary, which represents the ancient Temple arm. The Mosk, which occupies the grandest and once most venerated spot in the world, is, in its architectural design and proportions, as it was formerly in its details, worthy of its site. It was built for Abd-el Melik lbn-lllarwan, of the house of Ommiyah, the tenth khalif. It was commenced in A. D. 688, and completed in three years, and when the vicissitudcs it has undergone within a space of nearly 1200 years are considered, it is perhaps rather a matter of astonishment that the fabric should have been preserved so entire than that the adornment should exhibit in parts marks of ruinous decay.

T he Church of Justinian,—now the Mosk ElAks:1,—to the south of the same area, is also it conspicuous object in the modern city; and the Church of the Holy Scpulchre, with its appendages, occupies a considerable space to the west. The greater part of the remaining space is occupied with the Colleges or Hospitals of the Meslems, in the vicinity of the Hooks, and with the Monasteries of the several Christian communities, of which the Patriarchal Convent of St. Constantine, belonging to the Greeks, near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and that of the Armenians, dedicated to St. James, on the highest part of Mount Sion, are the most considerable.

The population of the modern city has been variously estimated, some accounts stating it as low as 10,000, others as high as 30,000. It may be safely assumed as about 12,000, of which number nearly half are Moslems, the other half being composed of Jews and Christians in about equal proportions. It is govemed bys. Turkish pasha, and is hold by a small garrison. Most of the European notions are there represented by a consul.

VI. Exvrnons.

A few sites of historical interest remain to be noticed in the environs of Jerusalem: as the valleys which environ the city have been sufliciently described nt the commencement of the article, the mountains may hero demand a few words.

The chm, which derived its name, as Josephus informs us, from the extensive view which it commended of the surrounding country, is the high ground to the north of the city, beyond the Tombs of the Kings, 7 sladia from the city (B. J. ii. 19. § 4, v. 2. §3), where both Cestius and Titus first encnmped on their approach to the city (ll. 00.); this range is now occupied by a village named Sluiphlit—the Semitic equivalent to the Greek o'xmrdr. On the east of the city is the Mount of Olives, extending along the whole length of its eastern wall, conspicuous with its three summits, of which the centre is the highest, and is crowned with a pile of buildings occupying the spot where Helena, the mother of Constantine, built a Basilica in conitucmorntion of the Ascension of our Lord. (Euscliius, Vita Commiti'ni, iii. 12, Lauder, § 9.) A little below the southern summit is u remarkable gnllcry of scpulclu‘al chambers arranged in a semi


circle concentric with a circular funnel-shaped hall 24 feet in diameter, with which it is connected by three passages. They are popularly called “the Tombs of the Prophets," but no satisfactory account has been given of these extensive excavations (Plans are given by Schultz. Krafll, and Tobler, in the works referred to below.) Dr. Schultz was inclined to identify this with the rock wrpimrfipwr, mentioned by Josephus in his account of the Wall of Circumvallstion (B. J. v. 12), which he suppose) to be a translation of the Latin Columbarium. (See Diet. Ant. art. Fumu, p. 561, b.)

In the bed of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, immediately beneath the centre summit of Mount Olivet, where the dry bed of the brook Kedron is spanned by a bridge, is the Garden of Gefluemane, with its eight venerable olive-trees protected by a stone wall; and close by is a subterranean church, in which is shown the reputed tomb of the Virgin, who, however, accordin, to an ancient tradition, countenanced by the Council of Ephesus (A. n. 43]), died and was buried in that city. (Labbe, Concilio, tom. iii. col. 573.)

A little to the south of this, still in the bed of the valley, are two remarkable monolithic sopulchral monuments, ascribed to Absalom and Zechariah, exhibiting in their sculptured ornaments a mixture of Doric, Ionic, and perhaps Egyptian architecture, which may pos>ibly indicate a change in the original design in conformity with later taste. Connected with these are two series of sepulchral chambers, one immediately behind the l’illar of Absalom, called by the name of Jehoshaphat; the other between the monoliths, named the Cave of St. James, which last is a pure specimen of the Doric order. (See A General View in Holy City, vol. ii. p. 449, and detailed plans, &c. in pp. 157, 158, with Professor Willis's description.)

To the south of Mount Olivet is another rocky eminence, to which tradition has assigned the name of the rllmmt of Ofence, as “ the hill bcfore Jeru— salem” where king Solomon erected altars for idolatrons worship (1 Kings, xi. 7). In the rocky base of this mount, overhanging the Kedron, is the rockhewn village of Siloam, chiefly composed of sepulchml excavations, much resembling aColumbarium, and most probably the rock Peristerium of JosephusImmediately below this village, on the oppm'ile side of the valley, is the interrnitting Fountain of W Virgin, at a considerable depth below the bed of the valley, with a descent of many 510?8 hewn in the rock. Its supply of water is very scanty, and what is not drawn 03' here runs through the rocky ridge of Ophel, by an irregular passage, to the Pool of Siloam in the mouth of the Tyro— poeon. This pool, which is mentioned in the pr Testament (St. John, ix. 7, &c.), is now filled with earth and cultivated as a garden, a small tank will! columns built into its side serves the purpose of a pool, and represents the “quadriporticum” of tho Bordeaux Pilgrim (mp. 333), who also mentions “Alb! piscina grandis foras." This was probably identical with Hezekinh's Pool “between the two walls" (II. xxii. 11), as it certainly is with Ill" “ Pool of Siloah by the king's garden" in Nehemiah (iii. 15, ii. 14; comp. 2 Kings, xxv. 4. The ergo.ments are fully stated in the Holy City, W7)1‘pp. 474—480. M. do Saulcy accepts the identification.) The king's gardens are still represented in u verdant spot, where the concurrence of 1110 three valleys, lliuuom Jehoahuphut, uud Tympwoui

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forms a small plain, which is cultivated by the villagers of Siloam.

1n the mouth of the southern valley which forms the continuation of these three valleys towards the Dead Sea, is a deep well, variously called the Well of Nehemiah, of Job, or Joab; supposed to be identical with Enrogel, “ the well of the spies," mentioned in the borders of Judah and Benjamin, and elsewhere (Josh. xv. 7, xviii. 16; 2 Sam. xvii. 17; 1 Kings, i. 9).

0n the opposite side of the valley, over against the Mount of Ofi'ence, is another high roclty hill, facing Mount Sion, called the Hill of Evil Council, frtnn a tradition that the house of Annas the highprieet, father-in~lawto Cainphas (St. John, xviii. 13, 24), once occupied this site. There is a curious coincidence with this in a notice of Josephus, who, in his account of the wall of circumvallation, mentions the monument of Ananus in this part (v. 12.§ 2); which monument has lately been identified with an ancient nook-grave of a higher class,—tlie Aceldmna of ecclesiastical tradition,—a little below the ruins on this hill; which is again attested to be “ the Potter's Field,” by a stratum of white clay, which is still worked. (Schultz, Jerusalem, p. 39.)

This grave is one of a series of sepulchres excavated in the lower part of this bill ; among which are several beating Greek inscriptions, of which all that is clearly intelligible are the words THC. Al'lAC. ClldN., indicating that they belonged to inhabitants or communities in Jerusalem. (See the inscriptions in Krafl‘t, and the comments on his deciplgerments in the Holy City, Memoir, pp. 56 —60 .

Higher up the Valley of Hinnom is a large and very ancient pool, now called the Sultan's (Birket-eeSultan),from the fact that itwss repaired, and adorned With a handsome fountain, by Sultan Sulimsn lbnSelim, 1520—1566, the builder of the present citynll. It is, however, not only mentioned in the mediwval notices of the city,but is connected by Nehemiah with mother antiquity in the vicinity, called En-nebi

' On Mount Sion, immediately show, and to the east of the pool, is a large and irregular mass of building, supposed by Christians, Jews, and Moslems, to contain the Tomb of David, and of his successors the kings of Judah. It has been said that M. de Sealcy has attempted an elaborate proof of the identity of the Tombs of the Kings, at the head of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, with the Tomb of David. His theory is inadmissable ; for it is clear, from the helium of Nehemiah, that the Scpulchres of David “at not far distant from the Pool of “ Siloah," clme to“the pool thatwas made,"n.nd, consequently, on that it"- of Mount Sion where thcyare now shown. (Nellms iii. 16—19.) The memory of David's tomb mtill preserved until the destruction of Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant. xiii. 8.§ 4, xvi. 7. § 1: Acts, ii. 29), and is noticed occasionally in the middle ages. (bl-o Holy City, vol. ii. pp. 505—513.) In the same pile ti buildings, now occupied by the Moslems. is shown the Coenaculum where our Lord is said to have inlt-imed the Last Supper. Epiphanius mentions that this church was standing when Hadrian visited Jeru“ltm (Fund. at Mean. cap. xiv.), and there St. Cyril deliveml some of his ontechetical lectures (Calech. xvi. 4). It was in this part of the Upper City that Titus spared the houses and city wall to form barracks for the soldiers of the garrison. (Vide sup.)

Above the Pool of the Sultan, the Aqueduct of Pfllliu Pilate. already mentioned, crosses the Valley

of Hinnom on nine low arches; and, being carried along the side of Mount Sicn, crosses the 'l'yropoeon by the causeway into the Harem. The water is conveyed from Ethnm, or the Pools of Solomon, about two miles south ol Bethlehem. (Josephus, B. J. ii. 9. ' 4.) 9 The mention of this aqueduct recalls a notice of Strabo, which has been perpetually illustrated in the history of the city; viz., that it was herb: piv rfliihpw herbs 8% warn/Vii: hnhpov . . . . . ai’rrb phi efii'lbpuv, 7hr 6E noxth xaipay {xov Amrpdv Kal livelipov. (xvi. p. 723.) Whence this abundant supply was derived it is extremely diflicult to imagine, as, of course, the aqueduct just mentioned would be immediately cut 08' in case of siege; and, without this, the inhabitants of the modem city are almost entirely dependent on rain-water. But the accounts of the various sieges, and the other historical notices, as well as existing remains, all testify to the fact that there was a copious source of living water introduced into the city from without, by extensive subterranean aqueduots. The subject requires, and would repay, a more accurate and careful investigation. (See Holy City, vol. n. p. 453-505.) Besides the other authorities cited or referred to in the course of this article, the principal modern sources for the topography of Jerusalem are the followingz—Dr. Robinson‘s Biblical Researcher, V015. i. and ii; Williams's Holy City ; Dr. Wilson’s Lands of the Bible; Dr. E. G. Schultz, Jerusalem; W. Krofi't, Die Topographic Jerusalems; Curl ltittor, Die Erdkundc eon Asicn, (fa, Pulristina, llorlin, 1852, pp. 297—508: Dr. Titus 'l'obler, Golgullm, 1851; Die Silonltquelle und die Oelberg, 1852; Denkbldlter mu Jerusalem, 1853; F. de Saulcy,Vo_1/age amour de la Mer Merle, tom. 2. [6. 11].]

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Etruria, directly opposite to the Mons Argcntarins and the port of Coca. It is, next to live, the most considerable of the islands near the coast of Etrurin, being 6 miles long by about 3 in breadth, and consists of I. group of mountains of considerable elevation. Hence Kutilius speaks of its " silvosa eacn— mins.” (Itin. i. 325.) From that author we learn that, when Rome was taken by Mario (A. D. 410), a number of fugitives from the city took refuge in lgilium, the insular position of which ullbrdcd them complete security. Caesar also mentions it, during the Civil War, in conjunction with the neighboim'ng port of Cosa, as furnishing a tow vessels to Domitius, with which that general sailed for Massilis. (Cass. B. C. i. 34; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12 ; Mela, ii. 7. § 19.) It is evident, therefore, that it was inhabited in ancient as well as modern times. [5. H. 5.] IGLE’TESJGNE'TES, [HlSPANlAJ IGULLIO'NES, in European Sarmatin, mentioned by Ptolemy as lying between the StaVani and Cuistoboci, and to the east of the Venedi (iii. 5. 21). Now the Stavani lay south of the Gulindne and Sudini, populations of which the locality is known to be that of the Gslinditac and Sudcvitse 0f the middle ages, i. e. the parts about the Spirdbig-see in East Prussia. This would place the Igulliones in the sonthem part of Lithuania, or in parts of Gr'odno, Podolia, and Vol/lynia, in the country of the Jazwz'nyi of the thirteenth century,—there or thereabouts. Zeuss has allowed himself to consider some such form as 'lrirryiuver as the truer reading; and, so doing, identifies the names, as well as the localities, of the two populations ("In/rywa Jacwiny),—the varieties of form being very numerous. The Jacwinga were Lithuamhm—Lithunninns as opposed to Slovenian: ,nnd in this lies their ethnological importance, innsmueh as the southward extension of that branch of the Snrmntian stock is undetermined. (See Zeuss, a. v. Jazwingi.) [R G. L] lGU'VlUM ('l'yerii'ov: Etlt. lguvinus: Gubbio), an ancient and important town of Umbria, situated on the W. slope of the Apennines, but not far from their central ridge, and on the lolt of the Via F laminia. Its existence as an ancient Umbrisn city is sufficiently attested by its coins, as well as by s romarkable monument presently to be noticed; but we find no mention of it in history previous to the period of its subjection to Rome, and we only learn incidentally from Cicero that it enjoyed the privileged condition of s “ ioeder'sts civitss," and that the terms of in. treaty were of a highly favourable character. (Cic. pro Bulb. 20, where the reading of the older editions, “Fulginatiurn,” is certainly erroneous: see Orelli, ad loc.) The first mention of its name occurs in Livy (nlv. 43, where there is no doubt we should read lguvium for “ lgiturvium ") as the place selected by the Roman sennte for the confinement of the lllyrisn king Gentius and his sons, when the people of Spoietium refused to receive them. Its natural strength of position, which was evidently the cause of its selection on this occasion, led also to its bearing a conspicuous partin the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, when it was occupied by the proctor Minucius Thermus with five cohorts; but on the approach of Curio with three cohorts, 'l‘hermus, who was apprehensive of it re. volt of the citiZens, abandoned the town without resistance. (Caes. B. C. i. 12; Cic. adAtt. vii. 13, b.) Under the Roman dominion lguviurn seems to have lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town: we find it noticed in an inscription as

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one of the “ xv. pnpuli Umbrise " (Orcll. Inner. 98), as well as by l’liny and Ptolemy (l'lin. iii. 14. s. 19; l’tol. iii. 1. § 53), and it is probable that in Strabo also we should read 'l'yoi'lwv for the corrupt mme 'lroupov of the MSS. and earlier editions. (Sirnb. v. p. 227; Cluver. Ital. p. 626.) But. its secluded position in the mountains, and at a distance of some miles from the line of the Via. Flaminia, was probably unfavourable to its prosperity, and it does not seem to have been a place of much importance. Silius ltslicus speaks of it as Very subject to fogs (viii. 459). It early became the see of a bishop. and retained its episcopal rank throughout the middle ages, when it rose to be a place of considerably more importance than it had enjoyed under the Roman empire.

The modern city of Gubln'o contains no ruins of ancient date; but about 8 miles to the E. of it, at a' place now called La Schicggih, on the line of the ancient Flaminisn Way, and just at the higlmt point of the P385 by which it crosses the main ridge of the Apennines, some vestiges of an ancient temple are still visible, which are snppm'ed with good reason to be those of the temple of Jupiter Apenninus. This is represented in the Tabulu l’eutingeriona 1m existing at the highest point of the pass, and i5 noticed also by Claudian in describing the progress of Honorius along the Flmninisn Way. (Cluudiun, (1e V1. Com. Hon. 504; Tab. Pent.) The (uncle consulted by the emperor Claudius “in Apennino" (T reb. Poll. Cloud. 10) may perhaps have reference to the same spot. Many bronze idols and other small objects of antiquity have been found near the ruins in question; but a far more important discovery, made on the same site in 1444, was that of the celebrated tables of bronze, commonly known no the Tabulse Eugubiuae, which are still preserved in the city of Gubbio. These tables, which are seven in number, contain long inscriptions, four of which are in Etruscan characters, two in Latin, and one partially in Etruscan and partially in Latin characters; but the languaye is in all cases sppnwnlb’ the same, and is wholly distinct from that of the genuine Etruscan monuments on the one hand,” well as from Latin on the other, though exhibiting strong traces of afiinity with the older Latin forms, as well as with the existing remains of the 0503-11 dialects. There can be no doubt that the language which we here find is that of the Umbrians themselves, who are represented by all ancient writers as nationally distinct both from the Etruscans and the Sabellian races. The ethnological and linguistic inferences from these important monuments will b“ more fully considered under the article Umunrs. It is only of late years that they have been investigated with care; early nntiqunrics having formed the most extravagant theories as to their meaning: Lanli had the merit of first pointing out that they evidently related only to certain morificial and other religions rites to be celebrated at the temple of Jupiter by the lguvians themselves and some neighbouring 601"niunities. The interpretation has since been out. as far as our imperfect knowledge will permit, by Lepsius, Grotcfcnd, and still more recently in the clnborute work of Aufroclrt and Kirchhoff. (Lanzn Srlgyi'o di Lime Etruscri, vol. iii. pp. 657—763; Lentil“, do Tabulis Eugubinis, 1833; lm‘l'plw L'mJn-icrw a 05006, Lips I841; Grotefend, RIKIP menta biaguae Umbn'cae, Haunov. 1835—1839; Aufrecht u. Kirchhoff, no Umbrr'sclwn SmelDmkmdlcr, 4to. Berlin, 1849.) In the still im

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perfect state of our knowledge of the inscriptions in question, it is somewhat hazardous to draw from them positive conclusions as to proper names; but it seems that we may fairly infer the mention of several small towns or communities in the immediate neighbourth of Ignvium. These were, however, in all probability not. independent communities, but pagi, or n‘llagea dependent upon lgnvium itself. Of this description were: Akeruniu or Acerronia (probably answering to the Latin Aquilonia), Clarernia (in Lat. Clarenna), Curie or Cureia, Casilum, Juvisenrn, Museia, Pierium (i’), Tarsina, and Trebla or Trepla. The last of these evidently corresponds to the Latin name Trcbia or Trebnla, and may refer to the Umbrian town of that name: the Cureiati of the inscription are evidently the same with the Curiatcs of Pliny, mentioned by him among the extinct communities of Umbria (Plin. iii. 14. s. 19); while the names of Museia and Cnsilum are said to be still retained by two villages milled Murcia and Castle in the immediate neighbourhood of Gubbio. Chin-seth another neighbouring village, is perhaps the Clavema of the Tables.

The coins of Ignvium, which are of bronze, and of large size (so that they must be anterior to the reduction of the italian As), have the legend rvarsr, which is probably the original form of the name, and is found in the Tables, though we here meet also with the softened and probably later form “ 1 jovina," or “ liovina." [8. 1-1. 13.]

ILA, in Sootlund, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 5) as the first river south of the Bernbium Promontorium=Firtlt nfDornoc/l. [R- G. L.]

ILARAU'GATAE. [Hist-1mm; incomes]


ILARGUS, a river of Rhaetia Secnnda, flowing from west to east, and emptying itself into the Danube. (Pedo Albinov. Eloy. ad Liv. 386, where the common reading is itargus; others read Isargns, and regard it as the same as the river Atagis ('A'ra'yls) mentioned by Strabo, iv. p. 207, with Grrekurd‘s note, vol. i. p. 356.) It. would, however. flpporr that llargns and Isargua were two different rivers, since in later writers we find, with a slight change, a river llilara (Vita S. Mayne, 18), answering to the modern lller, and another, Ysarchc (Act. S. Cmiani, ap. Reach. Amml. Sabion. iv. 7), the modern Eisoch, which flows in a southern direction, 1nd empties itself into the Athesis. [L. S.]

lLA’T'l'lA (‘XAa-r-rlc, Polyb. up. Steph. B. a. 0.), a town of Crete, which is probably the same as the Burns of Pliny (iv. 12). Some editions reed Chins, incorrectly classed by him among the inland towns. (Hiick, Kretn, vol. i. p. 432.) B. J.]

ILDUM. [Bonner]



iLERCA'ONES('1MpKdover, Ptol. ii. 6. Hi. 64; llereamrenses, Liv. xxii. 21; illurgavonenscs, Cm. B. C. i. 60: in this, as in so many other Sphinx names, the e and g are interchangeable), n people of Hisprrniu Tarraeonensis, occupying that {union of the sea-mast. of Ema-mun which lay betwren the rivers UDUBA and Immus. Their met boundaries appear to have been a little to the N- 0i arch of these rivers. They possessed the town

0Dinoea (Tortom), on the left bank of the ibcrus, and it was their chief city. [Duncan] Their other towns, according to Ptolemy, were: -— Anson ('Abegc: Ampoatn .9)I TtARuJLIA (Tmpwuhla :

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BIBOARGI'S (Bro'xop'yir; Biscnrgitani civ. Rom, Plin.: Ben-us). SIGARRA (Il'yafipa: Segarm, Mama, Hinp. ii. 8), CARTHA'GO Vic'rus(1(apxndibv round: Carla Vicja, Marca,ibid.), and TUE/WA (6min). Ukart also assigns to them, on the N. of the Iberns, TRAJA CAPITA, Onunsrnvrr, Tarrnaco, rind other places, which seem clearly to have belonged to the COBETANI. The name of their country, lurncnvorun, occurs on the coins of their city Inzru. [P. 8.] ILERDA (’Ute'psd, and rarely Eilte'pda; Hilerdn, Anson. Epiat. xxv. 59 : Etli. '1Aep6lrcr,llerdcnscs: Lcrr'da), the chief city of the ILERGETES, in Hispania '1‘nrraconensis,ia a place of considerable importance, historically as well as geographically. it stood upon an eminence, on the right (\V.) bank of the river Srcoms (Segre), the principal tributary of the Ebro, and some distance above its confluence with the Gwen (Circa); thus commanding the country between those rivers, as well as the great road from Tarraco to the NW. of Spain, which hcro crossed the Sicoris. (Ilin. Ant. pp. 391, 452.) Its situation (propter t'pa-iw loci opportunitalm, Ca. B. C. i. 38) induced the legatea of Pompey in Spain to make it the key of their defence against Caesar, in the first year of the Civil War (8. c. 49). Afranius and Pctrciua threw themselves into the place with five legions; and their siege by Caesar himself, as narrated in his own words, forms one of the most interesting passages of military history. The resources exhibited by the great general, in l contest where the formation of the district and the very elements of nature seemed in league with his enemies, have been compared to those displayed by the great Duke before Buzz'rg'oz ,- but no epitome can do justice to the campaign. It ended by the capitalation of Afr-anius and l‘ctrcius, who were conquered as much by Caesar's generosity as by his strategy. (Cece. B. C’. i. 38, et seq.; Flor. iv. 12; Appinn, B. C. ii. 42; Veil. Pat. ii. 42; Suet. Cues. 34; Lucnn, I‘llarral. iv. 11, 144.) Under the empire, llerda was a very flourishing city, and n municipiurn. It had a fine stone bridge over the Sicoris, on the foundations of which the existing bridge is built. In the time of Ansoniua the city had fallen into decay,- but it. rose again into importance in the middle ages. (Strnb. ii. p. 161; Horat. Epilt. i. 20. 13; coins, up. Florol, Merl. ii. pp. 451, 646, iii. p. 73; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 44, Suppl. vol. i. p. 89; Seatini, pp. 161, 166; Eckhel, V01. i. p. 51.) _ (1’. 8.]

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