صور الصفحة
PDF

with scarcely a hidden danger, give ships a secure passage between them. Citerso, 0am, Lussin, Sanseyo(Absyrtida), abound with fossil bones. The hooe-breccia of these islands appears to be the same conglomerate with those of Gibraltar, Cert'go, and other places in the Mediterranean. The Libumian group (Att‘vpvldcr vfioar, Strab. ii. p. 124, vii. pp. 315,317; “Liburnicae lnsulae," Plin. iii. no), LIBSA (Groom), Baa'rrra (Bram), lssa (Lissa), MELITA (Melada), Concrna Nrona (Canola), Prunes (Len'na) and Onvn'ra (Sella), have good ports, but are badly supplied with drinkable water, and are not fertile. The mountainous truct, though industriously cultivated towards the share, is for the most part, as in the days of Strsbo (l. c.), wild, rugged, and barren. The want of water and the arid soil make Dalmatia unfit for agriculture; and therefore of old, this circumstance, coupled with the excellency and number of the harbours,made the nsllvcs more known for piracy than for commercial enterprise. A principal feature of the whole range is that called Monte-Negro (Cmagora), consisting chiefly of the cretsceous or Mediterranean limestone, so extensively developed from the Alps to the Archipelago, and remarkable for its craggy character. The general height is about 3000 feet, with~a few higher summits, and the slopes are gentle in the direction of the inclination of the “ strata," with Precipices at the outcruppings, which give a fine variety to the scenery.

There is no sign of volcanic action in Dalmatia; and the Nymphaeum near Apollonis, celebrath for the flames that was continually from it, has probably no reference to anything of a volcanic nature, but is connected with the beds of asphaltnm, or mineral pitch, which occur in great abundance in the num' mulitic limestone of Albania.

The coast of what is now called Middle Albania, or the lllyrian territory, N. of Epirus, is, especially in its N. portion, of moderate height, and in some places even low and unwholesome, as far as Annex (Vulono or Avlom), where it suddenly becomes 111.2ng and mountainous, with precipitous clifl's descending rapidly towards the sea. This is the K/u'rnaro range, upwards of 4000 feet high, dreaded by ancient mariners as the Acro-Ceraunian promonWY- The interior of this territory was much sol'el'ior to N. Illyricurn in productiveuess: though mountainous, it has more valleys and open plains for crltivation. The sea-ports of Epidamnus and Apolloois introduced the luxuries of wine and oil to the barbarians; whose chiefs learnt also to value the woven fabrics, the polished and carved metallic "Orb, the tempered weapons, and the pottery which "I furnished them by Grecian artisans. Salt fish, Ind, what was of more importance to the inland residmts on lakes like that of Lychuidus, salt itself, '1imptlrted. In return they supplied the Greeks with those precious commodities, cattle and slaves. Silver mines were also worked at DAHABTIUM. Wu and honey were probably articles of export ; and it is a proof that the natural products of llliris were carefully sought out, when we find a "We: of iris peculiar to the country collected and arm to Corinth, wheraits root was employed to give the special flavour to a celebratal kind of aromatic "Ilium. Grecian commerce and intercourse not "112' tended to civilise the S. lllyrisns beyond their Wribcrn brethren, who shared with the Thracian tribes the custom of tattooing their bodies and of ollenng human sacrifices; but through the intro

[graphic]

duction of Grecian exiles, made them acquainted with Hellenic ideas and legends, as may be seen by the tale of Cadmus and Harmonia, from whom the chiefs of the lllyrisn Enchelces professed to trace their descent. (Comp. Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. iv. pp. 1—10, and the authorities quoted there; to which may be added, Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. pp. 38—42; J. F. Neigebaur, Die Sudslaoen, Leipzig, 1851; Niebuhr, Lect. on Ethnog. and Geog. vol. i. pp. 297—314; Smyth, The Mediterranean, pp. 40—45; Hahn, Albanen'sclto Stwla'en, Wien, l854.)

4. Race and National Char-aden—Sufiicient is not known either of the language or customs of the Illyrians, by which their race may be ascertained. The most accurate among the ancient writers have ulwsys distinguished them as a separate nation, or group of nations, from both the Thracians and Epirots.

The ancient lllyrians are unquestionably the aneastern of the people generally known in Europe by the name Albanians, but who are called by the Turks “ Arnauts," and by themselves “ Skipetsres,” which means in their language " mountaineers," or “ dwellers on rocks," and inhabit the greater part of ancient Illyricum and Epirus. They have a pcculiar language, and constitute a particular race, which is very distinct from the Slavonian inhabitants who border on them towards the N. The run dent-s, as has been observed, distinguished the 11lyrians from the Epirots, and have giv no intimations that they were in any way connected. But the Albanians, who inhabit both Illyricum and Epirus, are one people, whose language is only varied by slight modifications of dinlect. The lllyritms appear to have been pressed southwards by Slavonian hordes, who settled in Dalmatia. Driven out from their old territories, they extended themselves towards the S., where they now inhabit many districts which never belonged to them in former times, and have swallowed up the Epirots, and extinguished their language. According to Schafsrik (Slav. All. vol. i. p. 31) the modern Albanian population is 1,200,000.

Ptolemy is the earliest writer in whose works the name of the Albanians has been distinctly recognised. He mentions (iii. 13. §23) a tribe called Ann/tut (‘AAQaon and a town Anamor’ous ('AAGovd'lroMr), in the region lying to the E. of the Ionian sea; and from the names of places with which Albanopolis is connected, it appears clearly to have been in the S. part of the Illyrian territory, and in modern Albania. There are no means of forming a conjecture how the name of this obscure tribe came to be extended to so considerable a nation. The latest work upon the Albanian language is that of F. Ritter von Xylander Spy-ache der Albumen odor Skltipelaren, 1835), who has elucidated this subject, and established the principal facts upon a firm basis. An account of the positions at which Xylander arrived will be found in Prichard (The Physical History of Mankind, vol. iii. pp. 477482).

As the Dalmatian Slaves have adopted the name lllyrians, the Slavonian language spoken in Dalmatia, especially at Ragwa, is also called Illyrian; and this designation has acquired general currency ; but it must always be remembered that the ancient. Illyrians were in no 'way connected with the Slave races. In the practice of tattooing their bodies, and offering human merifices, the lllyrisns resembled the Thrncians (Strata, vii. p. 315; Herod. v. 6); the custom of one of their tribes, the Dalmatians, to have a new division of their lands every eighth year (Strab. 1.0.), resembled the Well-known practice of the Germans, only advanced somewhat further towards civilised life. The author of the Periplus ascribed to Scylax (l. c.) speaks of the great influence enjoyed by their women, whose lives, in consequence, he describes as highly licentious. The lllyrian, like the modern Albanian Skipctar, was always ready to tight for hire; and rushed to battle, obeying only the instigation of his own love of fighting, or vengeance, or love of blood, or craving for booty. But as soon as the feeling was satisfied, or overcome by fear, his rapid and impetuous rush was succeeded by an equally rapid retreat or flight. (Comp. Grote, llt'at. of Greece, vol. vi. p. 609.) They did not fight in the phalanx, nor were they merely dqul; they rather formed an intermediate cluss between them and the phalanx. Their arms were short spears and light juvelins and shields (“peltastue“); the chief weapon, however, was the ndxaipa, or Albanian knife. Dr. Arnold has remarked (Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. 495),—“ The eastern coast of the Adriatic is one of those ill-fated portions of the earth which, though placed in immediate contact with civilisation, have remained perpetually barbarian." But Scymnus of Chios (comp. Arnold, vol. iii. p. 477), writing of the lllyrians about a. century before the Christian era, calls them “a religious people, just and kind to strangers, loving to be liberal, and desiring to live orderly and soberly." After the Roman conquest, and during its dominion, they were as civilised as most other peoples reclaimed from barbarism. The emperor Diocletian and St. Jerome were both Illyrians. And the palace at Spalato is the earliest existing specimen of the legitimate combination of the round arch and the column; and the modern history of the eastern shores of the Adriatic begins with the relations established by Heraclius with the Serbs or W. Slaves, who moved down from the Carpathians into the provinces between the Adriatic and the Danube. The states which they constituted were of considerable weight in the history of Europe, and the kingdoms, or bannat-s, of Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Rascia, and Dalmatia, occupied for some centuries a political position very like that now held by the secondary monarchiuil states of the present day. The people of Narenta, who had a republican form of government, once disputed the sway of the Adriatic with the Venetians; Ragusa, which sent her Argosies (Ragosies) to every cmmt, never once succumbed to the winged Lion of St. Mark; and for some time it seemed probable that the Servinn colonies established by Heraclius were likely to take a prominent part in advancing the progress of European civilisation. (Comp. Finlay, Greece under the Romans, p. 409.)

5. IIiv!ory.—T11elllyrians do not appear in history before the Pcloponnesian War, when Brasidas and Perdiccas retreated before them, and the lllyrians, fur the first time, probably, had to encounter Grecian troops. (Thuc. iv. 124—128.) Nothing is heard of these barbarians afterwards, till the time of Philip of Macedon, by whose vigour and energy their i11cursions were first repressed, and their country pnr. tinlly conquered. Their collision with the Moccdouians appears to have risen under the following circumstances. During the 4th century before Christ 2 large immigration ot Gallic tribes from the westward was taking place, invading the territory of the

[graphic]

more northerly Illyrians, and driving them further to the south. Under Bardylis the lllyrians,who had formed themselves into a kingdom, the origin of which cannot be tmced, had extended themselves over the towns, villages, and plains of W. Mmdonia (Diod. xvi. 4; Theopomp. Fr. 35, ed. l)idot. : Cic. (1e 0]. ii. 11; Phot. Bibi. p. 580, ed. Bekker; Liban. Orat. xxviii. p. 632). As soon as the young Philip of Macedon came to the throne, he attacked time hereditary enemies B. c. 360, and pushed his successes so vigorously, as to reduce to subjection all the tribes to the E. of Lycbnidua. (Comp. Grate, Hist. of Greece, vol. xi. pp. 302—404.) A state was formed the capital of which was probably near Ragnsa. but the real lllyrian pirates with whom the Romans came in collision, must have occupied the N. of Dalmatia. Rhodes was still a maritime power; but by 5.0. 233 the Illyriana had become fumidable in the Adriatic, ravaging the masts, and disturbing the navigation of the allies of the Romans. Envuyl were sent to Tents, the queen of the lllyrians, demanding reparation: she replied, that piracy was the habit of her people, and finally had the envoys murdered. (Polyb. ii. 8; Appian, Hlyr. 7; Zonar. viii. 19; comp. Plin. miv. 11.) A Roman army for the first time crossed the Ionian gull", nnd concluded a peace with the lllyrians upon honourable terms, while the Greek states of Corcyra, Apollonia, and Epidamnus, received their liberty as a gift fmm Rome.

On the death of Tents, the traitor Demetrius of Plum made himself guardian of Pincus, sen of Agron, and usurped the chief authority in lllyricum : thinking that the Romans were too much engaged in the Gallic wars, he ventured on several piraticnlacts. This led to the Second Illyrian War, 1:.0. 2l9, which resulted in the submission of the whole of lllyricum. Demetrius fled to Macedonh, and l’ineus was restored to his kingdom. (Polyb.iii. 16, 18 ; Liv. mi. 33; App. Illyr. 7, 8; Flor. ii.5; Dion Cass. xxxiv. 46, 151; Zonal“. viii. 20.) Pine!!! was succeeded by his uncle Scerdilaidos, and Scerdilaidas by his son Pleurntns, who. f0! his fidelity to the Roman cause during the Macedonian War, was rewarded at the peace of 196 by the addition to his territories of Lychnidus and the Parthini, which had before belonged 1., Macedonia (Poly??xviii. 30, xxi. 9, xxii. 4; Liv. xxxi. 28, XXX"34.) In the reign of Gentius, the last king of lllyricum, the Dalmatae revoltod, n. c. 180; and the praetor L. Anicius, entering lllyricum, finished the war within thirty dnyn. by taking the capital Scodra (Scalar-i). into which Gentius had thrown himself, n. c. 168. (l’olyb. xxx. 13; Liv. xliv. 30 —32, xlv. 43; Appinn, Illyr. 9; Eutrop. iv. 6.) lllyricum, which was divided into three pma. twcame annexed to Rome. (Liv. xlv.26.) The lll!‘

[ocr errors]

and Linunnm, is given under those heads.

In 5.0. 27 lllyriculn was under the rule of? proconsul appointed by the sctmte (Dion Cass. 11H12): but the frequent attempts of the people to re— cover their liberty showed the necessity of mamtaining 11 strong force in the country ; and in n._c. ll (Dion Cass. hr. 84) it. was made an impem} province, with P. Comelius Dohtbella for “ leglmm ' (“ leg. pm. pm" Orelli, lnccr. no. 2365, comp- 11?3128; Tue. Hist. ii. 86; Marqnardt, in Beckers R6111. Alt. vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 110-115). A we" region, extending far inluntl townrds the valley °f the Save and the Drave, contained bodies of Soldier

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][graphic]

who were stationed in the strong links of the chain of military posts which was scattered along the frontier of the Danube. Inscriptions are extant on which the records of its occupation by the 7th led llth legions can still be read. (Orelli, nos. 3452, 3553, 4995, 4996; comp. Joseph. B. J. ii. 16; Tee. Arm. iv. 5, Hist. ii. 11. 85.) There was at that time no seat of government or capital ; but the province was divided into regions called“ conventusz" each region, of which there were three, named from the towns of Scannoxa, Samsa, and NAROXA, was subdivided into numerous “decoriae." Thus the " conventus” of Salons had 382 “decuriae.” (Plin. iii. 26.) lacuna, Sonoru, Nannies, and EPIDAURUB, were Roman “ coloniae;” Arotwma and Coacraa, “ civitates libel-u.” (Appian, Illyr. 8; I’olyb. ii. II.) The jurisdiction of the “ pro-praetor," or “ legatus," does not appear to have extended throughout the whole of Illyricum, but merer over the maritime portion. The inland district either had its own governor, or was under the praefect of I’annonia. Salona in later times became the capital of the province (Procop. B. G. i. 15; Ilierocles), and the governor was styled “ pracses.” (Orelli, nos. I098, 3599.) The most notable of these were Dion Cassius the historian, and his father Cassius Apronianus.

The warlike youth of Pannonia and Dalmatia sllhrded an inexhaustible supply of recruits to the legions stationed on the banks of the Danube; and the peasants of Illyricum, who had already given Claudius, Aurelian, and Probus to the sinking empire, achieved the work of rescuing it by the elevation of Diocletian and Maximian to the imperial purple. (Comp. Gibbon, c. xiii.)

After the final division of the empire, Marcellinus, “ Patrician of the West," occupied the maritime portion of W. Illyricurn, and built a fleet which chimed the dominion of the Adriatic. [DanuTrA.] E. lllyricum appears to have sufi'ered so much from the hostilities of the Goths and the oppression: of Alaric, who was declared, A. r). 398, its mater-general (comp. Claudian, in Eon-op. ii. 216, do Bell. Get. 535), that there is a law of Theodosius II. which exempts the cities of Illyricnm from contributing towards the expenses of the public spectacles at Constantinople. (Theod. cod. a. tit. S. s. 7.) But though suffering from these inroads, mual encounters often showed that the people were not destitute of courage and military skill. Attila himself, the terror of both Goths and Romans, was defeated before the town of Azimus, a frontier fortress of lllyricnm. (Prisons, p. I43, ed. Bonn; comp. Gibbon, c. xxxiv.; Finlay, Greece under the Ramos, p. 203.) The coasts of lllyricum were oinsidered of great importance to the court of Constantinople. The rich produce transported by the car-anus which reached the N. shores of the Black So», was then conveyed to Constantinople to be distributed through W. Europe. Under these circumilmces, it was of the utmost consequence to defend the two points of Thessalonica and Dyrrhachium, the two cities uhich commanded the extremities of the usual road between Constantinople and the Adriatic. (Tafel, do Thessalonica, p. 221; Hullmlfl, Guchich. dea Byzantischen Mandela, p. 76.) The open country was abandoned to the Avon; and the E. Slaves, who made permanent settlements Wen to the S. of the Via Egnatia; but none of these settlements were allowed to interfere with thi

01' mumnuicatiou, without which the trade of

[graphic]

the Wat would have been lost to the Greeks. Heraclius, in his plan for circumscrihing the ravaga of the northern enemies of the empire, occupied the whole interior of the country, from the borders of Istria to the territory of Dyrrhechinm, with colonies of the Serbs or W. Slaves. From the settlement of the Servian Slavonians within the bounds of the empire we may therefore date, as has been said above, the earliest eucroachments of the lllyrian or Albanian race on the Hellenic population of the South. The singular events which occurred in the reign of Heraclius are not among the least of the elements which have gone to make up the condition of the modern Greek nation. [15. B.J.]

ILORCI. [ELIOCEOC/L]

ILU’CIA. [ORETAHL]

ILURATUM ('lAm’lpa-ror, Ptol. iii. 6. § 6), a town in the interior of the Tauric Chersonese, probably somewhat to the N. of Kafi‘n. (E. B. J.]

ILURCA'ONES. [Inaltcaorvss]

ILURCIS. [Gnacctmnra]

ILURGEIA, ILURGIS. [Inu‘ruaara]

ILU’RGETAE. [Inenua'rrcs]

ILURO, in Gallia. Aquitania, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road from Caesarangusta, in Spain, to Beneharmum. [Bawnrlarurmn] Item is between Aspaluca [Asraurca] and Beneharmum. The modern site of Iluro is Olér-on, which is the same name. Olérvm is in the department of Banal Pyrénées, at the junction of the Gave rfAs'pe, the river of Aspaluca, and the Gave 11048014, which by their union form the Gave d‘Ole’ron. Gave is the name in these parts for the river-valleys of the Pyrenees. In the Notitia of Gallia, Ilum is the Civitss Elloroncnsium. The place was a bishop's see from the commencement of the sixth century. [G. L.]

I'LURO. 1. (A lore), a city of Baetica, situated on a hilL (Inscr. ap. Carter, T raceh, p.161; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. I. p. 858.)

2. [Laei'rmvn] [1”. 5.]

ILU’ZA (-rd 'leu{a), a town in Phrygia Psca' tiana, which is mentioned only in very late writers, and is probably the same as Aludda in the Table of Peutinger; in which use it was situated between Sebaste and Acmonia, 25 Roman miles to the east of the latter town. It was the see of a Christian bishop. (Hierocl. p. 667; Cmrcr'l. Corutant. iii. p. 534.) [L. S.]

ILVA (’leoa, Ptol.: Ewe). called by the Greeks An'rrraua (AZGaMu, Strab., Diod.; AlOéMm, P5. Arist., Philist. up. Steph. 8.), an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, lying otf the coast of Etruria, opposite to the headland and city of Populonium. It is much the most important of the islands in this sea, situated between Corsica and the mainland, being about 18 miles in length, and 12 in its groom: breadth. Its outline is extremely irregular, the mountains which compose it, and which rise in some parts to a height of above 3000 feet, being indented by deep gulfs and inlets, so that its breadth in some places does not exceed 3 milcs. Its circuit is greatly overstated by Pliny at 100 Roman miles: the same author gives its distance from Populonium at 10 miles, which is just about correct; but the width of the strait which separates it from the nearest point of the mainland (near Piombino) docs not much exceed 6, though estimated by Diodorus as 100 stadia (12} miles), and by Strabo, through an enormous error, at. not less than 300 stadia. (Strab. v. p. 228; Diod. v. 13; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mel. ii. 7. § 19; Scyl. p. 2. § 6; Apoll. Rhod. iv. 654.) Ilva was celebrated in ancient times, as it still is at the present day, for its iron nunes; these were probably worked from a very early period by the Tyrrhenians of the opposite coast, and were already noticed by Hecataeus, who called the island Aifla’An: indeed, its Greek name was generally regarded as derived from the smoke (alBu'An) of the numerous furnaces employed in smelting the iron. (Died. v. 13; Steph. B. I. o.) In the time of Strnbo, however, the iron ore was no longer smelted in the island itself, the want of fuel compelling the inha~ bitants (as it does at the present day) to transport the ore to the opposite mainland, where it was smeltcd and wrought. so as to be fitted for commercial pn The unfailing abundance of the ore (alluded to by Virgil in the line

“ Insula inexhaustis Chalybum gonerosa metallis")

led to the notion that it grew again as fast as it was extracted from the mines. It had also the advantage of being extracted with great facility, as it is not sunk deep beneath the earth, but forms a hill or mountain mass of solid ore. (Strab. l. 0.; Diod. Lc.; Virg. Am. x. 174; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12, xxxiv. l4. s. 41; Pseud. Arist. do Mirab. 95; Rutil. Itin. i. 35l—-35G; Sil. Ital. viii. 6l6.) The mines, which are still extensively worked. are situated at a place called Rio, near the E. most of the island; they exhibit in many cases unequile evidence of the ancient workings.

The only mention of llva that occurs in history is in n. c. 453, when we learn from Diodorus that it was ravaged by a Syracusan fleet under Phayllus, in revenge for the piratical expeditions of the Tyrrhenians. Phayllus having effected but little, at second fleet was sent under Apelles, who is said to have made himself master of the island; but it certainly did not remain subject to Syracuse. (Diod. xi. 88.) The name is again incidentally mentioned by Livy (xxx. 39) during the expedition of the consul Tib. Claudius to Corsica and Sardinia.

Ilva has the advantage of several excellent ports, of which that on the N. side of the island, now called Porto Ferraio, was known in ancient times as the l’on'rus Anoous (’Ap'yfimr Aiufiv), from the circumstance that the Argonauts were believed to have touched there on their return voyage, while sailing in quest of Circe. (Strab. v. p. 224; Diod. iv. 56; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 658.) Considerable ruins of buildings of Roman date are visible at a place called Le Grotld, near Porto Fer-rain, and others are found near Capo Costello, at the NE. extremity of the island. The quarries of granite near 8. Pier-o, in the SW. part of Elba, appears also to have been extensively worked by the Romans, though no notice of them is found in any ancient writer; but numerous columns, basins for fountains, and other architectural ornaments, still remain, either wholly or in part hewn out of the adjacent quarry. (lloare, Clau. Tour, vol. i. pp. 23—29). [111. H. 13.]

lLVATES, a Liguriau tribe, whose name is found only in Livy. Ho mentions them first as taking up arms in n.c. 200, in concert with the Gaulish tribes of the Insubres and Cenomani, to destroy the Roman colonies of Plat-cutie and Cremonn, They are again noticed three years later as being still in arms, after the submission of their Transpadane allies; but in the counse of that year‘s campaign (n.c. 197) they were reduced by the consul Q. Minucius, and their name does not again appear

in history. (Liv. xxx. 10, xxxi. 29, 30.) From

[graphic]

the circumstances here related, it is clear that they dwelt on the N. slopes of the Ape'nnines, towards the plains of the Padus, and apparently not very far from Clastldium (Cutewio); but we cannot de— termine with certainty either the position or extent of their territory. Their name, like those of most of the Ligurian tribes mentioned by Livy, had disappeared in the Augustan age, and is not found in any of the geographers. [LrocnrAJ Wllckenaer, however, supposes the Emma; over whom the consul M. Fulvius Nobilior celebrated a triumph in n. c. 159 (Fast. Capit. ap. Grater, p. 297), and who are in all probability the same people with the Veleiltu of Pliny [VELEIA], to be identical also with the llvates of Livy; but this cannot be assumed without further proof. (Walckenaer, Ge'ogr. do: Golda, vol. i. p. 154.) H. B.] [MACE-[ARA ('luixdpa. or 'lexdpn, Ptol.: EUI. Imacharensis, Cic.; Imacarensis, Plin.), a city of Sicily, the name of which does not appear in history, but which is repeatedly mentioned by Cicero among the municipal towns of the island. There is great discrepancy in regard to the form of the name, whicll is written in many MSS. “ hiacarensis " or “ Mach» ronsis;" and the some uncertainty is found in those of Pliny, who also notices the town among those of the interior of Sicily. _ (Cic. Verr. iii. 18, 42, v. 7; Zumpt, ad 100,; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Sillig, ad loo.) From the manner in which it is spoken of by Cicero, it would seem to have been a town of some consideration, with a territory fertile in corn. Thoi writer associsim it with Herbita, Assorns, Agyliumi and other towns of the interior, in a manner that would lead us to suppose it situated in the same. region of Sicily; and this inference is confirmed by Ptolemy, who placm Hemiehara or Himichara (evidently the same place) in the NE. of Sicily, between Cnpitium and Centuripa. (Ptol. iii. 4. § 12.) Hence Cluverius conjectures that it may have occupied the site of Traina, but this is wholly uncertain. Faullo and other Sicilian writers have supposed the ruins of an ancient city, which are still visible on the coast about 9 miles N. of Cape Pnchynum, near the Porto Viodicari, to be those of lmachara; but though the name of Macaroon, still borne by an adjoining headland, gives some colour to this opinion, it is wholly Opposed to the data. funiished us by ancient authors, who all agree in placing Irnachnnt in the interior of“ the island. The ruins in question, which indicate the site of a considerable town, are regarded by Cluverius (but equally without authority) as the“ Of lchana. (Clover. Sicil. p. 356; Fawll. dc Reb- Siciv. 2, p. 217; Amico. Not. ad Faun. pp-4l7, 447i Hoare's Chi-"fall Tour, vol. ii. p. 301.) [15. H. 8.] IMA'US, the great mountain chain, which, according to the ancients, divided Northern Asia into “ Scythia intra Imaum " and “ Scythin Hm Imaum." IThis word (16 ’lpaov dpos, Strab. "p. 689; Ptol. vi. 13. § 1; Th ’luaiov bpos, Strab. ii- p. 129; 6 'luaos, Agathem. ii. 9: although all the M85. of Strabo (xi. p. 5l6) have Isamnfl ('lfio-p-os) in the passage describing the expedition of the GraecmBactrinn king Menandcr, yet there can be no doubt but that the text is corrupt, and the word lmaus should be substituted), 60"nected with the Sanscrit himavat, “ snowy ” (mmp‘ l’lin. vi. l7; Bohlen, dal Alto Indie», vol. i. p. 1]; Lassen, Ind. .411. vol. i. p. 17), is one of those many significative expressions which have been used for mountain masses upon every Zone of the earth’s'surface (for instance, Mont Blanc, in Sunny, Sm Neruda, ' Granada and Cali/brain), and survives in the modern llinuilayn.

[graphic][graphic]

From very early times the Greeks were aware of sgmt line of mountains running throughout Central Asia, nearly E. and W., between the 36th and 37th degrees of latitude, and which was known by the name of the diaphrlgm of Dimesrehus, or the plrallol of Rhodes.

' The Macedonian expeditions of Alexander and Selencus Nicator opened up Asia as far as the sources ofthe Ganges, but not fhrther. But the knowledge which the Greeks thus obtained of Asia was much Enlarged by intercourse with other Eastern nations. The indications given by Strabo and Ptolemy (1.0.), when compared with the orographio configuration of the Asiatic continent, recognise in a very remarkable manner the principal features of the mountain chain of Central Asia, which extends from the Chinese province of Hon-pd, S. of the gulf of Peteleli, along the line oftho K mliin (not, as has generally been supposed, the Himdluya), continuing from the Hindi-K12in along the S. shores of the Caspian through Mdzaadera'u, and rising in the crater-shaped summit of Dama'vend, through the pass of Elbow-z and Ghilan, until it terminates in the Taurus in the SW. comer of Asia Minor. It is true that there is a break between Taurus and the W. continuation of the Eindri-deh, but the cold “ plateau" of Azerbrj'an and KurdistJn, and the isolated summit of Ararat, might easily give rise to the supposed continuity both of Taurus and AntiTlurus from Kammania and Argaeus up to the high chain of Elburz, which separates the damp, Wooded, and unhealthy plains of Méznndera'n from the arid “ platesux " of [mic and K homum.

The name of Imaus was, us has been seen, in the first instance, applied by the Greek geographers to the Humid-Kris}: and to the chain parallel to the equatorto which the name of Himélaya is usually given in the present day. Gradually the name was transferred to the colossal intersection running N. and 8,—the meridian axis of Central Asia, or the Bolor range. The division of Asia into “ intro et extra lmaum" was unknown to Strnbo and Pliny, though the latter describes the knot of mountains formed by the intersections of the Hima'klya, the Himiai-Klish,antl Bolor, by the expression “ quorum (llontos Eniodi) promontorium [mans vocntur " (vi. 17). The Bolor chain has been for ages, with one or two exceptions, the boundary between the empires "i China and Twheatun; but the ethnographicsl distinction between “ Scythia intra at extra lmnum " "5 probably suggested by the division of lndia into ‘iiutrs et extra Gangem," and of the whole continent into “ intro et extra. Tsurum.” In Ptolemy, Whither in the maps appended to all the editions, I“! lttributed to Agnthodaemon, the meridian chain ofhnsusis prolonged up to the most northerly plains oilhe Irtyoll and Obi. The positive notions of the amicnts upon the route of commerce from the Euphrates to the Seree, forbid the opinion, that the ldflofnn Imsus running from N. to S., and N. of the Himdlayo, dividing Upper Asia into two equal M, was a mere geographic dream. The expresMulls of Ptolemy are so precise, that there can be little doubt but that he was aware of the existence "i- lhe Bolor mnge. In the special description of Central Asia, he speaks twice of Imnus running from S. to N., and, indeed, clearly calls it a meridian than (ire-rd neonqurvnn was wanted”, Ptol. vi. ll. l: comp. vi. 1:}. § 1), and places at the foot

[graphic]

of Imaus the BYLTAE (HEM-rm, vi. 13. § 3), in the country of Little Thibet, which still bears the indigenous name of Ballistaa. At the sources of the Indus are the DARADRAE (viii. 1. § 42), the Dardurs or Derders mentioned in the poem of the Maha'bhdmta and in the fragments of Megssthenes, through whom the Greeks received accounts of the region of auriferous sand, and who occupied the S. slopa of the Indian Caucasus, a little to the W. of Kaschmir. It is to be remarked that Ptolemy does not attach lrnaus to the Comenonum Mourns (Kaundouz), but places the Imaus too far tothe l-I., 8° further than the meridian of the principal source of the Ganges (Gungo'm'). The‘causc of this mistake, in placing [mans so for further towards the E. than the Bolor range, no doubt arose from the data upon which Ptolemy came to his conclusion being selected from twri difl'erent sources. The Greeks first became acquainted with the Comedorum Montes when they passed the Indian Caucasus between Calm! and Bulkh, and advanced over the “ plateau " of anian along the W. slopes of Halor, where Alexander found, in the tribe of the Sibse, the descendants of Heracles (Strsb. xvi. p. 688), just as Marco Polo and Burues ( Travel: in Bel-barn, vol. ii. p. 214) met with people who hunted that they had sprung from the Macedonian conquerors. The N. of Bolor was known from the route of the traffic of the Seres, as described by Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy (i. 12). The combination of notions obtained from such difl"erent sources was imperfectly made, and hence the error in longitude.

These obscure omgraphical relations have been illustrated by Humboldt upon the most logical principles, and the result of mnny apparently contradictory accounts is 50 presented as to form one connected whole. (An'e Centrale, vol. i. pp. “)0 -—164, vol. ii. pp. 365-440.)

The Eolor range is one link of a long series of elevated ranges running, as it' were, from S. to N., which, with axes parallel to each other, but alternating in their localities, extend from Cape Comn'n to the Ivy Sea, between the 64th and 75th degrees of longitude, keeping it mean direction of SSE. and N N W. Lassen (lndisclre A ltertbml-unde) coincides with the results obtained by Humboldt. [E. B. J.]

I'MBRASUS ('Ipdpao'os), one of the three small rivers flowing down from Mount Ampelus in the island of Samos. (Strnb. xiv. p. 637 ; Plin. Y. 37.) According to a fragment from Callimschus (213; comp. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 187, ii. 868), this river, once called Parthenius, flowed in front of the ancient sanctuary of Hera, outside the town of Ssmos, and the goddess derived from it the surname of lmbrasia. [L_ 5,]

IMBRINIUM. [SAIIXUIL]

lMBROS ('huSpor: Ella. ’ludpros), an island in the Aegaesn sen. 011‘ the SW. coast of the Thrscisn Chersonesus, and near the islands of Samothrace and Lemnos. According to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 23), Imbros is 62 miles in circumference; but this is nearly double its real size. It is mountainous sud well wooded, and its highest summit is l845 feet above the level of the ses. It contains, hon-ever, several fertile valleys, and a river named Ilissus in antiquity. (Plin. l. 0.) Its town on the northern side was called by the same name, and there are still some ruins of it remaining. lmbros was inhabited in early times by the l'elssginns, and was, like the neighbouring island of Samothroco, celebrated for itn

« السابقةمتابعة »