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which records the exploits of Protogenes, who, in the extreme distress of his native city, aided it both with his purse and person. This inscription, ap~ pnrently belonging to the period n.c. 218—201, mentions the Galatians and Sciri (perhaps the same as those who are afterwards found united with the Herali and Rugii) as the worst enemies of Olbla, a clear proof that in the third century a. c. Celtic tribes had penetrated as far to the E. as the Borysthenea. DiOn Chrysostom (Oral. xxxvi. p. 76), who came to Olbie. when he escaped from Domitian’s edict, relltes how it had been destroyed by the Genre about 150 years before the date of his arrival, or about 8. c. 50, but had been restored by the old inhabitants. From the inscriptions it appears that Augustus and Tiberius conferred faVours on a certain Abnbus of Olbia (No. 2060), who, in gratitude, erected a portion in their honour (No. 2087), while Antoninus l’ius assisted them against the Tauro-Scythians. (Jul. Capit. Anton. 9.) The citizens erected statues to Caracalla and Geta (No. 2091). The city was in all probability destroyed in the invasion of the Goths A. n. 250, as the name does not occur henceforth in history. For coins of Olhia, besides the works already quoted, see Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 3. (Pallss, Raise, vol. ii. p. 507 ; Clarke, Tran. vol. ii. p. 35l; Murswien Apostol‘s Reine, p. 27; Biickh, lmcr. vol. ii. pp. 86—89 ; Niebuhr, K let'ne
O'LBIA ('OAEia: Eth. 'OAQiavds, Olhiensis: Terranova), one of the most considerable cities of Sardinia, situated on the E. coast of the island not far from its NE. extremity, in the innermost recess or bight of a deep bay now called the Gog/'0 di Termnova. According to Pausanias it was one of the most ancient cities in the island, having been founded by the colony of Thespindae under Iolaus, the compunion of Hercules, with whom were associated a. body of Athenians, who founded a separate city, which they named Ogryle. (Psus. x. 17. § 5; Diod. iv. 29; Solin. 1. § 61.) The name of Olbin certainly seems to indicate that the city was of Greek origin; but, with the exception of this mythical legend. we have no accounts of its foundation. After the Roman conquest of the island it became one of the most important towns in Sardinia; and from its proximity to Italy and its opportune port, became the ordinary point of communication with the island, and the place where the Roman governors and others who visited Sardinia usually landed. (Cic.a,d (2. Fr. ii. 3. § 7, 6. § 7.) In the First Panic War it was the scene of a naval engagement. between the consul Cornelius and a Carthaginian fleet, which had taken refuge in its spacious port; but was attacked and defeated there by Cornelius, who followed up hi5 advantage by taking the city, n. c. 259. (Zonar. viii. ll: Flor. ii. 2. § 16; Val. Max. v. 1. § 2.) In the Second Punic War (the, 210) its territory was ravaged by a Curthaginian
fleet. (Liv. xxvii. 6.) Under the reign of Honorins, Olbia is still mentioned by Cluudian as one of the principal sea-ports of Sardinia; and the itineraries give more than one line of road proceeding from thence towards different parts of the island. (Claudian, B. Gill]. 519; Ilia. Ant. pp. 79,80, 82.) The name is there written Ulbis: in the middle age: it came to be known as Civita, and obtained its modern appellation of Terranova from the Spaniards.
Ptolemy distinguishes the port of Olbia ('OAvabs Alp/1w, iii. 3. § 4) from the city itself: he probably applies this name to the whole of the spacious buy or inlet now known as the Gulfof
'crranova, and the position given is that of the entrance. [15. H. 8.]
O'LBIA ('Ohgia: Elk. 'OAwaoM'ms, and ’0).vadt). Stcphanus (a. n. ’Ohélo) speaks of one city of this name as a Ligurian city, by which he means the Olbia on the Ligurian coast of Gallia; for the name Olbia appears to be Greek. Melt (ii. 5), who proceeds from east to west in enumerating
the cities on the Mediterranean coast of Galiin, places
Olbin between Forum Julii (Frefjus) and hlassilia (Illaneille). The order of place is this: Forum Julii, Athenopolis, Olbia, Taurois, Citharistes, hlassilia. Strabo (iv. p. 184), who proceeds from westtoeast in his enumeration of the cities of this coast, mentions Massilia, Tauroentium, Olbia, and Antipolis, and Nicaea. He adds that the port of Augustus, which they call Forum Julii, is between Olbia and Antipolis (Antflm). The Massaliots built Olbht, with the other places on this coast, as a defence against the Solyes and the Ligures of the Alps. (Stmb. p. 180.) Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 8) places Olbia between the promontory Citharistea (Cap Civio') and the mouth of the river Argenleus (Argenu). west of Fre'jm. There is nothing that fixes the site of Olbia with precision; and we must accept D'Anville's conjecture that Olbia was at a place now called Eoubc, between Cap Combe and Brégnam'. Forbiger accepts the conjecture that Olbhi was at St. Tropez. which he supports by saying that Strabo places Olbia 600 Studio from Massilis; but Strata places Forum Julii 600 stadia from Massilis. [G.L.]
O'LBIA ('OM‘la). l. A town in Bithynia, on the bay called, after it, the Sinus Olbianns (commonly Sinus Astscenns), was in all probability only another name for Astacus [Asncus]. Pliny (v. 43) it probably mistaken in saying that Olbia was the ancient name for Nicaea in Bithynia; he seems to confound Nicsea with Astaeus.
2. The westernmost town on the coast of Pamphylia. (Strab. xiv. pp. 666, ML; Plin. v. 26-) Ptolemy (v. 5. §2), wnsistcntly with this description, places it between Phaselis and Attuleia. Stephanus B. (s. v.) blames Philo for ascribing this town to Pumphylia, since, as he asserts, it was situated in the territory of the Solymi, and its real name was Olba; but the critic is here himself at fault, confounding Olbia with the Pisidian Olbasa. Strabo describes our Ulbis as a strong fortress. and its inhabitants colonised the Lycian town of Cydrcmn.
3. A town of Ciliciu, mentioned only by Stephan“! Byz. (421).), who may possibly have been thinking of the Cilician Olbasa or Olbe. [L.S.]
OlllllA'NUS SINUS (‘Ohétawbs K6Mros), only another name for the Sinus Astooenns, the town of Olbia being also called Mucus. (Scylax. p. 3-3;
O'LCADES COMM“), :- people of Hispania Baetica, dwelling N. of Carthage Nova, on the upper course of the Anna, and in the E. part of the territory occupied at a later date by the Orctani. They are mentioned only in the wars of the Carthagininns with the lberians, and after that period vanish entirely from history. Hannibal during his wars in Italy transplanted a colony of them into Africa. Their chief town was Althaea. (Pplyb. iii. 14. 23, and 13. 5; Liv. xxi. 5; Steph. B. a. v.: Suidas, 0.11.) [T. H. D.]
OLCl'NlUM (OOMivwv, Ptol ii. 17. § 5; 01chinium, Plin. 26: Etll. Olciniatae), a town of some importance in Illyricum, which surrendered to the Romans at the commencement of hostilities with Gentius, and which, in consequence, received the privilege of freedom and immunity from taxation. (Liv. xlv. 26.) Dulcigno or Ullcia, as it is still called. is identified with this town. (Hahn, Albalaiccbe Stadien, p. 262.) B. J.]
OLEASTRUM ('OAéiw'rpov, Ptol. ii. 4. § 14). l. A town in Hispania Baetiea, in the jurisdiction of Gada, with s. grove of the same name near it. (Mela. iii. 1. § 4; Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.)
2. A town of the Cosetani in Hispania Tarraconensis. on the road from Dertosa to Turruco (Itia. All. 399). Probably the same town mentioned by Straho (iii. p. 159), but erroneously placed by him Mar Saguntum. It seems also to have given name to the lead mentioned by Pliny (xxxiv. 17. s. 49). Varioust identified with Baluguer, Miranuzr, and S. Lucor de Barrameda (Marco, Hisp. ii. 11. p. 142.) [T. n. D.]
OLEASTRUM PROM. ('OAe'aa-rpov, Ptol. iv. 1. § 6), a promontory of Mauretania, between Rnssadir and Ahyla, called in the Antonine Itinerary, BARBARl Pecan, now I’uata d5 Mazan', in the bight of Tila'wa‘n, or Tetun'n. B. J.]
OLE'NACUM. a fortress in the N. of Britannia Romans, and the station of the Ala Primn Hercules (.Vot. Prov.) It lay close to the Picts' wall, and Camden thinks (p. 1022) that it occupied the site of Limloc Castle in the barony of Crosby, not far fmm Carlisle. Horsley, however (p. 112) takes it to be Old Carlisle. near Wigton, where there are some conspicuous Roman remains. [ T. H. D.]
OLENUS ("n/terns), a town in Galatia, in the wt of Ancyra, and belonging to the territory of time ngts, is mentioned only by Ptolerpy (v. 4.
O'LENUS ('nAevot: Eth. 'mivtor). I. An ancient town in the S. of Aetolia. between the Achelous and the Evenus, was named after a son of Zeus or Hephaestus, and is mentioned in the Homeric "teloizne It was situated near New Pleuron, at. the foot of Mount Aracynthus; but its exact site is Uncertain. It is said to have been destroyed by the Aeolians; and there were only a few traces of it in the time of Strabo. (Strab.x. pp. 451,460; Hom. II. 11- 638; Apollod. i. 8. §4; Hyg. Poét. Aatron. 2. We Stat. Theb. iv. 104; Steph. s. 0.17.) The R0111"! Poets use Olem'us as equivalent to Aetolian; ""11 Tide“. of Caiydon in Aewlia. is called Olem'us Tylm. (Sou. Theb. i. 402.)
2. A town of Achaia, and originally one of the 1? Achlean cities, was situated on the coast, and on the left. bank of the river i’cirus, 40 stadia from 9m. and so Kindil from Patrae. On the revival of the Achaean League in n. c. 280, it appears that Ulenus was still in existence, as Strabo says that it
he mentions north of the mouth of the Olinss is Noeomagus, or Noviomagus, of the Lexuvii or Lexovii. This is the Om, which flows into the Atlantic below Caen in the department of Calnados. D'Anville says that in the middle age writings the name of the river is Olna, which is easily changed into 01-M- Gosselin supposes tho Olinas to be the Savie, and there are other conjectures; but the identity of name is the only evidence that we can trust in this Case. [6. L.] OLINTIGI, a maritime town of Hispania Baetica, lying E. of Onoha. (Mela, iii. 1. 4.) Its real name seems to have been Olontigi, as many coins are found in the neighbourhood bearing the inscription 0mm: (Florez, Med. ii. pp. 495, 509. iii. p. 103; Mionnet, Sup. i. p. 111, up. Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 340.) Variously identified with Moand Palos. [T. H. D.) OLISII’O ('OMotref'lrwv, Ptol. ii. 5. § 4), a city of Lusitania, on the right bank of the Tagus, and not far from its mouth. The name is variously written. Thus Pliny (iv. 35) has Olisippo; so also the ltin. Ant. pp. 416, 418, seq. In Mela (iii. 1. § 6), Solinus (c. 23),&c., we find Ulysnippo, an account probubly of the legend meat-inned in Strabo, which ascribed its foundation to Ulysses, but which is more correctly referred to Odysseia in Hispania Bactica. [Oansnm.] Under the Romans it was a municipium, with the additional name of Felicitas Julia. (Plin. I. c.) The neighbourhood of Olisipo was celebrated for a breed of horses of remarkable fivetness, which gave rise to the fable that the mnnes were impregnated by the West wind. (Plin. viii. 67; Van. R. R. ii. 1, 19; Col. vi. 27.) It is the modern Lisbon or Lisbon. T. H. 1).] ULl’ZON (‘OMQém Eth'OMfa'wws , an ancient town of Magnesia in Thessaly, mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of “rugged.” (110m. ll. ii. 717.) It possessed a harbour (Scylax, p. ‘25); and as it was opposite Artemisium in Euhnea (Plug, Them. 8), it is placed by Leake on the isthmus connecting the peninsula of Trikhin' with the rest of Magnesia. (Strab. ix. p. 436; Pliu. iv. 9. s. 16; Steph. B. a. 11.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p.
(J’LLIUS (Oglio), a river of Cisalpine Gaul, and one of the more considerable of the northern tributaries of the Padus. It rises in the Alps, at the foot of the Monte Tonale, flows through the Val Camonica (the district of the ancient Camuni), and forms the extensive lake called by Pliny the Lscus Schinus, now the Logo d' laeo. From thence it has a course of about 80 miles to the Padus, receiving on its way the tributary streams of the Mela or Hello, and the Clnsius or Chz'ese. Though one of the most important rivers of this part of Italy, its name is mentioned only by Pliny and the Geographer of Ravens. (Plin. 16. s. 20. 19. a. 23; Geogr. Rav. iv. 36.) [15. H. B.]
OLMEIUS. [Bono'rnu Vol. 1. p. 413. a]
O'LMIAE. [Conisruus, Vol. I. p. 683, s.]
OLMO'NES ('Ohuéves : Eth- ‘OMHJPQ69), a village in Boeotia, situated 12 studio. to the left of Copae, and 7 stodia from Hyettus. It derived its name from Olmus, the son of Sisyphus, but contained nothing worthy of notice in the time of Panaanias. Forchhammer places Olmonea in the small island in the lake Copuis, SW. of Copae, now called 73-da-Yani. [See the Map, Vol. I. p. 411, where the island lies SW. of No. 10.] (Pnus. ix. 24. § 3; Steph. B. a. 11.; Forchhammer, Ilellenihz, p. 178.)
it derived its name. (Strab. xii. pp. 571, 576.) The inhabitants of the district were called Olympcni ('OAvpnivoi, Strab. xii.p. 57 ; Ptol. v. 2. § 15) or Olytnpieui ('OAupnnVol, Herod. vii. 74: comp. MYSIA). [L. 5.]
OLY’MPIA (i; ‘Ohlltfll’llo, the temple and sacred grove of Zeus Olympius, situated at a small distance west of Pisa in Peloponnesus. lt originally belonged to Pisa, and the plain, in which it stood, was called in more ancient times the plain of Pisa; but after the destruction of this city by the Eleians in B. c. 572, the name of Olympia was extended to the whole district. Besides the temple of Zeus Olympins, there were several other sacred edifices and public buildings in the sacred grove and its immediate neighbourhood; but there was no distinct town of Olympia.
The plain of Olympia is open towards the sea on the west, but is surrounded on every other side by hills of no great height, yet in many places abrupt and precipitous. Their surface presents a series of sandy cliil's of light yellow colour, covered with the pine, iler. and other evergreens. On entering the valley from the west, the most conspicuous object is a bold and nearly insulated eminence rising on the noth from the level plain in the form of an irregular cone. (Mure, vol. ii. p. 28].) This is Mount CRONIUS, or the hill of Cmnus, which is frequently noticed by Pindar and other ancient writers. (wap' room'on Kpdviov, Find. 0!. i. 111; mi-yos Kpdvou, 01. xi. 49; ildrnhoia rérpa. dAiGa-ro: Kpoviov, 01. vi. 64; Kpdvou nup' aln‘n/ ZXBov, Lycophr. 42; 6 Kpiimos, Xen. l/cll. vii. 4. § 14; 1h dpos Tb Kpdrnav,l’aus. v. ‘21. 2, vi. 19. § 1. vi. 20. § 1; Ptol. iii. 16. Id.) The range of hills to which it Mung! is called by most modern writers the Olympian, on the authority of a passage of Xenophon. (Hell. vi. 4. § 14). Leaks, however. supposes that the Olympian hill alluded to in this passage was no other than Cronius itself; but it would "PW", that the common opinion is correct, since Strabo (viii. p. 356) describes Pisa as lying between the two mountains Olympus and Ossa. The hills, which bound the plain on the south, are higher than the Crouian rid go, and, like the latter, are covered with evergreens, with the exception of one bare sum}"il. distant about half a mile from the Alpheiua. This was the ancient Trrnnus (Twai‘ou), from which women, who frequented the Olympic games, or crossed the river on forbidden days, were condemned to be hurled headlong. (Pans. v. 6. § 7.) Another range of hills closes the vale of Olympia to the east, at the foot of which runs the rivulet of illirdlra. On the west the vale was bounded by the CLADEUS (KMiBeas), which flowed from north to South along the lidg of the sacred grove, and fell into the Alpheins. (Pans. v. 7. § l ; Khddaor, Ken. Hell. vii. 4. §29.) This river rises at Lula in Mount Pholo'e'. The Alpheius, which flows along the southern edge of the plain, constantly changes its course, and has buried beneath the new alluvial plain, or carried into the river, all the remains of buildings and monuments which stood in the southern part of the Sacred Grove. In winter the Alpheius is full, rapid. and turbid; in summer it in scanty, and divided into moral torrents flowing between islands or sandhunks over a wide gravelly bed. The vale of Olimpia is now called Amh'lnla (i. e. opposite to MI"). and is uninhabited. The soil is naturally PM. but swampy in part, owing to the mundations of the river. Of the numerous buildings and count~ less status, which once covered this sacred spot,
the only remains are those of the temple of has Olympian. l’ausanias has devoted nearly two books, and one fifth of his whole work, to the description of Olympia; but he does not enumerate the buildings in their exact topographical order : owing to this circumstance, to the absence of ancient remains, and to the changes in the surface of the soil by the fluctuations in the course of the Alphcius, the topography of the plain must be to a great extent conjectural. The latest and most able attempt to elucidate this subject, is that of Colonel Lenke in his Pelqmnesiaca, whose description is here chiefly followed.
Olympia lay partly within and partly outside of the Sacred Grove. This Sacred Grove bore from the most ancient times the name of Ants (7', ‘AA-m'), which is the Peloponncsian Aeoiic form of bums. (Pans. v. 10. § 1.) It was adorned with trees, and in its centre there was a grove of planes. (Paua. v. 27. § ll.) Pindar likewise describes it as well wooded (Hioar sfiocydpov in' ’AA¢e'qv Moos, Ol. viii. l2). The space of the Altis was measured out by Hercules, and was surrounded by this hero with a wall. (l‘ind. 01. xi. 44.) On the west it. ran along the Cludeus; on the south its direction may be traced by a terrace raised above the AL pheius; on the east it was bounded by the stadium. There were several gates in the wall, but the principal one, through which all the processions passed, was situated in the middle of the western side, and was called the I‘ompic Entrance (1'1 Hannah efoofios, Pans. v. 15. § 2). From this gate, a road, called the Pmnpic Way, ran across the Altis, and entered the stadium by a gateway on the eastern side.
1. The Olympieimn, Olympium, ortemple of Zeus Olympins. An oracle of the Olympian god existed on this spot from the most ancient times (Strub. viii. p. 353), and here a. temple was doubtless built, even before the Olympic games became a Pan-Hellenic festival. But after the conquest of Pisa and the surrounding cities by the Eleians in B. c. 572, the latter determined to devote the spoils of the conquered cities to the erection of a new and splendid temple of the Olympian god. (Pans. v. 10. §§ 2, 3.) The architect was Libon of Elie. The temple was not, however, finished till nearly a century utterwards, at the period when the Attic school of art was supreme in Greece, and the Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis had thrown into the shade all previous works of art. Shortly after the dedication of the Parthenon, the Eleians invited Pheidias and his school of artists to remove to Elie, and adorn the Olympian temple in a manner worthy of the king of the gods. Pheidias probably remained at Olympia for four or five years from about is. C. 437 to 434 or 433. The colossal statue of Zeus in the cello, and the Egon: in the pediments of the temple were executed by Pheidias and his associ~ ates. The pictorial embellishments were the work of his relative Panaenus. (Sirab. viii. p. 354) [Comp Dict. q/‘Be'ogr. Vol. Ill. p. 243.] i'ausanius has given a minute description oi'the temple (v. 10); and its site, plan, and dimensions have been well ascertained hy the excavations of the French Commission of the Moron. The foundations are now exposed to view; and several fine fragments of the sculptum, lepresenting the labours of Hercules, are now in the museum ofthe Louvre. The temple stood in the south-western portion of the Altis, to the right hand of the Pompic entrance. It was built ofthe native limestone, which l’ausnnias called pores, and which was covered in the more finished parts by a suifoce of stucco, which gave it the appearance of marble. It was of the Doric order, and a peripteral herastyle building. Accordingly it had six columns in the front and thirteen on the sides. The columns were fluted, and 7ft. 4in. in diameter, a size greater than that of any other existing columns of n Grecian temple. The length of the temple was 230 Greek feet, the breadth 95, the height to the summit of the pediment 68. The roof was covered with slabs of Pentelic marble in the form of tiles. At each end of the pediment stood a gilded vase, and on the apex a gilded statue of Nike or Victory; below which was a golden shield with the head of Medusa in the middle, dedicated by the Lacedacmonians on account of their victory over the Athenians st Tsnagra in B. c. 457. The two pcdiments were filled with figures. The eastern pediment had a statue of Zeus in the centre, with Oenomans on his right and Pelops on his left. prepared to contend in the chariot-race; the figures on either side consisted of their attendants, and in the angles were the two rivers, Cladeus to the right of Zeus, and Alpheius
to his left. In the western pediment was the contest of the Centaurs and the Lapithne, Peirithous occupying the central place. On the metopes over the doors at the eastern and western ends the labours of Hercules were represented. In its interior construction the temple resembled the Parthenon. The cells consisted of two chambers, of which the eastern contained the statue, and the western was called the Opisthodomus. The colossal statue of Zeus, the master-work of Pheidias, was made of ivory and gold. It stood at the end of the front chamber of the cello, directly facing the entrance, so that it at once showed itself in all its grandeur to a spectator entering the temple. The approach to it was between a double row of columns, supporting the roof. The god was seated on a magnificent throne adorned with sculptures, a full description of which, as well as of the statue, has been given in another place. [Diet qf'Biogr. Vol. III. p. 252.] Behind the Opisthodnrnus of the temple was the Callislephamu or wild olive tree, which furnished the garlands of the Olympic victors. (Pans. v. 15. § 3.)
GROUND PLAN OF
2. The Pelopium stood opposite the temple of Zeus, on the other side of the Pompic way. Its po. sition is defined by Pausnnim, who says that it. stood to the right of the entrance into the temple of Zeus and to the north of that building. It was an enclosure, containing trees and statues, having an opening to the west. (Pans. v. 18. 1.)
3. The Heraeum was the most important temple in the Altis after that of Zeus It was also a Doric peripterul building. Its dimensions are unknown, Pausanias says (v. [6. § I) that it Was 63 feet in length; but this is clearly a mistake, since no periptersJ building was so small; and the numerous statues in the cello, described by Pauaanins, clearly show that it must have been of considerable dimen. aims. The two most remarkable monuments in tho Herseum were the table, on which were placed the garlands prepared for the victors in the Olympic contests, and the celebrated chest of Cypselua' covered with figures in relief, of which Pansanias has given an elaborate description (v. 17—19). We learn from a passage of Dion Chrysostom (Oral. xi. p. 163). cited by Leake. that this chest stood in the opisthodomus of the Heraeum; whence we may infer that the cells of the temple consisted of two apartments.
4. The Great Altar of Zeus is described by Pausanins as equidistant from the Pelopium and the Heraeum, and as being in front of them both.
(Paus- v. 133. §8.) Leake- places the Hemeum near the Pompic entrance of the Stadium, and supposes that it faced eastward; accordingly be conjectures that the altar was opposite to the backfronts of the Pelopium and the Heracum. The total height of the altar was 22 feet. It hadtwu platforms, of which the upper was made of the cinders of the thighs sacrificed on this and other slurs
5. The Column of Oenomam stood between the great altar and the temple of Zeus. It was said to have belonged to the house of Oenomus, and to have been the only part of the building which escaped when it was burnt by lightning. (Paus- #20. § 6.)
6. The dietroum, or temple of the Mother of the Gods. was a large Doric building, situated within the Altis (Pans. v. 20. § 9.) It is plotted by Leoke to the left of the Pompic Way nearly opposite the Herseum. _ '
7. The H'ytanet'um is placed by Pausaniu Within the Altis, near the Gymnasium, which was outside the sacred enclosure (v. 15. § 8.)
8. The Bouleuteriun, or Council-House, seems to have been near the Prytaneium. (Pnus. v. 23.§ l, 24.§ i.)
9. The Pbiltppeimn. a circular building, erectld by Philip after the battle of Chneroneia, was to the left, in proceeding from the entrance of the Alba t0 the Prytaneium. (Pans. v. 17. § 4, v. 20. § 10.)