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invaded and conquered their country. Marohodurm Ilod,and demanded the protection of Tiberius, who offered to him a safe retreat in Italy. He there spent the remaining eighteen years of his life, while the throne of the Mnrcomanni was left to Catualda. [Diet of Biogr. art. Manorsonuus] But the latter, too, was soon expelled by the \Hermunduri, and ended his life in exile. (Tao. Ann. ii. 62, 63.) The Marcomanni, however, like the Quadi, continued to be governed by kings of their own, though they were not quite independent of the Romans, who often supported them with money and more rarely with troops. ('l‘ac. Germ. 42.) They appear to have gradually extended their dominion to the banks of the Danube, where they came into hostile collision with the Romans. The emperor Domitian demanded their assistance against the Dacians, and this beng refused, he made war against them. But he was defeated A.D. 90, and obliged to make peace with the Daciana. (Dion Cass. lxvii. 7.) Trojan and Hadrian kept them in check; but in the reign of M. Aurelius hostilities were rcconnnenced with fresh energy. The lllarcomanni, allied with the Quadi and others, partly from hatred of the Romans, and partly urged on by other tribes pressing upon them in the north and east, invaded the Roman provinces A. n. 166; and thus commenced the protracted war commonlycalled the Mnrcomaunic or German War,which lasted until the accession of Commodus, A. n. 180, who purchased peace of them. During this war, the Marcomanni and their coufcdcrates advanced into Ithuctin, and even penetrated as far as Aquileia. The war was not carried on uninterruptedly, but was divided into two distinct contests, having been interrupted by a peace or truce, in which the places conquered on both sides were restored. The second war broke out towards the end of the reign of M. Aurelius, about 11.1). 178. (Dion Cass. Fragm. lib. lxxi., lxxii., lxxvii. pp. 1178, foib, 1305, ed. Reimar.; Eutmp. viii. 6; .I. Capitol. M. Anton. Philos. 12, &c., 17. 21. 22, 25, 27; Amm. More. xix. 6: Horodinn, i. init.) In consequence of the pusillnnimity of Commodus the Marcolnannians were so much emboldened, that, soon after and throughout the third century, they continued their inroads into the Roman provinces, especially Rhaetia and Nericum. In the reign of Aurelian, they penetrated into Italy, even as far as Ancona, and excited great alarm at Rome. (Vopisc. Aurel. 18, 21.) But afterwards they cease to act a prominent part in history. Their name, however, is still mentioned occasionally, as in Jornondes (22), who speaks of them as dwelling on the west of Transylvania. (Comp. Amm. Marc. xxii. 5, xxix. 6, mi. 4.) In the Notitia Imperii, we have mention of “ Honoriani Marcomanni seniorea" and “juniures " among the Roman auxiliaries. The lost occasion on which their name occurs is in the history of Attila, among whose hordes Marcomanni are mentioned. (Comp. Wilhelm, Gemram'en, p. 212, ML; Zeuss, Die Dmiocben, p. 114, full.; Lutharn, Tacit. Germ. I’mleg. p. 53, Ml.) [L. S.]

MABDENE. [Mannrnxiaj


MARDI, a branch of this powerful and warlike

pie were found in Armenia to the of Mardastan (lake Vein). ('Ptol. v. 13. § 20; Too. Aim. xiv. 23; comp. Auquetil Duperron, diém. (Ie I'Acad. (1e: Inacr. vol. le- P- 87-) [15. ll. J.]

HARDYE'NE (Mapfimvri, I’tol. vi. 4. 3), a district of ancient Persia, which, according to Ptolemy, extended to the sen-coast. 'I'he name is


probably derived from some of the for extended unmade tribes of the Mrirdi or Amardi. (Herod. i. 125; Strnb. xi. p. 524.) LIARDYE'NI (Mupdrmvol, Ptol. vi. 12 § 4), a tribe who occupied the lower part of the Sogdiau mountains in Sogdiana. There can be no doubt that these people are the remainaof some very numerous race, whose traces we find spread over a wide extent of country from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from the Oxus to the Caspian. We find the names of these tribes preserved in different. authors, and attributed to very diti'erent places. Hence the presumption that they were to a great extent a nomade tribe, who pressed onward from the N. and E. to the S. Thus we find them under the form of Mardi in Hyrcanil. (Died. xvii. 76; Arrian, Anab. iii. 24, iv. 18; Dionys. Perieg. v. 732; Curt. vi. 5), in Margiana according to Pliny (vi. 16. s. 13), in Persia (Herod. i. 125; Strab. xi. p. 524; Plol. vi. 4. § 3; Curt. v. 6), in Armenia (I‘tol. v. 13; Tacit. Ann. xiv. 23), on the custom side of the l‘ontus Euxinua (Pliu. vi. 5), under the form Amardi in Scythia intra Imauur (Mela, iii. 5, iv. 6; Plin. vi. 17. s. 19), and lastly in Bactriana. (l’lin. vi. 16. s. 18.) V. MAREIA or MA'REA (Mapc'a, Herod. ii. 18,30; Mapcia, 'I'hncyd. i. 104; Mdpeia, Stcph. Byz. an; Mania, Diod. ii. 68 ; l'IuAat Mdpna. Rhino, Ptol. iv. 5. 34), the modern Mmioutli, and the chief townof the Mareotio Nome, stood on a peninsula iu the south of the lake Mareotis, nearly due south of Alexandrcia. and adjacent to the mouth of the canal which conuectod the lake with the Canopic arm of the Nile. Under the Pharaohs Marcia was one of the principal frontier garrisous of Aegypt on the side of Libya; but from the silence of Herodotus (ii. 30) we may infer that. the Persians did not station troops tht’m In all ages, however, until it was eclipsed by the neighbouring greatness of Alexandreia, Marcia, as the nearest place of strength to the Libyan desert. must have been a town of great importance to the Delta. At Marcia, according to Diodorua (ii. 681), Aniasi! defeated the Pharaoh-Apries,Hofra,orPsammetichus; although Herodotus (ii. 161) places this defeat at Momemphis. (Herod. ii. 169.) At Marcia. a180, according to Thucydides (i. 104;comp.Herod.iii 12), Inarus, the son of Psammetichus, reigned, and urgenised the revolt of Lovver Aegypt against the Persimk Under the Ptolemies, Marcia continued to flourish as a harbour ; but it declined under the Romans, and in the age of the Antonines—the second century AD-—it had dwindled intonvillage. (Comp.Athen.i.25, p. 33, with Eustath. ad Homer. Odyudx. 197.) Marcia was the principal depdt of the trade of the Mareotic Lake and Nome. The vineyards in ii! vicinity produced a celebrated wine, which Athcnacus (I. c.) describes as “remarkable for its sweetness. white in colour, in quality excellent, light, with l fragrant bouquet .- it was by no means astringent, and did not afl'ect the head." (Comp. Pliu. xir. 3; Strab. xvii. p. 796.) Some, however, deemed the Mnreotic wine inferior to that of Anthylls and Tonia; and Columella (R. R. iii. 2) says that it was too thin for Italian palates, accustomed to the fuller-bodied Falemian. Virgil (Georg. ii. 91) dmcribes the Mareotic grape as white. and growing in a rich soil ; yet the soil of the vineyards around the Marrow: Lake was principally composed of gravel, andlay bayond the reach of the alluvial deposit- of the Nile, which is ill suited to viticulture. Stmho (vii- P799) ascribes to the wine of Murcia the additional merit of keeping well to a great age; and Horace (0d. i. 37) mentions it as a favourite beverage of Cleopatra. Marcia, from its neighbourhood to Alcxnndreia, was so generally known to Roman travellers, thnt among the Latin poets, the words Marcia and Marcotic became synonymous with Aegypt and Aegyption. Thus Martial (Ep. xiv. 209) calls the papyrus, " cortex Marcoticn" (comp. id. Ep.iv. 42): and Gratius (Cymgetic. v. 313) designates Aegyptisn luxury as Marcotic : and Ovid (Met. ix. v. 73) employs “ urru Moreotim. " for Lower Aegypt. [\V. B. D.) MAREO'TIS or MAREI'A (7'1 Mupcimx or Mapu’a Mm, Strab. xvii. pp. 789—799 ; Mdpem, Staph. B. s. 17.; Mareotis Libya, Plin. v. 10. s. 11; Justin. xi. 1), the modern Birket-el-Mars'out.was a considerable lake in the north of the Delta, extending south-westward of the Csnopic arm of the Nile, and running parallel to the Mediterranean, from which it was separated by a long and narrow ridge of sand, as for as the tower of Perseus on the Plinthinetie bay. The extreme western point of the lake was about 26 miles distant from Alexandreia ; and on that side it closely bordered upon the Libyan desert. At its northern extremity its waters at one time washed the walls of Alexandreia on their southern side, and before the foundation of that city Mnreotis was termed the Lake above Pharus. In breadth it was rather more than 150 stadia, or about 22 English miles, and in length nearly 300 studio, or about 42 English milm. One canul connected the lake with the Canopic arm of the Nile, and Another with the old harbour of Alexandreis, the Portus Eunostus. [ALEXANDREIAJ The shores of the Msrootis were planted with olives and vineyards ; the papyrus which lined its banks and those of the eight islets which studded it! Waters was celebrated for its fine quality; and around its margin stood the country-houses and gardens of the opulent Alexandriun merchants. Its creeks and quays were filled with Nile boots, and its Export and import trade in the age of Strabo surchd that of the most flourishing havens of Italy. Under the later Caesars, and alterAlexsndreia was occupied by the Arabs, the canals which fed the lake were neglected, and its depth and compass were materially reduced. In the 16th century A. D. its Waters had retired about 2 miles from the city Walls ; yet it still presented an ample sheet of water, and Re banks were adorned withthriving date-plantations. The lake, however, continued to recede and to grow shallower; and, according to the French traveller Sorry, who visited this district in 1777, its bed was then. for the most part, a sandy waste. In 180]. the English army in Aegypt, in order to annoy the I'rench garrison in Alexandria, bored the narrow isthmus which sepsrat the Birket-el-Moriout from the Lake of Medic/l or Aboukir, and re-ndmitted "19 mwster. About 450 square milesnvere thus mnverted into a salt-marsh. But subsequently Mehemet Ali repaired the istlrmns,and again diverted the 5c: from the lake. It. is now of I very unequal drrlh- At to northern end, near Alexandreia, it is about 14 feet deep, at its opposite extremity not more than 3 or 4. Westward it. forms a long and shallow lagoon, separated from the sea by a bar of mild, and running towards Libya nearly as for as 1]Tow" 0/ the Arabs. The lands surrounding the ancient hiarcotis were designated as the Mnmtic lemflMuped-mr Nluoy, Ptol. iv. 5. 8, 34); but this was probably not one of the established Nomes 0! Phararmic Aegyph [w. B. 1).] MARI-IS (M8pu),s tribe on the coast of Pontus, \‘or. rt.


in the neighbourhood of the Mosynoeci. (Hecut. ‘ragm. 192; Herod. iii. 94.) Their armour, when serving in the army of Xerxes, is described by Herodotus (vii. 79) as having consisted of helmets of wicker-work, leather shields, and javelins. Later writers do not mention this tribe. [L 8.] MARESHAH (Mapnnd, LXX., Busch; Mupioaa, Joseph), a city of Judah, “in the valley," enumerated with Keilah and Achzib in Joshua (xv. 44). In Micah (i. 15), where it is again joined with Achzib, the LXX. have substituted Auxils. Luchish, however, is found in the list of Joshua, independent of Mureshu (xv. 39), so it could not be a synonym for Mareshnh. It was one of the cities fortified by Rehoboarn against the PlillisiinES and Egyptians (2 0,47%. xi. 8); and there it was that Asa encountered Zerah the Ethiopian, “in the valley of Zephathsh nt Mareshsh" (xiv. 9), and gained 1 signal victory over him. In the time of Judas Mnccsbueus it was occupied by the Idumaeans (2 Maecab. xii. 35), but Judas took and destroyed it. (Joseph. Ant. xii. 8. § 6.) Only a few years later it is again reckoned to Idumaea; and Hymanus I. took it, and compelled its inhabitants, in common with the other Idumneans, to practice circumcision, and conform to the law, as a condition of remaining in that country (xiii. 9. § 1, 15. § 4). It was one of the cities restored to Aretas king of Arabia by Hyrcunus II., 118 the price of his services- (xiv. I. § 4): soon after which it was rebuilt by Galiinius (5. § 3); shortly after stacked and destroyed by the Partitions in their invasion of the country, in the time of Herod the Great. (xiv. 13. § 9); and probably never recovered its former importance, as this is the latest historical notice. It is placed by Euscbius and Sr. Jerome 2 miles from Elontheropolis; it was then a ruin. Dr. Robinson conjectqu that “Eleuthsropolis (at first Betogabra) had sprung up after the destruction of Maresha, and had been built with its materials," and that “ the foundations which he discovered on the south-eastern part of the remarkable tell, south of the place, were remains of Maresha. The spot. is admirably adopted for n fortress; it lies about a Romm mile and a half from the ruins of Bee't Jebn'n.” There are no other ruins in the vicinity. (Bib. Res. vol. ii. pp. 422, 423.) [(3. W.] MAREU'RA or MALTHU’RA (Mape'oupa 1|rpdiroArs 7'1 Kai MdAOoupn nanpe'v-q, Ptol. vii. 2. §24), a place of some importance in the upper part of the Aurea Chersonesns in India extra Gangem. It is not possible now to identify it with any existing place. V. MA'RGANA or MA'IIGALAE (Mdp'yam, Diod.; Map'ymrris, Xen.; Manet-Aer, Strab. ; Mdp'yatu, Steph. B. a. 17.), a. town in the Pisatis, in the district Amphidoliu, was supposed by some to be the Homeric Aepy. (Strab. viii. p. 349.) The Eleisns were obliged to renounce their supremacy over it by the treaty which they made with Sports in u. c. 400 (Ken. Hell. iii. ‘2. § 30), on which occasion it is called one of the Triphylinn towns: as to this statement, see mesr. It is mentioned as one of the towns taken by the Arcsdiuns in their war with the Eleiuns in B. c. 366. (Ken. Hell. vii. 4. § 14; Diod. xv. 77.) Its site is uncertain, but it was probably east of Letrini. Leoko places it too far north, at the junction of the Ludon and the Pepeius, which is in Ill probability the site of the Elcian I’yloe. (Leaks, Pelqronnrnoca, p. 2l9; Boblayo, Réclterclra, 41:. p. 130; Cnrtius, Peloponncsox, voLi. p. 78.) 'r

MARGlA’NA (1'7 Manley-h, Strab. xi. p. 516, Ptol. vi. 10; Win. vi. [6. s. 18), a district of considerable extent in the western part of Central Asia, which was bounded on'the W. by Hymniu, on the N. by Scythia and the Oxus as for a Bactriann, on the E. by Bactriuna, and on the S. by Ariana. At present the country is called Khora'san, and comprehends also some part of the territory occupied by the Turkoman tribes. Like most of the districts at ngreat distance from Greece or Rome, it was but partially known to the ancients; hence its limits are variously stated by ancient. authors. Thus Strabo makes it the province next to Pnrthia, to the N. of the Suriphi mountains, and gives the some boundaries to the W., N., and E. as the other geographers (1i. p. 516). l’liny places it in the same direction, but adds that a desert of 120 Md’. must be crossed before it could be reached (vi. 16. s. 18). Both Strabo and Pliny speak of the great Fertility of its land, and the. fineness of its climate; the former stating that the vines were often so large that a man could not embrace their stems in his arms; the latter, that it was the only district in that part of the world which produced gmpes. The accounts of the ancients are in this particular confirmed by IROde and by Mnhammedan writers. Awarding to the latter, it would seem to have comprehended the territory from Bu-njurd on the westY to More and the blurglba'b in the east. n tract remarkable for its beauty and fertility. (Wilson, Afiltfld, p. 149.) The principal river of Mnrgiuun, from which, too, it probably derived its name, was the Mer (now lllquh-éb). Various races and tribes are noticed in different authors as occupying parts of Mai-giana. All of them may be considered not Scythian or Titer origin;—indeed, in this port of Asia, the population has remained nearly the same to the present day which it was in the classical times. The principal of these were the Dunmccsu or DERBICEB (Steph. p. 23; Strab. xi. p. 508; Dionys. v. 734), who lived to the N. near the mouth of the Ores; the MASSAGETAE, the Print, and the DAMr, who lived to the S. of the former along the Caspian and the tenninntion ot' the Murgus, which loses itself in the sands before it reacha the Caspian; and the TAruni and Manor. The chief towns were, Amrocnem Mmronuu (certainly the present Merv), NISAEA or NESAEA, Anna, and JABOHIUM- [See these places under their re spective named] MARGlDUNUM, in Britain (Itin. Anton. pp. 477. 479). It is supposed by Camden, Stukeley, Homeley, and others. to have been situated at or near Ea.“ Bridgqford, about eight miles from Wil

. C. R. S. bugihlzihGUM or MARGUS (Mdp'yov, Mdyiiyor), als]o culled MURGUM, a city of Moosia, at the confluence of the Morgue and Danube. it was termed “ Margum plunum" on account of the level character of the surrounding country. (demand. do Rob. Get. c. 58.) It was here that the emperor Carinus was mully defeated by Diocletian. (Eutrop. ix. 13, L 20 ; It. Ant. p. l32; ll. llieros. p. 564.) [A.L.]

MARGUS (Mdp'yor, Strab. vii. p. 318 ; Murnis, Plin. iii. ‘26. s. 29), an important river of Moesin, which flows into the Danube, near the town of Margum. now the Moreno. Strsbo says (1. c.) that it was also called Burgus, and the some appears in Herodotus (iv. 44) under the form of Brongus (Bpmoy). It is the name river as the Moschiug (Mdoxms) of Ptolemy (in. 9. § 3). [A L]


MARCUS (Minor, Strab. xi. p. 516; Ptol. ri. l0. l, 4), the chief river of the province of Margiann, which in all probability derives its name from it,——now the Murglwib or Merv Ru'd. ltis said by Ptolemy to have taken its rise in the Srriphi mountains (now Hazards), a western spur of the great range of the I’nropamisus, end, after .1 northem course and ujunction with another small stream, to have flowed into the One. The travels of Sir Alexander Burncs have demonstrated that the Margit-db no longer reaches the Oxus, but is lost in the sands about 50 miles NW. of More (Bumrs, vol. ii. p. 35) ; but it is probable that as late as the time of Ibn Huukol (about A. D. 950) it still llmnd into the Jihou (De Sacy, Mém. m dew: Prov. de la Perse, p. 22). The Margua pmsed by and watered Antiocheia Margiana, the capital of the province. [\'.1

MARIABA (Mapiaga). There seem to have been several cities of this name in Arabia, as there are still several towns or sites of the name, mm]! modified. How many distinct cities are mentioned by the classical geographers, untiquuriane are not agreed, and the various readings have involved the question in great perplexity. It will be well to eliminute first those of which the notices on: most distinct.

l. The celebrated capital of the Sabaei in Yemen, is known both in the native and classical writers. It is called the metropolis of the Snlmi by Strobe (xvi. 4. § 2). which tribe was contiguous to ihat of the Minuei, who bordered on the Red Sea on our1 side, and to the Catubaneis, who 29:10th to the stmits of Bab-el-Mandeb. [Swarm Mmm; CATABANIJ It was situated on a well-wooded mountain, and was the royal residence. It seems diflicult to imagine that this wus distinct from the Msrialn of l‘liny, who, however, assigns it to the Atromillfl. a brunch of the Sabaei, and plum it on a by 94 M. P. in circuit, filled with spice-bearing islamb‘i while it is certain that the Mariaba of the Snbauni was an inland city. It is beyond all doubt the Manrib of the Arabian historians, built according to their traditions by ’Abd-sehems, surnamed $111M. third only in succession from the patriarch Knlml" or Joktmi, son of Eber. Abulteda says that this city was also called Saba; and that, in the opinion of some. Maarib was the name of the royal resident“while the city itself was called Saba. Its founder also constructed the stupendous embankment so rtnowned in history, forming a darn for confining the water of seventy rivers and torrents, Which he mnducled into it from a distance. (Abulfcda, Hislmfl Aflle-Inlnmz'ca, lib. iv. up. init.) The object on“ was not only to supply the city with water, but llw to irrigate the lands, and to keep the subjugltfll country in awe, by being masters of the water. Thfl water rose to the height of almost 20 (albums, and was kept in on every side by a work so solid, tlml many of the inhabitants had their houses built 11ch it. It. stood like a mountain above the city, and It" danger wus apprehended of its ever failing. Tl" inundation of El-Arem (the mound) is an aera "1 Arabic history, and is mentioned in the lionll I! u signal instance of divine judgment on the inhibitnnts of this city for their pride and insnlcnm A mighty flood broke down the mound by Mimi while the inhabitants wens asleep, and carried I'll." the whole city, with the neighbouring towns oml people. (Sale, Koran, cap. 34, vol. ii. p. 289, notii' und Ib'eliminm-y Discourse, sect. l. vol.i p13; Question Pmposder, per M. Michaelis, pp. 183— 188.) This catastrophe seems to have happened about the time of Alexander the Great, though some chmnolugies place it subsequently to the Christian aera. Sale places the city three days'journey from Sanaa (note, in 100. 01".). The notion of the identity of Monb with Sheba, mentioned by Abulfeds, is still maintained by some natives; and Nicbnhr quotes for this opinion a native of the town itself (Description do I'Arabie, p. 252), and justly marks that the existence of the remains of the famous reservoir of the Sebaeans in the vicinity of March serves to identify it with the capital of the Sebaeans. To met for the capital not hearing the name of the tribe, as was usual, he suggests that the Sahaeans may have derived their name from another town, and then have built this stupendous reservoir near blariabs, and there have fixed the midence of their kings. But a fact elsewhere mentioned by him, will perhaps lead to a more satisfactory solution. It seems that the great reservoir is not situated before March, nor close to it, but at the distance of an hour, and on the side of it. This may account for its preservation on the burst» log of the embankment. May not the inundation have occasioned the utter destruction of the neighbouring: city of Sheba, as the traditions relate, while the royal residence at Mai-ell cscaped, and formed the nucleus of the modern town ? We have seen from Abulfeda that some native authorities maintain lint Murib was the royal residence, while the caPlll-l itself was called Saba. The name Mariaba (al. Marin) signifying, according to the etymology 0f Pliny, “dorninoe omnium,” would well suit the residence of the dominant family (vi. 2S. 3‘2).

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Mar-ab is now the principal town of the district or 0m]; 16 German leagues ENE.of Sana, containing only 300 houses, with a wall and three gates; and the ruins of a palace of Queen Balkie are there shown. The reservoir is still much celebrated. it is described by a native as a valley between two chains of mountains, nearly a day's journey in length (=5 German leagues). Six or seven small streams, llowing from the west and south, are united in this valley, which contracts so much at its east end, by the convergence of the mountains, that it is not more than 5 or 6 minutes wrde. This space was closed by 8 thick wall, to retain the superfluous water during and utter the rains, and to distribute it over the fields and gardens on the east and north by three sluice-gates, one over the other. The wall was 40 or 50 feet high, built ofenvrmous blocks of

stone, and the ruins of its two sides still rennin. it precisely resembles in its construction BM.” they are called, in the woods of BelMm Bubderie, on the Boephorus, which “Pill! Constantinople with water, only that the Work at Mar-ob is on a much larger scale. (Niobhhr. L c. pp. 240, 241.)

‘2. MARIABA Bammnacrm. A city of this name in the interior of Arabia is mentioned with lllis distinguishing appellation by Pliny (vi. 32) ll l considerable town of the Charmaei, which m one division of the MINAEI: he calls it “Wile XVI. mill. puss. . . . . et ipsum non lpernenduln." It is supposed by some to be idenHal with the Bombs metropolis (Bépaga al. MoPiflfi #anhoArr) of l’tolcmy (vi. 15, p. L55), which he places in long. 76°, lat. 18° 20'. Forster 11-1! found its representative in the modern Tar-aha, "lime situation corresponds suilicicntly well with


the Bamba metropolis of Ptolemy (Geog. of Ambia, vol. i. p. 135, ii. p. 256); but his account of the designation Bernimlarum (quasi Bar-Amalacum, equivalent to “hlcrab of the sons of Amelck ") is inadmissible according to all rules of etymology (vol. ii. pp. 43, 47). Taraba, pronounced by the Bedouins T oroba, is 30 hours (about 80 miles) distant from Toyfin the Hedjaz, still a considerable town, “as large as Tag}, remarkable for its plantations, which furnish all the surrounding country with dates; and famous for its resistance against the Turkish forces of Mohammed Ali, until January, 1815, when its inhabitants were compelled to submit. Tamba is environed with palmgrovee and gardens, watered by numerous rirnlets." (Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, Appendix, No. iv. p. 451.) A more probable derivation of Barama‘ lacum from Babr~u-rnnlkim = the Royal Lake, would identify it with the preceding, N0. 1. (Vincent, Periplue, p. 307.)

3. Maureen, mother inland city of Arabia, is mentioned also by Pliny (L c.) as the capital of the Calingii, 6 MP. in circumference, which was, according to him, one of the eight towns taken and destroyed by Aelius Gallus. He has perhaps cone founded it with the Marsyabae which Strabo fixes as the limit of his expedition, and the siege of which he was forced to abandon; but it was remarked before that this name was according to Pliny equivalent to metropolis,--thougb the etymology of the name is hopelessly obscure:-—-eo that it is very possible that, besides the Marsyabae mentioned by Strubo, a Marinbu may have fallen in with the line of that general's march, either identical with one of those above named, or distinct from both; possibly still marked by a modern site of one of several towns still preserving a modification of the name, us ElMnrobba, marked in Kiepert's map in the very heart of the country of the Wabibites; and a. Mernb marked by Arrow-smith, in the NE. of the .N'ezljd country. [Martsranam] LG. W.]

MARlAMA (Mapmhta), an inland city of Arabia, mentioned only by Ptolemy (vi. 15), who places it in long. 78° 10' and let. 17° 10',snd therefore not far ' wuth-east from his Bareba or Marsha metropolis [MARIABA, 2]. Mannert (Geographic, pt. vi. vol. i. p. 66) suggests its identity with Man'bba, marked in Nicbnhr‘s map towards the north-east of Yemen, which is, however, the name of a district, not of a town, its capital being named Anim (Description de I’Ambie, p. 228); but this would not agree with the position above assigned to Mariaba Bararnulacum. (Ritter, ErdL-urule eon Arabien, vol. i. p. 283.) [Mansranara] [6. W.]

MARIAMME (Mapidmm), a city of Syria, subject to Aradns, and sun‘endered with Aradus and its other dependencies, Marathus and Sigon, to Alexander the Great by Straton, son of Gerostratus, king of Aradus. (Arrian, ii. 14. § 8.) It is placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotis (v. 15), and by Hieroclcs in the second eporchy of Syria (apud Wesscling, Itinerart'a, p. Tl2). LG. W.]

MARIANA (Me-pram), Prob), a city on the E. coast of Corsica, which, as its name imports. was a Roman colony, founded by the celebrated C. Marius. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Pm. iii. 2. § 5, tin. ii. 7.§ 19; Senec. Com. ad llelv. 8.) Nothing more is known of its history, but it is recognised as holding colonial rank by I’liny and Mela, and appears to have been one of the two principal cities in the island. it is a plausible conjecture ol'Cluvcrius that it was founded

on the site previously occupied by the Greek city of Nicaea mentioned by Diodorus (Diod. v. 13; Cluver. Sicil. p. 508). Its name is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 85), which erroneously reckons it 40 miles from Aleria; the ruins of Mariana, which are still extant under their ancient name at the mouth of the river 6010, being only about 30 miles N. of those of Aleria. They are 15 miles S. of the modern city of Bastia. The ancient remains are inconsiderable, but a ruined cathedral still marks the site, and gives title to the bishop who now resides at Bastia. (Rampoldi, Diz. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 589.) H. 8.]

MARIA’NA FOSSA. [FossA Mimurufl

MARIANDY'NI (Mapiavbuvoi, MupraJIG-moi, or Mapvuvfiwoi),an ancient and celebrated tribe in the north-east of Bithynia. between the rivers Sangarius and Billaeus, on the east of the tribe called Thyni or Bithyni. (Scylax, p. 34; Plin. vi. 1.) According to Scylax, they did not extend as far west as the Sangarius, for according to him the river liypiua formed the boundary between the Bithyui and Mariandyni. Strabo (vii. p. 295) expresses a belief that the Mariandyni Were a branch of the Bithyuinns, a belief to which he was probably led by the resemblance between their names, and which cannot be well reconciled with the statement of Herodotus (iii. 90), who clearly distinguishes the Mnriaudyni from the Thracians or Thyni in Asia. In the Persian army, also, they appear quite separated from the Bithyni, and their armour resembles that of the Paphlagoniane, which was quite different from that of theBithyni. (Herod. vii. 72, 7 5; comp. Strab. vii. p. 345, xii. p. 5-42.) The chief city in their territory was Heracles Poutica, the inhabitants of which reduced the Msriaudyni, for a time, to a state of servitude resembling that of the Cretan Mnoae, or the 'l‘bessaliau Penestae. To what race they belonged is uncertain, though if their Thracian origin be given up, it must probably be admitted that they were akin to the Paphlngonians. 1n the division of the Persian empire they formed

rt of the third Persian satrapy. Their country was called Mariandynia (Mupiavdwia, Steph_ B, a. an), and Pliny speaks of a Sinus liiariandynus on their coast. (Comp. Hecat. Fragm. 201; Aeschyl. Per-e. 932; Ken. Anab. vi. 4. § 4, Cyrop. i. 1. § 4; Ptol. v. 1. § 11; Scymn. Fragm. 199; Dionys. Perieg. 788; Mela, i. 19; Athen. xiv. p. 620; Apollou. Argon. ii. 724; Constant. Porph. Them. i. 7.) [L. 8.]

MARIA'NUS MONS (Tb Maplovhv 6pm, Pool, 5;, 4. § 15; Mons Mariorum, It. Anton. p. 432: Sierra Morena), a mountain in Hispania Baetica, properly only a western oii‘shoot of the Omspedn, and probably the mountain which Strabo describes, (iii. p. 142), without mentioning its name, as running parallel to the river Baetis, and full of mines. Hence Pliny (xxxir. 2) speaks of “ aes Marianum, quod et Cordubense dicitur.” The eastern part of this mountain was called Saltus Castulonensis. [CASTULQ]


MARIDE (Ammian. xviii. 6), a castle or fortified town in Mesopotamia, mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in his account of Constantine. There can be no doubt that it is the same as the present Mar-din, which is seated on a considerable eminence looking southward over the plains of MeFopiita. min. v

MARIDUNUM (Mapifiowov, Plol. ii. 3. § 23), in


Britain, a town in the country of the Demetae, no. Carmarthen. In the time of Gimldus Cambrensis the Roman walls were in part standing (“ mt igilur haec nrbe antiqua coctilibus muris partem adhnc extantibus egregie clause," Jh‘n. Comb. lib. i. e 10 . [(3. R. S.)

MARINIA’NA,also called MAURIANAULIIW. p. 562), a town in Pnnuonia, on the frontier between Upper and Lower Pannuuia, on the road from Jon] to Mama. (It. Ant. p. 130.) It is pwible that the place may have been the same as the one called by Ptolemy (ii. 14. § 6) Movie”. (Comp. Geogr. Rev. iv. 19, and Tab. Peat.) [L. 5.]

MARIO'NIS (Mapiuvis). Two towns of this name are mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. ll. § 27) in the northwest of Germany. As the name seems to indicates maritime town, it has been inferred that one of them was the modern Hamburg. or Mame at the month of the Elbe, and the other Libeck or Winner. But nothing certain can be said about the matter. [L. 5.]

MARIE. [Mnnrsus]

MARISUS (Mdpw'ar, Strab. vii. 304; Mdpu, Herod. iv. 49; Marisia, Jornand. do Rob. Get. 5; Geogr. Ram), a river of Dacia. which both Herodotus (1.0.) and Strabn (1.0.) describe as falling into the Danube; it in the same as the Maroscll, which falls into the Theirs. (Heeron, Asiat. Nations, vol. it. P- 10. trans; Schafarik, Slaw. All. vol. i. p. 507.) [E. B. J.]

MARITHI MONTES (rd Mdptfia or Mdpnk lion), a mountain chain in the interior of Arabia, the middle of which is placed by Ptolemy, Ilw alone mentions them, in long. 80° 30', lat. 21° 30'. and round which he groups the various tribes of this part of the peninsula, viz., the Melangitae (MUM7i‘rcu) and Dachareui (al. Duchiu'emoizae, Allle '0‘)» 0n "16 north; the Zeritae (Zeipirai),l1liulau (BMovAant), and Omnuitae (’Oya'yxirm), 0n ll" south: to the east. of the last were the Cattaheni, extending to the Moutes Asnborum. [Mausu MONTESJ (Ptol. vi. 7. § 20.) They appear I“ correspond in situation with the Jebel ‘AUWL M the south of Wady-el-Aftdn, in Ritter's inap(Forster, Geog. qurabia,vol. ii. p. 266.) [G- w-l

MARI'TIMA, a town of Gallia Narboneusis on coast. Mela (ii. 5) says, that “between biaSStitl and the Rbodanus Maritima was close to the Avoncorum stagnum ; ” and he adds that a “foes!” dls' charges a part of the lake's water by a navigflblfl mouth. Pliny in a passage before quoted [FosSA MARIANA. Vol.1. p. 912]. ahio culls“ Maritime aton of the Avatiei, nbore which are the Cnmpi Lapidet. Ptolemy (ii. 18. § 8) places Maritime of the Avail“ east of the eastern branch of the Rhone, and he tlllt it Colonist. The name is Avatici in the Greek text! of Ptolemy that are now printed, but it is Auatih It the Latin text of Pirckeym, and perhaps in 0th" Latin texts. It does not seem certain which (be true reading. Walckenner (Geog. (fa. vol. 1. I» 188) assumes that Anatili is the true reading 1" Ptolemy.

D’Anville concludes that Maritima was brim Marret'lle and the canal of Marius, and that Mfrtiguea is the site ; but there is no reason for file on Martigua, except that it is between the Rho!" and Marseille, and that there is some little rmm' blance between the two names. It is said that no traces of remains have been found at Maril'glttfi Which. however, is not decisive against it, if i! h . true; and it is not true. Martigw is near the out]!l of the E'tang do Ber-re. \Valckenner observes, Ill-"l

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