« السابقةمتابعة »
worship of the Cabciri and Hermes, whom the Carians called Imbrasnn. (Steph. B. a. v. “Ii/5410:.) Both the island and the city of Irnbros are mentioned by Homer, who gives to the former the epithet of TGII'MDG'UUT]. (ll. xiii. 33, xiv.281, xxiv. 78, Hymn. in Apoll. 36.) The island was annexed to the Persian empire by Otnnes, a general of Darcins, at which time it was still inhabited by l’clusgians. (Herod. V. 26.) It was afterwards colonised by the Athenians, and was no doubt taken by Miltindes along with Lemnos. It was always regarded in later times as an ancient Athenian possession; thus the peace of Antalcidaa, which declared the indopendence of all the Grecian states, nevertheless allowed the Athenians to retain possession of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 15, v. 31); and at the end of the war with Philip the Romans restored to the same people the islands of Lomnos, Imbms, Delos, and Scyros. (Liv. xxxiii. so.)
The coins of Imbros have the common Athenian emblem, the head of Pallns. Imhros seems to have atl'orded good anchorage. The fleet of Antiochns first sailed to Imbros. and from thence crossed over to Scinthus. (Liv. xxxv. 43.) The ship which carried Ovid into exile also anchored in the harbour of Imbros, which the poetcalln “ Imbria
tollus." (0v. Tn'st. i. 10, 18.) The island is still called by its ancient name, Emer or 1mm.
IMEUS MONS, is the name given in the Tabula I'eutingeriana to the mountain pass which leads from the basin of the lake Fucinns to that of the Pcligui, and was traversed by the Via Valeria on the way from Alba to Corfinium. This puss, now called the Form Carr-mo, must in all ages have been an important line of communication, being a natural saddle-like depression in the ridge which bounds the lake Fncinus on the E., so that the ascent from Coll' Armeno (Cerfennia) to the summit of the pass (a distance of 5 miles) presents but little ditlicnlty. The latter is the highest point reached by the line of the Valerian Way in traversing the whole breadth of Italy from one sea to the other, but is elevated only a few hundred feet above the lake F ucirrus. The Roman road across this pass was first rendered practicable for carriages by the emperor Claudius, who continued the Via Valeria from Cerfennin to the month of the Aternus. [CERFIQINUL] (Tab. Peat; Holsten. Not. ad Cluv. p.154; Kramer, Fuciner See, pp. 14,60.) H.B.]
IMMADRUS or IMMADRA, a position on the coast of Gallia Narbonensia between Telo (Toulon) and Mnssilla. The distances along the coast were doubtless accurately measured, but we cannot be certhin that they are accurately given in theM'oS. ; and it seems that the routes, especially in the parts near the must, have been sometimes confounded. lmmudrus, the next station east of Mrrrrcillc, is placed by D'Anvillc, and others who follow him. at the Isle
goddm Eileithyia is said to have been worshipr here, and to haw: obtained one of her epithets from it. (Calliru, Fr. 168; Pashley, Trav. vol. i. p. 289; Hick, Krem, vol. i. p. 412.) B. J.] INCARUS, on the coast of Gallia Nurbonensis, is placed by the ltin. next to Massiliac It is west of Nessilia, and the distance is 12 M. P. The place is Carry, which retains its name. The distance of the ltin. was probably estimated by a boat towing along the coast; and a good map is necessary to show how far it is correct. [G. L.] INCRIO'NES (‘l'ypruI/(r), a tribe of the Signinbri, mentioned only by Ptolemy (ii. II. § 9). They apparently occupied the southernmost. part of the territory inhabited by the Signmbri. Some believe them to be the same as the Julronea of Tacitus (Arm. xiii. 57), in whose territory an extensive conflagration ot' the soil occun'ed in A. n. 59. Some place them near the mouth of the river LaJm and the little town of Eugen; while others, with less probability, regard Ingerskeim, on the Neckar, as the place once inhabited by the Incriones. [L. 5.] INDAPRATHAE ('Iydmrpiifiat, Ptol. viii. 2. 3' IS, a name, doubtlm, connected with the Sanscrit Indru-prrutha), a people occupying nearly the same pcsition as the IBEKINGAE. [V.] I'NDIA 'lvbitg Polyaen. iv. 3. § 30; Plin. vi.
IT. 2:. 20; 1'1 16v ’beéw 7i), Arrian, Armb. v. 4; 1‘1 'Wl'fli, Strah. xi. p. 514: E01. ’Ivbds), a country of great extent in the southern part of Asia, bounded on the north by the great chain of the Uima'laya mountains, which extend, under variously modified names, from the Brahmapulm river on the E. to the Indus on the W., and which were known in ancient times under the names Enrodus and Imaus. [Esrom Mom-rs] These mountains separated the plain muntry of India to the S. of them from the steppes of 'I'Iitaryon the N., and formed the water-shed of most of the great rivers with which India is so plentifully Supplied. On the E. the Brahmuputra, which sepafl rates it from Am and Brmuah, is its principal boundory: though, if the definition of non be adopted which was in vogue among the later classical geomi’llm. those countries as far as the commencement of the Chinese empire on the S. must. be comprehtndol within the limits of India. On the 5. it is bounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, and on the W. by the Indus, which separates it from ut‘til‘tlsll, Arachusia, and the land of the ParopauriWire. Some writers, indeed (as Lassen, Pentrrp. Indie. Bonn, 1827), have considered the districts “I'm! the southern spurs of the I’aropamisus (or Hindithh) as part of India; but. the pan-age of l’liny on which Lassen relics would make India comthmd the whole of Afi/bdnislun to Eeluchistu’n on the Indian Ocean; a position which can hardly be Is the deliberate opinion of any ancient ll]! r,
ltrnay, indeed, be doubted whotherthe Indians themselves ever laid down any accurate boundary of their mun"! Westward (Law: ofManu, ii. v. 22,quoted by
MW", Pmtap. Indie. p. 8); though the Sarmrt'ti (Ill'dflwlrs) separated their sacrctl land from Western India. Generally, however, the Indus was held to be their westem boundary, as is clear from Strubo’s “M5 (XV. p. 689), and may be inferred from Pliny's dmription (vi. 20. s. 23).
. It as necessary, before we proceed to give the prinPlPflll divisions, mountain ranges, rivers, and cities of India. to trace very briefly, through the remains of Classical literature, the gradual pmng of the know
ledge which the ancient world possessed of this country; a land which, from first to last, seems to have been to them a constant source of wonder and admiration, and therefore not unnaturally the theme of many strange and fabulous relations, which even their most critical writers have not failed to record.
Though the Greeks were not acquainted with India in the heroic ages, and though the name itself does not occur in their earliest writers, it seems not. unlikely that they had some faint idea. of a distant land in the fur East which was very populous and fruitful. The occurrence of the names of objects of Indian merchandise, such as nwal-repar, (Itr’tpar, and others, Would seem to show this. The same thing would seem to be obscurer hinted at in the two Aethiopias mentioned by Homer, the one towards the setting, and the other in the direction of the rising sun (0d. i. 23, 24); and a similar inference may probably be drawn from some of the early notical of these Aethiopians, whose separate histories are perpetually confounded together, many things being predicated ot' the African nation which could be only true of an Indian people, and vice world. That there were a people whom the Greeks called Aethiopee in the neighbourhood of, if not within the actual boundaries of India, is clear from Herodotus (vii. 70), who states in another place that all the Indians (except the Daradac) resembled the Aethiopians in tho dark colour of their skins (iii. 101); while abundant instances may be observed of the intertniature of the accounts of the African and Indian Aethiopians, as, for example, in Ctesias (Indie. 7, ed. 13%. p. 354), Pliny (viii. 30. 3), who quotes Ctesins, Scylax, in his description of India (up. l’hilostrat. Vii. Apoll. iii. 14), T'zetzes (CHI. vii. 14-4), Aelinn (II. An. xvi. 3]), Agatharchides (dc Rubro Mari, p. 44, ed. HIItlS.), Pollux (Onomast. v. 5), and many other writers. Just in the same way a confusion may be noticed in the accounts of Libya, as in Herodotus (iv. 168—199; ct". Ctesias, Indie. I3), where he intennines Indian and African tales. Even so late as Alexander’s invasion, we know that the same confusion prevailed, Alexander himself believing that he would find the sources of the Nile in India. (Strab. xv. p. 696; Arrian, Exp. Alex. vi. 1.)
It is not remarkable that the Greeks should have had but little knowledge of India or its inhabitants till a comparatively late period of their history, and that neither Homer nor Pindar, nor the great Greek dramatists Sophocles and Euripides, should mention by its name either India or any of its people. It is probable that, at this early period, neither commerce nor any other cause had led the Greeks beyond the shorm of Syria eastward, and that it was not till the Persian wars that the existence of vast. and populous regions to the E. of Persia itself became distinctly known to them. Some individual names may have reached the ears of those who inquired; perhaps some individual travellers may have hard of these far distant realms; such, for instance, as the physician Democedcs, when residing at the court of Darciua, the son of Hystaspes (Herod. iii. I27), and Dcmocritun of Abdera (n. c. 460—400), who is said by sevcral authors to have travelled to Egypt, Persia, Aethiopin, and India (Diog. Laiirt. ix. 72; Strab. xvi. p. 703; Clem. Strum. i. p. 304; Suidas, l. 0.). Yet little was probably known bcyond a few names.
The first Ill-\IOI'IMI who speaks clearlan the snhjec\ is Hecatneus of Miletns (ac. 549—486). In the few fragments which remain of his writings, and which have been carefully collected by Klauscn (Bert 1831), the Indi and the Indus (Fragm. 174 and 178 ), the Argunte (Frngm. 176), the people of Opia on the banks of the Indus (Fragm. 175), the Calatiae, (Fragm. I77; Herod. iii. 38 ; or Calantiae, Herod. iii. 97). Gandara and the Gandarii (Fragm. I78) and their city Caspapyrus (Frugm. 179; Caspatyrus, Herod. ii. 102, iv. 44), are mentioned, in company with other Eastom places. Further, it appears, from the testimony of Herodotus, that Scylux of Carynnds, who was sent by Darcius, navigated the Indus to Cuspatyms in I’sttyicc, and thence along the Erythraean sea by the Arabian gulf to the coast of Egypt (iv. 44); in the course of which voyage he must have seen smoothing of India, of which he is said to have recorded several marvels (cf. Aristot. Pulit. vii. l4; I’hilostr. Vit. Apoll. Tyan. iii. 14; Tzetz. Chil. vii. 144); though Klausen has shown satisfactorily, in his edition of the fragments which remain, that the I’eriplns usually ascribed to this Scylax is at least as late as the time of Philip of Macedon.mam). (Stub. xv. pp. 711—714; Clem. Alex. Strum. i. 131.) Again Daimachus, who lived for a long time at Palibothra (Strab. ii. p. 70), wrote a work upon India, which, though according to Strabo full of fablm, must also have contained much valuable information. Patrocles, whom Strabo evidently deemed a writer of veracity (Stmh. ii. p. 70), as the admiral of Selencus, sailed upon the Indian Ocean, and lett an account, in which he stated his belief that India was the some breadth that Msgasthenes had maintained (Strab. ii. p. 69. xv. p. 689),- hut also that it could be circumnavigated— an erroneous view, which seems to have arisen from the idea, that the Caspian Sea' and the Northern Ocean were connected. (Strab. ii. p. 74. xi. p. 518.)
The notices pmarved in Herodotus and the remains of Ctesiss are somewhat fuller, both having had opportunitim, the one as a great traveller, the other as a resident for many years at the court of Artsxerxes, which no previous writers had had. The knowledge of Herodotus (a. a. 484—408) is, however, limited to the account of the satrapies of Dareius; the twentieth of which, he states, comprehended that part of India which was tributary to the Persians (iii. 94), the country of the most Eastern people with whom he was acquainted (iii. 95—102). To the S. of them, along the Indian Ocean, were, according to his view, the Asiatic Aethiopians (iii. 94); beyond them, desert. He adds that the Indians were the greatest and wealthiest people known; he speaks of the Indus (on whose banks, as well as on those of the Nile, crocodiles were to be seen) as flowing through their land (iv. 44), and mentions by name Caspatyrus (a town of I’actyice), the nomadic Padai (iii. 99), and the Calutiac (iii. 38) or Calimtiac (iii. 97). He places also in the seventh sstrapy the Gandsrii (iii. 91) [Gsunsnsu], a race who, under the name of Gurulharas, are knovm as a genuine Sunscritspeaking tribe, and who may therefore be considered as connected with India, though their principal seat seems to have been on the W. side of the Indus, probably in the neighbourhood of the present Candaluzr.
Ctesiss (about 11.0. 400) wrote twenty-three books of Persian, and one of Indica, witl'other works on Asiatic subjects. These are all lost, except some fragments preserved by Photius. In his Persica he mentions some places in Bactria (Fragm. 5, ed. Bilhr) and Gyrtaes, on the Erythraesn sea (FragmAO); and in his India: he gives an account of the Indus, of the manners and customs of the natives of India, and of its productions, some of which bear the stamp of a too crsdulous mind, but are not altogether uninteresting or valneloss.
On the advance of Alexander through Bactriana to the banks of the Indus, a new light was thrown on the geography of India; and the Greeks, for the first time, acquired with tolerable accuracy some knowledge of the chief features of this remarkable country. A number of writers—some of them ofiioors of Alexander's army—devoted themselves to a description of difi'erent parts of his route, or to an account of the events which took place durin'g his progress from Babylon to the Hyphasis; and to
the separate narratives of Beton and Diognctus, Nearchus, Onesicritus, Aristobulus, and Callisthenas, condensed and extracted by Strabo, Pliny, and Arriun, we owe most of our knowledge of India as it appeared to the ancients. None of the original works of these writers have been preserved, but the voyage of Nearchus (the most important of them, though the places in India he names are few in number) has been apparently given by Arrisu (in his Inds'ca) with considerable minuieness. Nearchus seems to have kept a day-book, in which he entered the distances between each place. He notices I’attala, on the Indus (from which he started), and Comatis (perhaps the present Krmicbr'). Pliny, who calls this voyage that of Nmrchus and ()nesicritus, adds some few places, not. noticed by Arrian (vi. 23. s. 26). Onesicritus himself considered the land of the Indians to be one-third of the whole inhabited world (Strab. xv. p. 691), and was the first writer who noticed Taprobane (Ceylon). (Ibid. p. 691.) Both writers appear, from Strabo, to have left interesting memorials of the manners and cu» toms of the natives (Strab. xi. p. 517, xv.p. 726) and of the natural history of the country. (Strabxv. pp. 693, 705, 716, 717 ; Aelian, Hist. An. xvi. 39, xvii.6; Plin. vi. 22. s. 24, vii. 2. s. 2; Tzetz. Chil. iii. 13.) Aristobulus is so frequently quoted by Arrisn and Strsbo, that it is not improbable that he may have written a distinct work on India; he is mentioned as noticing the swelling and iionds Of the rivers of the Panjdb, owing to the melting of the snow and the rain (Strab. xv. p. 691), the mouths of the Indus (p. 701), the Bruchmanes at Taxi]: (p. 714), the trees of Hyrcanin and India (xip. 509), the rice and the mode of its tillage (xv. p. 692), and the fish of the Nile and Indus, respectively (xv. p. 707, xvii. p. 804).
Subsequently to these writers,—-probsbly all in the earlier part of the third century 1;. c.,—wcre some others, as hiegusthenes, Daimachus, Patrocles and Timosthenes, who contributed considerably to the increasing stock of knowledge relative to Indis. Of these, the most valuable additions were those acquired by Megnsthenes and Daimachus,who were respcttively ambassadors from Scleucus to the Courts of Sandrocottus (Cbandragupta) and his successor Alllf trochades (Strab. ii. p. 70, xv. p. 702; Plin- Y117.s.21), or, as it probably ought to be writteui Amitrochadcs. Megasthenes wrote a work often quoted by subsequent writers, which he called 1? 'Ivburd (Athen. iv. p. 153; Clem. Alex. Strom- 'p. 132; Joseph. c. Apion. i. 20, Anh‘q. x. 11- § 1), in which he probably embodied the results Of his observations. From the fragments which remlilb and which have been carefully collected by Schwsnbcck (Meganth Indie-a, Bonn, 1846), it appw'B that he was the first to give a tolersbly well.ratc account of the breadth of India,—making 1‘ about 16,000 stadia (Arrian, iii. 7, 8; Strsb. i. p. 68. xv. p. 689),—to mention the Ganges by Mme. ""1 to state that it was larger than the Indus (Mani V. 6, 10, Indic. 4, 13), and togivs, besidesthis, some notice of no less than fifteen tributaries of the barium and nineteen of the Ganges. He remarked that India contained 118 nations, and so many cities that they could not be numbered (Arrisn, Indie 7| 10); and observed (the first among the Greeks) the existence of castes among the people (smb' xv. p. 703; Arrian,1nd. 11, 12; Diod. ii. 40.41; S'Jlin- c. 52), with some peculiarities of the Indian
With the establishment of the mathematical schools at Alexandria, commenced a new acre in Grecian geography; the first systematic arrangement of the divisions of the earth's surface being made by Ennstlmes (s.c. 276—161), who drew a seriesot‘ parallels nt' latitude—at unequal distances, however —through a number of places remotely distant from one mother. According to his plan, his most southern parallel was extended through 'I‘aprobane and the Cinnamon coast (the SE. end of the Arabian Gulf); his second parallel (at an interval of 3400 atadia) passed though the S. coast of India, the mouths of the Indus and Meme; his third (at an interval of 5000 stadis) passed through Palibothra and Syene; his fourth (at a similar interval) courmtcd the Upper Ganges, Indus, and Alexandria; his fifth (at an interval Of 3750 stadia) through Thiua (the capital of the Seres), the whole chain of the Emodus, Imaus, Pampamisus, and the island of Rhodes. (Strab. i. p. 68, ii. pp. 113—132.) At the same time he drew seven parallels of ionKine (or meridians), the first of which passed through the E. coast of China, the second through the mouths of the Ganges, and the third through those of the Indus. His great geographical error was that the intersection of his meridians and latitudes formed angles. (Strab. ii. pp. 79, 80, 92, 93.) The shape of the inhabited portion of the globe he compared to a Macedonian Chlamyl extended. (Strab. ii. p. 118, xi. p. 519; Macrub. somScip. ii. 9.) The breadth of India between the (bugs and Indus he made to be 16,000 stadia. Tapmbane, like his predecessors, he held to be 5000 Stadia long.
Hipparchus (about 11.0.150). the father of Greek astronomy, followed Patrucles, Daimachus, and “Wthenm, in his view of the shape of India; making it, however, not so wide at the S. as Eratnsthenmt had made it (Strab. ii. pp. 77,81), but much wide: towards the N., even to the extent of fmm 20,000 to 30,000 atadia (Strab. ii. p. 68). T» Whine he held not to be an island, but the comMWMIII. (If another continent, which extended pound to the S. and W.,—following, probably, the 1‘15 which had prevail-ed since the time of Aristotle, that Africa and SE. India were connected on the other aide of the Indian Ocean. (Mela, iii. 7. § 7; Plin. vi. 22. s. 24.) Artemidoms (about B. c. 100) mics that the Ganges rises in the Mth Emodi, 30"! S. till it arrives at Gauge, and then B. by l‘dilntbrs to its mouths (Strab. xv. p. 719): TsPmlflne he considered to be about 7000 stadia lot and 500 bmd (Staph. a). The whole breadth of India, from the Ganges to the Indus, he made in be 10,000 stadin. (Plin. vi. 19. 8. 22.)
The greater part of all that was known up to his _
time was finally reduced into a consistent shape by Strabo (18.0. 66—A-1). 36). His view of India was not materially ditTcrent from that which had been the received opinion since Eratosthenes. He held that it was the greatest and mmt Eastern llllld in the world, and the Ganges its greatest stream (ii. p. 130, xv. pp. 690, 719); that it Btretclnnl 5. as far as the parallel of lideroié, but not so far N. as Hipparchus thought (ii. pp. 71, 72. 75); that it won in shape like a lozenge, the S. and E. being the longest sides. Its greatest breadth was 16,000 stadia on the E., its least 18,000 on the “1.; its grmtcst length on the 3., 19,000 stadia. Below the S. coast he placed Taprobane, which was, in his opinion, not less than Great Britain (ii. p. 130, xv. p. 690). Pliny the Elder and Pompunins hit-1a, who were contemporaries, added somewhat to the geographical knowledge previously acquired, by incorporating into their works the results of different expeditions sent out during the earlier emperors. Thus, Pliny follows Agrippa in making India 3300 M. P. long, and 2300 M. P. broad, though he himself suggests a difl'erent and shorter distance (vi. 17. s. 21); while, after Seneca, be reckoned that it contained 118 peoples and 60 rivers. The Emodns, lmaus, l’aropamisus, and Caucasus, be connected in one continued chain from E. to W., stating that S. of these great mountains, the land wasflike Egypt, one vast plain (vi. 18. s. 22), comprehending many wastes and much fruitful land (vi. 20. a. 23). For a fuller notice of Tapmbane than had been given by previous writers, he was indebted to the ambassadors of the emperor Claudius, from whom no learnt that it had towards India a length of 10,000 studio, and 500 towns,—onc, the capital, Pulsesimundum, of vast size. The sea betwcen it and the continent is, he says, very shallow, and the distance from the nearest point ajourney of four days (vi. 22. s. 24). The measurements of the distances round the coast of India he gives with some minutencss, and in some instances with less exaggention than his predecessors.
With Marinus of Tyre and Claudius Ptolemacns, in the middle of the second century, the classical knowledge of geography may be said to terminate. The latter, especially, has, in this branch of knowledge, exercised an influence similar to that of Aristotle in the domain of the moral and physical sciences. Both writers took a more comprehensive view of India than had been taken before, owing in some degree to the journey of a Macedonian trader named Titianus, whose travels extended along the Taurus to the mpital of China (Ptol. i. 11. § 7), and to the voyage of a sailor named Alexander, who found his way across the Indian Ocean to Cattigara (Ptol. i. 14. § 1), which Ptolemy places in lat. 8° 30’ S., and between 170° and 180° E. long. Hence, his idea that the Indian Ocean was a vast central am, with land to the S. Tsprobane he held to be four times as big as it really is (vii. 4), and the largest island in the world; and he mentions a cluster 01' islands to the NE. and S. (in all pro— bability, those now known as the Maldives and Lac~ cadim). In the most eastern part of India, beyond the Gulf of Bengal, which he terms the Golden Cllemoncsus, he speaks of hummus and MANIOLAE; the first of which is probably that now known as Java, while the name of the second has been most likely preserved in Mnm'lla. The main divisions of India into India intra Gangem and India who Gangem, have been adopted by tho‘ majority of subsequent gmgraphers, from Ptolemy. Subsequent to this date, there are few works which fall within the range of classical geography, or which have added any information of real value on the subject of India ; while most of them have borrowed from Ptolemy, whose comprehensive work was soon a text-book in the hands of learned men. From Agnthcmerns (at the end of the second century) and Dionysius I’eriegetes (towards the end of the third century) some few particulars may be gleaned; —aa for instance, from the latter, the establishmont of the Indo-Scythi along the banks of the Indus, in Scindc and Guzerat; and, from a work known by the name of I’en'pluo Maris Eryflrraei (the date of which, though late, is not certainly determined), some interesting notices of the shores of the Indian Ocean. Festus Avienus, whose paraphrase of Dionysiue Periegctes supplies some lacunae in other parts of his work, adds nothing of interest to his metrical account of Indian Geography.
Such may serve as a concise outline of the progress of knowledge in ancient times relative to India. Before, however, we proceed to describe the country itself under the various heads of mountains, rivers, provinces, and cities, it will be well to say a few words on the origin of the name INDIA, with some notice of the subdivisions which were in use among the earlier geographers, but which we have not thought it convenient in this place to perpetuate.
The names lunus, Inma, are no doubt derived from the Snuscrit appellation of the river, Simlhu, which, in the plural form, means also the people who dwelt along its banks. The adjoining countries have adopted this name, with slight modifications: thus, Hendu is the form in the Zend or old Persian, Haddu in the Hebrew (Esther, i. l, 9). The Greek language softened down the word by omitting the h, hence 'IvBos, 'Ivbin; though in some instances the native name was preserved almost unchanged, as in the Zlvflos of the I’eriplue Maris Erythraei. Pliny hears testimony to the native form, when he says, “ Indus ineolis Sindus oppellatus“ (vi. 20. s. 23).
The great divisions of India which have been usually adopted are those of Ptolemy (vii. 1. § 1), into,-( 1 ) India intro Gangem, a vast district, w hich was bounded, according to that geographer, on the W. by the Paropnmisadae, Amhosia, and Gedmsia; on the N. by the Imaus, in the direction of the Sogdiani and Sucae; on the E. by the Ganges, and on the S. by a port of the Indian Ocean : and (2) India extra Gangem (Ptol. vii. 2. § l), which was bounded on the W. by the Ganges; on the N. by Scythia and Series; on the E. by the Sinae, and by a line extended from their country to the Mryitxos “on... (Gulf of Siam); and on the S. by the Indian Ocean, and a line drawn from the island of Mcnuthias (Ptol. vii. 2. § 1), whence it appears that Ptolemy considered that the Ganges flowed nearly due N. and S. We have considered that this division is too arbitrary to be adopted here; we merely state it as the one proposed by Ptolemy and long current among geographers. The later ecclesiastical writers made use of other terms, as I1 avian” 'Ivfira, in which they included even Arabia (Socrat. H. E. i. 19; Theod. i. 23; Theoph. i. 35), and '5; loxém 'lvduz (Sozomen, ii. 23 .
')I‘he principal mountains of India (considered 11.5 a whole) were : -- the eastern portion of the I'nropamisus (or HindILKush), the linens (llaimava), and the Emodus (now known by the generic name of the llinuilaga.) To the extreme E. were the Monies
Semanthini, the boundary of the land of the Sinae the Monti-s Damnssi, and the Bcpyrrhns M. (probably the prvscnt Narnlm JIL). An extension of the M. Unmassi is the Illaeandrus M. (now Marin-Mum). In India intro Gangcm Ptolemy mentions many mountains, the names of which can with diflicnlty be supplied with their modern representatives: as the Orudii M., in the 5. extremity of the land between the T yndis and the Chnberus; the chntns M, to the N. of them; the Adisathrus M.; the Bittigo M. (probably the range now known as the Chin), and the M. \"indius (unquestionably the present Vindhya), which extend NE. and SW. along the N. bank of the Nerbuddo ,- M. Sardonix (probably the present Saurpura); and M. Apoeopa (perhaps the present Award”).
The principal promontories in India arez—in the extreme I'L, I’mmontorium Magnum, the Wm"! side of the Sinus Magnus; Maluei Colon, 0n the S. coast of the golden peninsula; I‘romontorium Aureae Chersoncsi, the southern termination of the Sinai Sabaracus, on the western side of the Chersonesus; Cory or Calligicnm, between the S. Argaricns and the S. Colchicus, near the SW. end of the peninsula of Hindusta'n; Comaria (now C. Comorin), the most southern point of Hindoshin ,- Calne Carin-s (or Callicaris), between the towns Anamagarn and aniris; Simylla (or Semylla, the southern end of the S. Barygazenus, perhaps the present C. St. Jolm), and Maleum.
In the same direction from E. to W. are the following gulfs and baysz— the SinusMagnns(now Gulf of Siam); S. I’erimnlicus, and Sabaricus, on the h‘. and W. side of the Chersonesns Aurca; S. Gangeticus (Bay rgf'limgal), S. Argaricns, opposite the Nend of Taprobanc (probably I’ulk: Bag); S. Colchicus (Bay of Alanaar); S. Barygazenns 0f Cambag), and S. Canlhi (most likely the Gulf 0/ Catch).
The rivers of India are very numerous, and many of them of great size. The most important (fmm E. to W.) are the Dorins (Salven !) and Donna! (the Irrawaddy), the Chrysoana, Besynga, the Tocosannn (probably the present Arralxm), and the Cambeda (now Cur-maul); the Ganges, with many tributaries, themselves large rivers. [Gardens] Along the W. side of the Bay of Benyal are lbe Adamns (Brahmini), Dosaron (Mahamidt'), Mncsolus (Gorbira'ri), Tyndis (K islna), and the Chnberis or Chabcrus (the Cu’veri). Along the shores of lhe Indian Ocean are the Nanquna (Tarly). the Namsdus (Narmada' orNerbudda), and lastly the Indus, with its several tributaries. [181708.]
The towns in India. known to the ancients were very numerous; yet it is remarkable that but few details have been given concerning them in the diti‘crent anthem of whose works fragments still remain. Generally, these writers seem to have been content with a simple list of the names, adding, in some instances, that such a place was 11!! important mart for commerce. The probability is. that, even so late as Ptolemy, i‘cw cities had reached sufficient importance to command the productions of an extensive surrounding country; and that, in fact, with one or two exceptions, the towns which he and others enumerate were little more than the head places of small districts, and in no sense capitals of great empires, such as Ghazna, Delhi, and Calcium have become in later periods of Indian history. Beginning from the extreme 1-1., the principal states and harm mentioned in the ancient writers are: l’crimuh