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Besides ILERDA, their chief .

'penions of Aeneas, who settled in the island, and
remained there in quiet until they were compelled
by the Africans, who subsequently occupied the
coasts of Sardinia, to take refuge in the more rugged
and inaccessible mountain districts of the interior.
(l’aue. x. 17. 7.) This tale has evidently en'-
ginated in the resemblance of the name of Ilieusce, in
the form which the Romans gave it, to that of the
Trojans; and the latter part of the story was in-
vented to account for the apparent anomaly of a
people that had come by sea dwelling in the interior
of the island. What the native name of the lliensie
was, we know not, and we are wholly in the dark as
to their real origin or ethnical aflinitiee: but their
existence as one of the most considerable tribes of
the interior at the period of the Roman conquest, is
well ascertained ; and they are repeatedly mentioned
by Livy as contending against the supremacy of
Rome. Their first insurrection, in B.c.lSl,wna
repressed, rather than put down, by the praetor
M. Pinarins; and in 3.0. 178, the Ilienses and Bulari,
in conjunction, laid waste all the more fertile and
settled parts of the island; and were even able to
meet the consul Ti. Sempronius Grecchus in a pitched
battle, in which, however, they were defeated with
heavy loss. In the course of the following year
they appear to have been reduced to complete sub-
mission; and their name is not again mentioned in
history. (Liv. x1. 19,34, xli. 6, 12, 17.)

The situation and limits of the territory occupied
by the llionscs, cannot be determined.- but we find
them associated with the Bnlnri and Corsi, as inha-
biting the central and mountainous districts of the
island. Their name is not found in Ptolemy, though
he gives a long list of the tribes of the interior.

Many writers have identified the llienscs with tho Iolaenses or lolai, who are also placed in the interior of Sardinia; and it is not improbable that they were really the same people, but ancient authors certainly make a distinction between the two. H. 13-]


l'Lll‘A. 1. ('lhnra, Strab. iii. pp. 141, seq-t 'IMira. fl Aaiira uqdkn, Ptol. ii. 4. § 13; 11'1" cognomine Illa, Plin. iii. 1. s. 3, according to {ha corrupt reading which Sillig's last edition retains for want of a better: some give the epithet in 1110 form Ilpa .- Hurduin reeds Ilia, on the authority of an inscription, which is almost certainly 611111401151 up. Gruter, pp. 351,305, and Muratori, p. 1002h a city of the Turdetani, in Hispanic. Baetica, b8longing to the conventns of Hispalie. It. stood “P011 the right bank of the Baetis (Guadalqtlifif‘) 700 studio from its mouth, at the point. up to which the river was navigable for vessels of small burthcn, and where the tidcs were no longer discernible. [llama] On this and other grounds it has been identified with the Roman rains near Perm/lorThere were great. silver mines in its neighbourhood(Strab. 1.0., and pp. 174, 175; Thu. 1.0.: ItinJlnf. p.411 ; Liv. xxxv. 1; Florez, Esp. 5. vol. vu

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sion by an account of the investigations of modern travellers and scholars to identify the site of the famous city. Our most ancient authority are the Homeric poems ; but we must at the very outset remark, that we cannot look upon the poet in every respect as a careful and accurate topographer; but that, admitting his general accuracy, there may yet he points on which he cannot be taken to account an it' it had been his professed object to communicate information on the topography of Troy.

The city of Ilium was situated on a rising ground, somewhat above the plain between the rivers Scamander and Simois, at a distance, as Strabo asserts, of 42 stadia from the coast of the Ht-llespont. (Hour. II. xx. 216, t'ol.; Strab. xiii. p. 596.) That it was not quite in the plain is clear from the epithets fivepdmoa, m'remi, and dtppvdmon. Behind it, on the south-east, there rose a hill, forming a branch of Mount Ida, sunnonnted by the acropolis, called I’crgnmum (-rb He'p'yupov, Hour. 11. iv. 508, vi. 512; also rd He'p'yqux, Soph. Phil. 347, 353, 611; or, 1'7 Ile'p'yapos, Horn. 1!. v. 446, 460.) This fortified acropolis contained not only all the temples of the gods (IL iv. 508, v. 447,512, vi. 88,257, xxii. 172, Sec), but also the palaces of Prism and his sons, Hector and Paris (ll. vi. 317, 370, 512, vi. 345). The city must have had many gatar, as may be inferred from the expression 13am nihru (ll. ii. 809, and elsewhere), but only one is mentioned by name, viz., the Moral Iii/\ru, which led to the camp of the Greeks, and must accordingly have been on the northwest part of the city, that is, the part juntv opposite the acropulis ([1. iii. I45, 149, 263, vi. 306, 392, xvi. 712, &c.). The origin of this name of the “left gate" is unknown, though it may possibly have reference to the manner in which the signs in the heavens were observed ; for, during this process, the priest turned his face to the north, so that the north-west would be on his left hand. Certain minor objects alluded to in the Iliad, such as the tombs of line, Aesyetes, and Myrine, the Scopie and Erineus, or the wild fig-tree, we ought probably not attempt to urge very atrougly : we are, in fact, prevented from attributing much weight to them by the circumstance that the inhabitants of New Ilium, who believed that their town stood on the site of the ancient city, boasted that they could show close to their walls these doubtful vestiges of antiquity. (Strab. xiii. p. 599.) The walls of Ilium are described as lofty and strong, and an flanked with towers; they were fabled to have been built by Apollo and Poseidon (IL i. 129, ii. 113, 288, 111. 153, 384, 386, vii. 452, viii. 519). These are the only points of the topography of Iliurn derivable from the Homeric poems. The city was de. stroyed, according to the common tradition, as already remarked, about a. c. 1184; but afterwards we hear of a new Ilium, though we are not informed when and on what site it was built. Herodotus (vii. 42) relates that Xerxes, before invading Greece, ofl'ered sacrifices to Athena at Pergamum, the ancient acropolis of Priam ; but this does not. quite justify the inference that the new town of Ilium was then already in existence, and all that we can conclude from this passage in, that the people at that time entertained no doubt as to the aitea of the ancient city and its acropoh'o. Strabo (xiii. p. 60l) states that Ilium was restored during the last dynasty of the Lydian kings; that is, before the subjugation of Western Asia by the Persians: and both Xenophon (Hellen. i. 1. § 4) and Scylu (p. 35) seem to speak of Ilium as a town actually existing in their days,


It is also certain that in the time of Alexander New Ilium did exist, and was inhabited by Aeolians. Demosth. c. Aristocl'. p. 671: Arrian, Anub. i. ll. 7 ; Strab. xiii. p. 593, toll.) This new town, which is distinguished by Strabo from the famous ancient city, was not more than 12 stadia, or less than two English miles, distant from the sea, and was built upon the spur of a projecting edge of Ida, separating the basins of the Seamander and Simois. It was at first a place of not much importance (Strah. xiii. pp. 593, 601), but increased in the course of time, and was successively extended and embellished by Alexander, Lysimachns, and Julius Caesar. During the Mithridatic War New Ilium was taken by Fimbria. in B. c. 85, on which occasion it sufi'ered greatly. (Strah. xiii. p. 594; Appian, Mithri'd. 53; Liv. Epit. lxxxiii.) It is said to have been once destroyed before that time, by one Charidemns (Pint. Sertor. 1.; Polynen. iii. 14): but we neither know when this happened, nor who this Charidemus was. Sulln, however, favoured the town extremely, in consequence of which it rose, under the Roman dominion, to considerable prosperity, and enjoyed exemption from all taxes. (Plin. v. 33.) These were the advantages which the place owed to the tradition that it occupied the identical site of the ancient and holy city of Troy: for, it may here be obcerved~ that. no ancient author of Greece or Home ever doubted the identity of the site of Old and New Ilium until the time of Demetrius of Scepsis, and Strnbo, who adopted his views; and that. even afterwards, the popular belief among the people of Ilium itself, as well as throughout the World generally, remained as firmly established as if the criticism of Demetrius and Strabo had never been heard of. These critics were led to look for Old Ilium farther inland, because they considered the space between New Ilium and the coast far too small to have been the scene of all the great exploits described in the Iliad ; and, although they are obliged to own that not a vestige of Old Ilium was to be seen anywhere, yet they assumed that it must have been situated about 42 stadia from the sea-coast. They accordingly fixed upon a spot which at the time bore the name of 'IMéwv na’um. This View, with its assumption of Old and New Ilium as two distinct places, does not in any way remove the difficulties which it is intended to remove ; for the space will still be found far too narrow, not to mention that it demands of the poet what can he demanded only of a geographer or an historian. On these grounds we, in common with the general belief ot'all antiquity, which has also found able adwxmtes among modem critics, assume that Old and New Ilium occupicd the same site. The statements in the Iliad which appear irreconcilable with this view will disappear if we bear in mind that we have to do with an entirely legendary story, which is little concerned about geographical accuracy.

The site of New Ilium (according to our view, identical with that of Old Ilium) is acknowledges] by all modern inquirers and travellers to he the spot covered with ruins now called Kissarlilc, between the villages of Kmn-kiot', Kollifatli, and Tchiblak, a little to the west of the last-mentioned place, and not far from the point where the Simois once joined the Scamnnder. Those who maintain that Old Ilium was situated in a different locality cannot, of course, be expected to agree in their opinions as to its actual site, it being impossible to fix upon any one spot, agreeing in every particular with the poet's (lcscrip~ tion. Respecting the nationality of the inhabitants

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the name Elae in the fact that. either the name of llliberis was changed to Helena or Elena, or Helena was a camp or station nmr it. Cotistnns was murdered by Mugnentius “ not. far from the Hiapaniac, in u castrurn named Helena." (Eutrop. x. 9.) Victor's Epitome (c. 41) describes Helena as a town very near to the Pyrenees; and Zosimus has the same (ii. 42; and Omsius, vii. 29). It is said by some writers that Helena was so named after the place was restored by Constantine's mother Helena, or by Constantine, or by some of his children; but the evidence of this is not given. The river of Illiberis is the Twins of Mela, and TECUM of Pliny, now the Tech. In the text of Ptolemy (ii. 10) the name of the river is written Illeris.

Some geographers have supposed Illiberis to be Collioure, near Port Vendre, which is a plain inistake. [G. L.]

ILLICI. 1uc1.

lLLl'PULA. [luruua.]

lLLlTURGlS, NATURGIS, or ILITURGI (probably the 'levp'yir of Ptol. ii. 4. § 9, as well as the ’lltaup-yela of Polybius, op. Steph. B. a. 0.. and the 'IAvp'yln of Appian, Hisp. 32: Elli. lllurgitani), a " bl“ city of 11' K ' Baetica, ' ‘ on a steep rock on the N. side of the Baetis, on the mad from Cordoba to Castulo. 20 M. P. from the latter, and five days' march from Carthage Nova. 1n the Second Punic War it went over to the Romans, like its neighbours, Castqu and Mcntma, and endured two sieges by the Carthaginians, both of which were raised; but, upon the overthrow of the two Scipios, the people of Illiturgis and Castqu revolted to the Corthaginiaus, the former adding to their treason the crime of betraying and putting to death the Romans who had fled to them for refuge. At least such is the Roman version of their ofi‘ence, for which a truly Roman vengeance was taken by Publius Scipio, 3.0. 206. After a defence, such as might be expected when deser of mercy was added to national fortitude, the city was stormed and burnt over the slaughtered corpses of all its inhabitants, children and women as well as men. (Liv. xxiii. 49, xxiv. 41, xxvi. 17, 41, xxviii. 19, 20.) Ten years later it had recovered sufiiciently to be again besieged by the Romans, and taken with the slaughter of all it! adult male population. (Liv. .uxiv. 10.) Under the Roman empire it was a considerable city, with the surname of Forum J uuum. Its site is believed to have been in the neighbourhood of Andujor, Ihen the church of S. Potenciuna now stands. (Itin. AM. p. 403; P1in.iii. l. s. 3; Priscian. vi. p. 682, Bd- Putnch; Morales, Antig. p. 56, b.; Mmtelle, Etp-Mod. p. 183; Laborde, 1151;. vol. ii. p. 113; "mu, Eap. S. vol. xii. p. 369; Coins, ap. Florez, lied v01. iii. p.81 ; Miolmet, vol. i. p. 16; Sestini, P55; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 23 ; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. 11.380) [ P. 8.]

ILLURCO or 1LURCO, a town in the W. part °f Hispania Baetica, our Pines, on the river Cu

. (Inacr. up. Gruter, pp. 235, 406; Muratcri, P- l051, Nos. 2, 8; Florez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 98; can. op. Florez, Med. do Esp. vol. ii. p. 472; "mm, voLi. p. n; Med. Iep. p. 57;

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('IAAvplr, Hecut. Fr. 65; Polyb. iii. 16; Strab. ii. pp. 108, 123, 129, vii. p. 317; Dionys. Per. 96; Herodinn, vi. 7; spouts. ii. 1. §o; Ptol. viii. 7. § 1), but the more ancient writers usually employ the name of the people, oi ’lMiipioi (11v 107: ’lAAuplots, Herod. i. 196, i“. 49; Scyl. pp. 7, 10). The mime lemma ('IAMIpia) very rarely occurs. (Steph. B. a. 11.; Prop. i. 8. 2.) By the Latin writers it generally went under the name of “ Illyricum " (Caes. B. G. ii. 35, 7; Varr. R. R. ii. 10. §7; Cie. ad Art. at. 6-, Liv. xliv. 18, 26; Ovid, Trin. i. a. 121; Mela, ii. 3. § 13; Tue. Ann. '1. 5, 46, ii. 44, 53, Hist. i. 2, 9, 76; Flor. i. 18, iv. 2; Just. vii. 2; Snet. Tib. 16; Vell. Pat. ii. 109), and the general assent of geographers has given currency to this form.

2. Extent and LfmiLs.—The Roman Illyricum was of very different. extent from the lllyris or 01 ‘lMi'ipwi of the Greeks, and was itself not the same at all times, but must be considered simplyas an artificial and geographical expression for the herderers who occupied the E. cast of the Adriatic, from the junction of that gulf with the Ionic sea, to the estuaries of the river P0. The earliest writer who has left any account of the peoples inhabiting this coast is Scylax; according to whom (0. 19—27) the Illyriuns, properly so called (for the Liburniaus and lstrians beyond them are excluded), occupy the sea-coast from Libumia to the Chaoninns of Epirns. The Bulini were the northernmost of these tribes, and the Amantini the southernmost. Herodotus (i. 196) includes under the name, the Heneti or Veneti, who lived at the head of the gulf; in another passage (iv. 49) he places the Illyrians on the tributary streams of the Morava in Scrvia.

It is evident that the Gallic invasions, of which there are several traditions, threw the whole of these districts and their tribes into such confusion, that it is impossible to harmonise the statements of the Periplus of Scylax, or the for later Scymnus of Chios, with the descriptions in Strabo and the Roman historians.

In consequence of this immigration of the Gauls, Appian has confounded together Gsuls, Thracians, Put-onions, and Illyrians. A legend which he records (Illyr. 1) makes Celtus, Illyrins, and Gala, to have been three brothers, the sons of the Cyclops Polyphemus, and is grounded probably on the intermixture of Celtic tribes (the Boii, the Scordisci, and the Taurisci) among the lllyrians: the Iapodee, n, tribe on the borders 'of lstria,are described by Strabo (iv. p. 143) as half Celts, half lllyrians. On a rough estimate, it may be said that, in the earliest times, Ulyricum was the coast. between the Nuro (Nev-081m.) and the Drilo (Dn‘n), bounded on the E. by the Tribulli. At a later period it comprised all the various tribes from the Celtic Tanrisci tn the Epirots and Macedonians, and eastward as far as Mowia, including the Veneti, Panuonians, Dalmatians, Dardani, Autariatae, and many others. This is 111yricum in its most extended meaning in the ancient. writers till the 2nd century of the Christian era: as, for instance, in Strabo pp. 313—319), during the reign of Augustus, and in Tacitus (Hist. i. 2, 9, 76, ii. 86; comp. Jmph. B.J. ii. 16),inhis account of the civil wars which preceded the fall of Jerusalem. When the boundary of Rome reached to the Danube. the " lllyricus Limes" (as it is designated in the “ Scriptures I'listoriae Augusta"), or “ lllyrian frontier," comprised the following provinces; -Noricum, Pannonia Superior, Pannoniu

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this period it was one of the four great divisions of lllyricnm was kept up by the VIA CAzmavu or

the Roman empire under a “ Praefectus Praetorio," and it is in this signification that it is used by the later writers, such as Sextua Rufus, the “ Auctor Notitiae Dignitatum Imperii," Zosimus, Jornandes, and others. At the final division of the Roman empire, the so-callcd “ Illyricum Orientale," containing the provinces of Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Hellas,

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with the Lower Empire; while "Illyricum Occidentale" was united with Rome, and embraced Noricum, Panuonia, Dalmatia, Savia, and Valeria Ripensis.

A. ILLYRIB BARBARA or Romans, was separated from Istria by the small river Arsin (Arm), and bounded S. and E. by the Drilo, and on the N. by the Sums; consequently it is represented now by part of Croatia, all Dalmatia, the Ilerzeyovi'na, M (mic-Negro, nearly all Bosnia, and part of A "main.

lllyris Rmnana was diVidod into three districts, the northem of which was lAPYDIA, extending S. as far as the Tedanius (ZPrmagna); the strip of land extending from the Arsia to the Titius (La Ker-ha) was called Montana, or the whole of the north of what was once Venetian Dalmatia; the territory of the DALMATAE was at first comprehended between the Nora and the Tilurus or Nestus: it then extcnded to the Titius. A list of the towns will be found under the several heads of IAPYDIA, LlBumuA, and DALMATIA.

B. ILLYBxs GRAscA, which was called in later times Ermus NOVA, extended from the river Drilo to the SE., up to the Coraunisn mountains, which separated it from Epirus Proper. On the N. it was bounded by the Roman Illyricum and Mount Scordua, on the W. by the Ionian sea, on the S. by Epirus, and on the E. by Macedonia; comprehending, therefore, nearly the whole of modern Albania. Next to the frontier of Chaonia is the small town of AMANTIA, and the people of the Annurrmus and Bonuowns. They are followed by the TAULAnrn, who occupied the country N. of the Aous—the great river of S. Macedonia, which rises in Mount Launch, and discharges itself into the Adriatic—as far as Epidamnus. The chief tom of this country were Aronnonu, and Ermnmus or DvunnAcrmm. In the interior, near the Macedonian frontier, there is a considerable lake, Lacus Li'cnurris, from which the Drilo issues. Ever since the middle ages there has existed in this part the town of Achrida, which has been supposed to be the ancient chnuwus, and was the capital of the Bulgarian empire, when it extended from the Euxine us far as the interior of Aetolia, and comprised S. lilyricum, Epirus, Acarnzrnia, Aetolia, and a part of Thessaly. During the Roman period the DAssARn'rAz dwelt there; the neighbouring country was occupied by the AuramATAn, who are said to have been driven from their country in the time of Cassander, when they removed as fugitives with their women and children into Macedonia. The ARDXAEI and PABrnm dwelt N. of the Autariatae, though not at the same time, but only during the Roman period. Scum“ (Seuturi), in later times the capital of Praevalitnna, was unknown during the flourishing period of Grecian history, and more properly belongs

I, EGNA'nA, the great line which connected Italy and ,‘thc East—Rome, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. ! A road of such importance, as Colonel Leake re'marks (North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 311). and on which the distance had been marked with milestones soon after the Roman conquest of Macedonia, we may believe to have been kept in the best order as long as Rome Was the centre of a vigorous au‘thority; but it probably shared the fate of many other great establishments in the decline of the empire, and especially when it became I! much the concern of the Byzantine as of the Roman govern. ment. This fact accounts for the discrepancies in the Itineraries; for though Lychnidus, Heracleia, and Edessa, still continued, as on the Candavian Way described by I’olybius (up. Sta-ab. vii. pp. 322, 323), to be the three principal points between D)?rhachium and Thessaloniea (nature, in fact, having strongly drawn that line in the valley of the Genusus), there appears to have been a choice of routes over the ridges which contained the boundaries of lllyricum and Macedonia. By comparing the Autonine Itinerary, the I’eutingerian Table, and the Jerusalem Itinerary, the following account of stations in Illyricum is obtained:—

I)yrrhachium or Apollunia.

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' 11

3. Physical Geography. — The Illyrian milef mountains, which traverses Dalmatia under the name of Mount Prolog, and partly under other Mmea (Mons Albina, Bebius), branches 05 in Cnmiola from the Julian Alps, and then, at a considerablfl distance from the sea, stretchei towards Venetia, approaches the sea beyond Aquileia near Trieste, and forms Istria. After passing through lstria 88 film! mountain, though not reaching the snow liner "Pd traversing Dalmatia, which it separates from BMW, it extends into Albania. It is a limestone runlllv and, like most mountains belonging to that {omiation, much broken up; hence the bold and p10turesque coast runs out into many pronwntorieS, 11! is flanked by numerous islands.

These islands appear to have originated on illa breaking up of the lower grounds by some violent action, leaving their limestone summits above waterF mm the salient position of the promoan tfl'fm' noting in Punta della Plunca, they are divided into two distinct groups, which the Greek geogmphers called Ausvu'nnns and Liuumvmas. They "'6 NW. and Shh, greatly longer than broid, ""1 f°rm various fine channels, mlled “ canola,” and “med


from the neazest adjacent island : these being bold.

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