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10. The Thaecoleon, a building belonging to the aE‘IIKIlAOI- or superintendents of the sacrifices (Pans. v. 15. § 8). Its position is uncertain.
ll. The Hippodamt'um, named from Hippodameia, who was buried here, was within the Altis near the Pompic Way. (Pans. vi. 20. § 7.)
12. The temple of the Olympian Eileithyia (Lucina) appears to have stood on the neck of Mount Cronius. (Pans. vi. 20. 2.
13. The Temple of the Olympian A phrodite was near that of Eileithyia. (Pans. vi. 20. § 6.)
14. The Thesauri or Treasurba, ten in number, were, like those at Delphi, built by different Cities, for the reception of their dedicatory ofl‘eringa. 'i'hl-y are described by Pausanias as standing to the north of the Heineum at the foot of Mount Cronius. upon a platform made of the stone poros (Pans. vi. 19. § 1).
15. Zones, statues of Zeus, erected from the produce of fines levied upon athletae. who had violated the regulations of the games. They stood upon a Stone platform at the foot of Mount Cronius, to the left of a person going from the Metroum to the Stadium. (Pans. v. 21. § 2.)
16. The Studio of Phei'zliru, which was outside the Alt'u, and near the Pompic entrance. (Paus. v. M§m
17. The Leonidaeum, built by Leonidas, a native, was near the Studio of Pheidias. Here the Roman magistrates were lodged in the time of Pansanias (v. 15. §§ 1, 2).
18. The Gymnasium, also outside the Altis, and near the northern entrance into it. (Pans. vi. ‘21. §2.) Near the Gymnasium was (19) the Puimtr'a.
20 and 2]. The Stadium and the Hippodrome were two of the most important sites at Olympia. as together they formed the place of exhibition for all the Olympic contests. Their position cannot be detenmned with certainty; but as they appear to have formed a continued area from the circular end of the Stadium to the further extremity of the Hip. podrome, the position assigned to them by Lenke is
the Stadium at the foot of the heights to the NE. of the summit of Mount Cronius, and the further end of the Hippodrome on the bank of the Alpheius.
The Stadium is described by Pausanias as a mound of earth, upon which there was a seat for the Hellanodicae, and over against it an altar of marble, on which sat the priestess of Demeter Chamyne to behold the games. There were two entrances into the Stadium, the Pompic and the Secret. The latter, through which the Hellanodicae and the agonistae entered, was near the lanes; the former probably entered the area in front of the rectilinear extremity of the Stadium. (Pans. vi. 20. § 8, seq.) in proceeding towards the Hippodrome from that part of the Stadium where the Hellonodicae sat. was the Hlehe'n's or starting place of the horses (1" drpems 1611 anv). In form it mmbled the prow of a ship, the embolua or beak being turned towards the racecourse. Its widest part adjoined the atoa of Agnaptus. At the end of the embolus was a brazen dolphin standing upon a pillar. Either side of the Hippaphesis was more than 400 feet in length, and contained apartments, which those who were going to contend in the horse-races obtained by lot. Before the horses a cord was extended as a. barrier. An altar was erected in the middle of the prow, on which was an eagle with outstretched wings. The superintendent of the race elevated this eagle by means of machinery, so as to be seen by all the spectators, and at the same time the dolphin fell to the ground. 'l'hereupon the first barriers on either side, near the stoa of Agnaptus, were removed, and then the other barriers were withdrawn in like manner in succession, until all the horses were in line at the embolus.
One side of the Hippodrome was longer than the other, and was formed by a mound of earth. There was a passage through this side leading out of the Hippodrome,- und near the passage mm a kind of circular altar, called Taruxippus (Tapéirmror), or the terrifier of horses, because the horses were fre
the most probable. He places the circular end of quently seized with terror in passing it, so that. cha
2. Mount Croniul. I 3. Village Miréka.
riots were broken. There was a similar object for frightening horses both at the Corinthian Isthmus and at Ncluea, in consequence of which the difficulty of the race was increased. Beyond the anaxippus were the terminal pillars, called when, round which the chariots turned. On one of them stood a brazen statue of Hippodameia about to bind the tacnia on Pelops after his victory. The other side of the Hippodrome was a natural height of no great elevation. On its extremity stood the temple of Demeter Chnmyne. (Pans. vi. 20. § 15—v. 21. § 1.) The course of the Hippodrome appears to have been two diauli, or four studio. (Apd an 6% slot 103 imlou nixor piv bit:er boo, Pans. vi. 16. § 4.) Mure, indeed (vol. ii. p. 327), understands nine: in this passage to refer to the length of the am; but Leake (Pebpomen'acu, p. 94) maintains, with more probability, that it signifies the lench of the circuit.
22. The Theatre is mentioned by Xenophon (llell. vii. 4. § 31), but it. does not occur in the llmriptitm of Pausmias. A theatre existed also at the lsthrnua and Delphi, and would have been equally useful at Olympia for musical contests. Xenophon could hardly have been mistaken as to the existence ofn theatre at Olympia, as he resided more than 20 yearn at Scillns, which was only three miles from the former spot. It would therefore appear that lictwce'n the time of Xenophon and Pausanias the theatre had disappeared, probably in consequence of the musiml contests having been discontinued.
Besides the buildings already mentioned, there was a very large number of statues in every part of the Sacred Grove, many of which were made by the greatest masters of Grecian art, and of which PallWli-‘B has given a minute description. According to the vague computation of Pliny (xxxiv. 7. s. 17) there were more than 3000 statues at Olym‘ PM. Most of these works were of brass, which ac‘counts for their disappearance, as they were converted into objects of common utility upon the extinction of Populism. The temples 1nd other monuments at Olympia were, like many othew in
different parts of Greece, used as materials for|
modern buildings, more especially as quarries of stone are rare in the district of His. The chiefs of lhe powerful Albanian colony at Lalu had in par“WIBI long employed the ruins of Olympia for this l“1
The present article is confined to the topography of Olfmpia- An account of the games and of everything connected with their celebration in given in the Dictionary Qf Antiquities.
_(Stanhope, Olympia, Lond. 1824; Krause, OlymW» 1338; More, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 280, "‘14 Leslie, Pehponnuioca, p. 4, seq; Curtius, I’vbmomam, vol. ii. p. 51, seq.)
OLYMPUS ('Okuinros). 1. One of the lofticst mountains in Greece, of which the southern side forms the boundary of Thessaly, while its northern base encloses the plains of Macedonia. Hence it is sometimes called a mountain of Macedonia (Stmb. vii. p. 329; Ptol. iii. 13. § 19), and sometimes a mountainof Thessaly. (Herod. vii. 128; Plin. iv. 8. s. 15.) It forms the eastern extremity of the Cambunian range, and extends to the sea as far as the mouth of the Peneius, being separated by the vale of Tempe from the heights of Ossa. Xenagoms, who mmsured the perpendicular height of Olympus from the town of Pythium, ascertained its elevation to be ten studio. and nearly one plethnim (Plot. Acmil. lb); which Holland, Dodvrell, Make, and
others regard as not for from the truth, since they estimate its height. to be between six and seven thousand feet. But these writers have considerably underculculuted its elevation, which is new ascer. tained to be 9754 feet. Herodotus relates that Mt. Olympus was seen by Xerxes from Thcrma (vii. 128); and we know from modern travellers that in clear weather it is visible from Mt. Athos, which is 90 miles distant. (Joum. Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 69.) All travellers. who have visited Mt. Olympus, dwell with admiration upon its imposing grandeur. One of the most striking chLrlptions of its appearance is given by Dr. Holland, who beheld it from Lilo'kharo at its base :—“ We had not before been aware of the extreme vicinity of the town to the brwe of Olympus; but, when leaving it, and accidentally looking back, we saw through an opening in the fog, n fnint outline of vast prccipices, seeming almost to overhang the place ; and so ae'rial in their aspect, that for a few minutes we doubted whether it might not be a delusion to the eye. T he fog, however, dispersed yet more on this side, and partial openings were made, through which, as through arches, we saw the sunbeams resting on the snowy summits of Olympus, which rose into a dark blue sky far above the belt of clouds and mint that hunt;r upon the sides of the mountain. The transient view we had of the mountain from this point showed us a line of precipices of vast height, forming its eastern front toward the sea; and broken at intervals by deep hollows or ravines, which were richly clothed with forest trees. The oak, chestnut, beech, planetree, &c., are seen in great abundance along the base and skirts of the mountain; and towards the summit of the first ridge, large forests of pine spread themselves along the acclivitics. Behind this first ridge, others rise up and recede towards the loflier central heights of Olympus. Almost opposite the town of Lito'klloro, a vast ravine penetrates into the interior of the mountain, through the opening of which we saw, though only for u few minutes, what 1 conceive to be the summit,—from this point of view, with a somewhat concave ascending line on each side.” (Holland, Travels, vol. ii. p. 27.) Though the lower sides of Olympus are well wooded. the summit presents a wide extent of a bare lightcolourod rock. (Leaks, Northern GTFFL'E, vol. i. p. 434.) The broad summit of Olympus is alluded to by Homer, who gives to it the epithet of paxpdr more frequently than any other. Next to that, is d-ydwnpos (11. i. 420), from its being covered with snow during the greater part of the year. Hesiod (Theog. 118) also gives it the epithet of mpdur. Below the summit its rugged outline is broken into many ridges and precipices, whence Homer describes it. as ronuoeipdr. (H. i. 499, v. 754.) The forests, which covered the lower sides of Olympus, are frequently alluded to by the ancient poets. (toolichopus, l'lurip. Bacch. 560; Ossacfmuloruminvolvere Olympum, Virg. Georg. 281 ; Opacm Olympus, Hor. Carm. iii. 4. 52.) ' The mountain is now culled E‘Iymbo, i. c. 'EAup'n'os, by the surrounding inhnbitunts, which nnmc Leake observes is probably not a modern corruption, but the ancient dialectic form, for the Aeolic tribes of Greece often substituted theepsilon for the omicron, as in the instance of 'Opxopends, which the Boeotians called 'prlmv'dr- (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. ii. p. l05:_Leakc, Nerf/10m Greece, vol. iii. pp. 341,407.) Olympus was believed to be the residence of Zeus and the other gods; and as its summit rose above the clouds into the calm ether, it was believed that here was an opening into the vault of hmven, closed by a thick cloud, as a door. (ll. v. 751.) [See Diet. ofBioyr. Vol. 111. p. 25; Liddell and Scott, Greek Les. 0. 0.]
2. A mountain in Laconia, near Sellasia. [Sn]..Menu]
3. A mountain above Olympia in Elia. [OLYMPIA, p. 475, a.]
OLYMPUS ("OM/hires). 1. A mountain range of Mysia, extending eastward as for as the river Sangarius, and dividing Phrygia from Bithyniu. To distinguish it from other mountains of the same name, it often is called the Mysian Olympus. its height rises towards the west, and that part which is of the greatest height, is the highest mountain in all Asia. Minor. The country around this mountain was well peopled, but its heights were thickly clad with wood, and contained many safe retreats for robbers, bands of whom, under a regular leader, often rendered the country unsafe. (Strab. xii. p. 574, comp. x. p. 470,:ii. p. 571 ; Herod. i. 36, vii. 74; Ptol. v. 1. § 10; Steph. B. s. 11.; Plimv. 40,43; Pomp. Mela, i. 19 ; Amm. More. axvi. 9 ; SchoL ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 598.) The lower regions of this great mountain are still covered with extensive forests; but the summit is rocky, devoid of vegetation, and during the greater part of the year covered with snow. The Turks generally call it Anadoli' Dagk, though the western or highest parts also hear the name of Keshish Dog/l, that is, the Monk‘s Mountain, and 'the eastern Toumandji or Domain Dagh. The Byzantine historians mention several fortresses to defend the passes of Olympus, such as Pitheca" (Nicet. Chon. p. 35; B. Cinnam. p 21), Acrunum, and Galogroea (B. Cinnam. l. 0.; Cedren. p. 553; Anna Comn. p. 441; comp. Brown, in Walpolc's Turkey, tom,ii. pp. 109, toll. ; Pococke, Travels, iii.
P 2. A mountain in the north of Galatia, which it separates from Bithynia. It is, properly speaking, only a continuation of the Mysian Olympus, and is remarkable in history for the defeat sustained on it by the Tolistoboii, in a battle against the Romans under Manlius. (Liv. xxxviii. 19,&c. ; Polyb. uii. 20, 21.) Its modern name is Ala. Dogh.
3. A volcanic mountain in the east of Lycia, a little to the north-east of Corydnlla. It also bore the name of Phoenicus, and near it was a large town, likewise bearing the name Olympus. (Strab. xiv. p. 666.) In another passage (xiv. p. 671) Strabo speaks ofa mountain Olympus and a stronghold of the same name in Cilicia, from which the whole of Lycin, Pamphylia, and Pisidia could be surveyed, and which was in his time taken possession of by the lsanrian robber Zeuicetas. it is, however, generally supposed that this Gilician Olympus is no other than the Lycian, and that the geographer was led into his mistake by the fact that a town of the name of Corycus existed both in Lycia and Cilicia. On the Lyciau Olympus stood a temple of Hephaestus. (Comp. Stadium. Jlar. Mag. § 205; Ptol. v. 3. § 3_) Scylax (39) dew not mention Olympus, but his Siderus is evidently no other place. (Leake, Aria Minor, p. 189; Fellows, Lycia, pp. 212, ML; Sprat: and Forbes, Travels in Lycia, i. p. 192.) Mount Olympus now bears the name Janar Dog/i, and the town that of Delildash ,- in the latter place, which Was first identified by Beaufort, some ancient remains still exist ; but it does not appmr ever to have been a large town, as Strnbo calls it. [L. 8.]
()LYMPUS ('OAvinror, Strah. xiv. pp. 682, 683 ;
Ptol. v. 14. §5), a mountain range in the loliy island of Cyprus. On one of its eminences—breastshaped (hmociifir)— was a temple to Aphrodite “ of the heights " (Expo-la), into which women were not permitted to enter. (Strub. l. c.) This probably implies that all but the “hiemdulae” were excluded. (Comp. Claudian, Nupt. Hm ct Mar. 49—85; Achill. Tat. vii. 13.) According to 1'0cocke (Trev. vol. ii. p. 212; comp. Mariti, Viaygi, vol. i. p. 206), this part of the chain is now called Haghioe Stavros, or Sta. Croce, from a convent dedicated to the Cross. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 33—37 ). [15. B. J.] OLYNTA INS. COM/Ha, Scyl. p. 8; Solentii, IL Anion; Pent. Tab.; Solenta, Geog. Run), a small island ofi‘ the coast of Dalmatia, which now bears the name of Solta, and is famous for its honey. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montemyro. vol. i. p. 187.) B. J.] OLYNTHIACUS. [OLYN'mva] OLYNTHUS ('OAvaos, Scyl. p. 26; Strab. vii. p. 330; Steph. 13.; Pomp. Mela, ii. 2. §9; Plin. iv. 17: EUL. ’OAiivflws), a town which stood at the head of the Toronaic gulf, between the peninsulas of Pollene and Sithonin, and was surrounded by a fertile plain. Originally a Bottiaean town, at the time of the Persian invasion it had passed into the hands of the Chalcidic Greeks (Herod. vii. 122; Strab. s. p. 447), to whom, under Critobulus of Torone, it was handed over, by the Persian Artabazus, after taking the town, and slaying all the inhabitants (Herod. viii. 127). Afterwards Perdiccoa prevailed on many of the Chalcidian settlers to abandon the small towns on the sea-coast, and make Olynthus, which was soveral studio from the sea, their central position (Thnc. i. 58). After this period the Bottiaei seem to have been the humble dependents of the Chalcidians, with whom they are found joined on two occasions (Thnc. i. 65, ii. 79). The expedition cf Brasidns secured the independence of the Ulynthians, which was distinctly recognised by treaty (Thuc. v. 19.) The town, from its maritime situation, became a place of great importance, no. 392. Owing lathe weakness of Amyntss, the Macedonian king, they were enabled to take into their alliance the smaller towns of maritime Macedonia, and gradually advanced so far as to include the larger cities in this region, including even Polls. The military force of the Olynthian confederacy had now become so pow erful from the just and generous principles upon which it was framed, including full liberty of intermarriage, of commercial dealings, and landed proprietorship, that Acanthus and Apollonia, jealous of Olynthian supremacy, and menaced in their independence, applied to Sparta, then in the height of its power, no. 383, to solicit intervention. The Spartan hjudamidas was at once sent against Olynthus, with such force as could be got ready, to check the new power. Teleutios, the brother of Agesilaus, was afterwsnda sent there with a force of 10,000 men, which the Spartan assembly had previously voted, and was joined by Derdas, prince of Elimeiu, with 400 Macedonian horse. But the conquest of Olynthus was no easy enterprise; its cavalry was excellent, and enabled them to keep the Spartan infantry at buyTeleutias, at first successful, becoming over confident, Sustained a terrible defeat under the walls of the city. But the Spartans, not disheartened, thought only of repairing their dishonour by fresh exertions. Agcsipolis, their king. was placed in command, and ordered to prosecute the war with vigour; the young prince died of a fever, and was succeeded by Polybiades as general, who put an end to the war, ac. 379. The Olyuthians were reduced to such straits, that, they were obliged to sue for peace, and, breaking up their own federation, enrolled themselves as sworn members of the Lacedaeinonian confederacy nnder obligatirma of fealty to Sparta (Xen. Hell. v. 2. §12, 3. §18; Diodor. xv.2l—23; Dem. do Fala. Leg. 0. 75. p. 425). The subjugation of Olyuthus was disastrous to Greece, by removing the strongest bulwark against Macedonian aggrandisement. Sparta was the first to crush the bright promise of the confederacy; but it. was reserved for Athens to deal it the most deadly blow, by the seizure of Pydna. Methone, and Potidaea, with the region about the Therrnaie gulf, between 12.0. 368—363, at the expense of Olynthus. The Olynthians, though humbled, were not subdued; alarmed at Philip’s conquest of Amphipolis, 11.0. 358, they sent. to negotiate with Athens, where, through the intrigues of the Macedonians, they were repulsed. Irritated at their advances being rejected, they closed with Philip, and received at his hands the district of Anthemus, as well as the important Athenian possession of Potidsea. (Dem. Philipp. ii. p. 71. s. 22). Philip was too near and dangerous a neighbour; and, by a change of policy, Olyuthus concluded a peace with Athens 5.0. 352. After some time, during which there was stealing of reciprocal mistrust between the Olynthiuns and Philip, war broke out in the middle of B. c. 350. Overtures for an alliance had been previously made by Athens, with which the Olynthians felt it prudent to close. On the first recognition of Olynthna as an “ill, Deniesthenes delivered the earliest of his memo"le blmngnes; two other Olynthiao speeches followed. For a period of 80 years Olynthus had been the enemy of Athens, but the eloquence and Btliesman-like sagacity of Demosthenes induced the People to send succours to their ancient foes: and Yet he was not able to persuade them to assist Olynthus with suflicient. vigour. Still the fate of the city W5 delayed; and the Olynthians, had they been on their guard against treachery within, might perhaps have saved themselves. The detail of the capture is linknowu, but the struggling city fell, in 8.0. 347, into the hands of Philip, “ callidus emptor Olynthi" (Juv. xiv. 47), through the treachery of Lssthenes and Enthycrates; its doom was that of one taken by "firm (Dem. Philipp. pp. 125—128, Fals. Lea. p. 426; Died. xvi. 53). All that survived— mmiwvmelldnd children—were sold as slaves; the town itself was destroyed. The fall of Olynthus completed the conquest of the Greek cities from the Thessalisn frontier as far as Thrace— in all 30 Chnlcidic cities. Demosthenes (PhilimJ. iii. p. 117; mmp. Strab. ii. p. 121; Justin. viii. 3), speaking of them about five years afterwards, says that they Were so thoroughly destroyed, that it might be supposed that they had never been inhabited. The site °i01¥nthns at Ar'o Mama‘s is, however, known by its distance of 60 slndia from Potidaea, as well as by some vestiges of the city still existing, and by its hgmniifl which Artahazns slew the inhabitants. The films of no mansll was Bones (1‘, BoMK’h Mum. Hegissnder, up. Athen. p. 334). Two rivers, the Aim/is ('Ay-l'ra!) and Ourn'mucus ('OAvaia— ‘6‘). Hand no this lagoon from Apollonia (Athen. L 0.). Manama was its harbour; and there was ‘ ‘P0t near it, called CAITHABOLETIIBON (Korea.94"9901', Strab. vii. p. 330; Plut. dc An. Tranq. 475. 45; Arm. Mirab. Ausc. 120; l’lin. ai. 34), so 1'01. IL
canon because black beetles could not live there. Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 73) speaks of only one extant coin of Olynthus—the “ type" a head of Heracles, with the lion’s skin; but Mr. Millingen has engraved one of those beautiful Chalcidian coins on which the “legend” OATNQ surrounds the head of Apollo on the one side, and the word XAAXIAEQN, his lyre, on the reverse. (Cousinery. Voyage, vol. ii. p. 161; Leaks, North. Greece, vol. iii. pp. 154, 457—459; Voemel, de Olynthi Situ, civitate,potenti21, ct evernione, Fruncof. ad M. 1829; Winiewski, Comm. ad Dem. do Cor. pp. 66, seq.) [E. B. J.]
OMANA ('O/mva, Peripl. Mar. Erythr. c. 27, 36; Marcian, Pen'pl. c. 28, ed. liiiiller, 1855), a port of some importance on the coast of Carmania, which is noticed also by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32). Its position was near the modern bay of T shubar, perhaps where Mannert has suggested, at Cape Tanka (v. 2. p. 421). Vincent places it a little to the E. of Cape Jack. In Ptolemy, the name has been corrupted into Commaua (vi. 8. § 7). [V.]
OMANA (rd 'Ouava), a deep buy on the south coast of Arabia east of Syugros, 600 stadin in diameter, according to the Periplus, bounded on the east by lofty and rugged mountains (up. Hudson, Geog. Min. tom. i. p. 18), doubtless identical with the Omanum emporium, which Ptolemy places in long. 77° 40’, int. 19° 45', which must have belonged to the Omanitae mentioned by the same geographer (vi. 15), separated only by the Cattahani from the Monies Asaborum, doubtless the mountains mentioned in the Periplus. If Ros Far-talc be correctly taken as the ancient Syagros, the ancient Omana must have been far to the west of the district of Arabia now called by that name, and within the territory of Hadramaut. The modem ’Omdn is the south-eastern extremity of the peninsula, and gives its name to the sea outside the mouth of the Persian Gulf, which washes it. on the east and south. (Gosselin, Récherc/ies, tom. iii. pp. 32, 33; Vincent, iii. 16; Forster, Geogr. if Arabia, vol. ii. pp. 173. 180, note [G.W.]
OMANI or OMANNI (Ami'yioi ol 'Opmroi or 'Oiuu/vol), a branch of the Lygii, in the NE. of Germany, between the Oder and the Vistula, to the S. of the Burgundioues, and to the N. of the Lygii Diduni (Ptol. ii. 11. § 18). Tacitus (Germ. 43) in enumerating the tribes of the Lygii does not mention the Omani. but a tribe occurs in his list bearing the name of Mnnimi, which from its resemblance is ge¢ nerally regarded as identical with the Omani. But nothing certain can be said. [L. S.]
OblBl ('OpGoi, Ptol. iv. 5. § 78 ; Sicph. B. 3.1.2; 1!. Anton. p. 165; Ombns, Juv. xv. 85; Ambo, Not. Imp. sect. 20: EM. ,OP-gi'f‘fll'; comp. Aeliun, Ilist. An. 1.. 21), was a town in the Thebnid, the capital of the Nomos Ombiles, about 30 miles N. of Syene, and situated upon the E. bank of the Nile; lat. 24° 6' N. Ombi was a garrison town under every dynasty ofAegypt, Pharaonic, Macedonian, and Roman; and was celebrated for the magnificence of its temples and its hereditary feud with the people of Tentyra.
Ombi was the first city below Syene at which any remarkable remains of antiquity occur. The Nile, indeed, at this portion of its course, is ill-suited to a dense population. It runs between steep and narrow banks of sandstone, and deposits but little of its fertilising slime upon the dreary and barren shores. There are two temples at Ombi, constructed of the stone obtained from the neighbouring quarries